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Full text of "The Canadian Nurse Volume 52"

^O NOT TAKE 



^'^n^c^tmce^e coHCLcUemte 




Highlight for 
ANUARY 1956 



SALAAM ALIAKUM 

G. J. Sharpe 



FORT GARRY GATE 

(C.P.R. Photograph) 



URSES' ASSOCIATION 






Daily specification of meat in the infant diet is 
important for the complete proteins necessary for 
growth, and the development of all body structures. 
Gerber Strained Meats make it possible for the 
mother to follow your specifications without burden- 
ing her budget, since they cost far less than home- 
prepared meats for infants. Less than half in some 
cases! 

Gerber Meats offer other advantages. Made of 
selected cuts, they're specially processed for high 
retention of vitamin and mineral nutrients often lost 
in home cooking. Low in fat value . . . and free of 
the sinew and coarse fiber almost impossible to 
eliminate in meats scraped and sieved at home. 

6 savory varieties to stimulate appetite interest . . . 
simplify mealtime planning, beef • veal • pork • 

LAMB • BEEF AND BEEF HEART • LIVER AND BACON. 

Babies are our business . . . our onl y business! 

Gerber baby foods 

NIAGARA FALLS. CANADA 

5 CEREALS • OVER 56 STRAINED & JUNIOR FOODS. 
INCLUDING MEATS 



TIE 



it H it D I U 



INDEX 



Volume 52 



JANUARY = DECEMBER 

1956 



• 



MWNED AND PUBLISHED BY 
HF rANAniAN NTTRSFS' A SSOTT ATTON 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 

Index to Volume 52 
January — December 1956 

The material in this Index is arranged under subjects, authors, and titles. Titles are 
given in full with the author's name. 

The following abbreviations appear in this Index: 

CNA — Canadian Nurses' Association 

(ed.) — editorial 

I.C.N. — International Council of Nurses 

(por.) — portrait 

(rev.) — book review • 



The page numbers for Volume 52 are shown below: 



January pp 

February pp 

Ma rch pp 

April pp 

May pp 

June pp 



1- 80 July pp. 505 - 584 

81-160 August pp. 585-672 

161-240 September pp. 673 - 768 

241-320 October pp. 769 - 856 

321-408 November pp. 857 - 936 

409-504 December pp. 937-1024 



Accident prevention : 

Role of the industrial nurse in (Greville), 
112 
Accreditation and evaluation, 280, 695 

Let's look at, 368 

Ou en sommes-nous (McQuarrie), 444 

Pilot study, 736 

Resolutions regarding, 697 

What's on the record (McQuarrie), 443 
Accreditation — ou en sommes-nous 

(McQuarrie), 444 
Accreditation — what's on the record 

(McQuarrie), 443 
Adventures in science teaching (Alderson), 

271 
Aids to surgical nursing (Armstrong), 

(rev.), 990 
Alberta : 

Medicine Hat General Hospital, 980 

News notes, 62, 144, 224, 299, 389, 472, 
557, 649, 752, 992 

Provincial association activities, 441 

Student nurses' association of, 212 
Alderson, Henrietta J. 

Adventures in science teaching, 271 
Aldrich, C. Anderson (Aldrich) 

Babies arc human beings (rev.), 216 
Aldrich, Mary M. (.A.ldrich) 

Babies are human beings (rev.), 216 
Allen, Moyra 

Venture in field experience for graduate 
nurses, 276 
And the world too (McArthur), 703 
.\.\derson, Bernice E. (Lesnik) 

Nursing practice and the lazv (rev.), 556 
Anderson, Florence M. (rev.), 56 



Annual meetings : 

New Brunswick (Archibald), 130 

Prince Edward Island (Bolger), 50, 984. 

Saskatchewan (Wilson), 898 
Appleton, Joan & por., 839 
Archibald, Muriel 

Annual meeting in New Brunswick, 130" 
Are we equal to our future (Sanders)V 

(ed.), 781 
Armstrong, Katherine F. 

Aids to surgical nursing (rev.), 990 
Arnstein, Margaret G. & por., 214, 693 

Improving nursing service, 869 
Arrangements committee, report of, 288 
Arthritis and rheumatism : 

Rheumatoid arthritis (Ziehran), 448 
Attitudes in psxchiatric nursing care 

(Weiss), (rev.)", 385 
Auxiliary nursing : 

Orderly training program ( Richmond )^ 
191 
Avery, Mavis L., 368, 458 



B 



B.\BiES arc human beings (Aldrich, Aldrich), 

(rev.), 216 
Bailey, Hamilton 

Demonstrations of operative surgery 
(rev.), 218 
Baker, Jean (rev.), 216 
Bandl's ring (Foster, McLeod, Palframan,, 

Shouldice), 266 
Baxgh.-vm, Mary Dickerson 

A thought for spring (poem), 256 
Barker, Gladys 

Dish-washing center, 380 



INDEX TO \' O L U M E 52 



Bell, Daphne 

When a nurse has diabetes, 627 
Bell, Louise Price 

Counterpane land, 107 

K.P. for double-dutv homemakers, 884 
Bextley, T. J., 689 ' 

Saskatchewan's expanding health services, 
699 
Besoins de I'ecolier en matiere de sante 

(Ranger), 52 
Biennial convention, 1956: 

Are we equal to our future (Sanders), 
(ed.), 781 

Fun on trains (Steed), 185 

Mrs. Toohey at the booth (por.), 691 

Official notice (Stiver), 356 

Registration reaches new high, 734 

Report of the arrangements committee, 288 

Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face a 
I'avenir (Sanders), (ed. ), 785 

Tentative program for, 284 

What about vacation plans (Collins), 109 

Why attend the CNA, (Carmel), (ed.), 
255 
BiETscH, Elizabeth 

Graduation pictures, 980 
Bifocal approach (Sinclair), 880 
Birth of industrial nursing (Charlev), 

(rev.), 218 
Bixler, Genevieve K, 550 
Black, J. (Skerry, MacLean, Kennedy, 

MacDonald) 

Radioactive isotopes, 800 
Blackwood, M. (re'v. ), 290 
Blake, Florence G. (jeans, W'right) 

Essentials of pediatrics (rev.), 218 
Blood conditions : 

Chromosome deletion in the Rh genotvpe 
(Graves), 18 

Leukemia (Schweisheimer), 724 

Quelques considerations sur I'anemie et les 
etats anemiques (Tessier), 728 
Blood pressure : 

Hypotension (Schweisheimer), 53 
Bolger, Helen L. 

Annual meeting in Prince Edward Island, 
50, 984 
BovD, Annie Black & por., 543 
Bragdon, Jane Sherburn (Emerson) 

Essentials of medicine (rev.), 56 
Br.\gdon, Jane Sherburn (Sholtis) 

Teaching medical and surgical nursing 
(rev.), 56 
Brandon, Katherine, 46, 62 
Branion, O., 563 
Breath of pain (Bromage), 45 
Bregg, Elizabeth 

Psychiatric nursing, 183 
Bridges, Daisy, 548 
Briefs : 

to Royal Commission on the economic 
future of Canada, 366, 548, 690 
British Columbia: 

News notes, 63, 149, 225, 299, 389, 473, 
559, 650, 753, 838, 920, 994 

Provincial association activities, 441 ' 

Public health nursing service : appoint- 
ments, transfers, resignations, 296, 915 
Bromage, P. R. 

Breath of pain, 45 
Brooks, E. L. (rev.), 747 



Brown, Esther Lucille 

Social sciences and improvement of patient 
care, 175 
Brown, Esther Lucille (Greenblatt. York) 
From custodial to therapeutic patient care 
in mental hospitals (rev.), 912 
Browne, O'Donel 

Rotunda textbook of i\.ndit.'ifer\ for )iurses 
(rev.), 54 
Brvce, Margaret 

Physical therapy after amputation,, the 
treatment of the unilateral lozver ex- 
tremity amputee, (rev.), 385 
Bullock, Joyce (Wright) 

Meconium ileus, 193 
BiRNs : 

Salles pour enfants brules (Tanner), 383 
Bttler, Ethelyn 
From little acorns, 31 



Cairnev, John 

GynecoloQV for senior studoits of nursing 
(rev.). ^216 
Calve, Carmen 

L'infirmiere en obstetrique, 742 
Cameron, Charles S. 

Truth about cancer (rev.), 990 
Campbell, D. L., 687 
Campion, F. Lillian, 822 

Orientation, 447 

Toward better nursing, 693 
Campkin, Joyce B. (rev.). 56 
Canadia.n- Nurse award, 648. 860 
Canadian Nurses' Association: 

Brief to the Royal Commission, 366, 548, 
690 

Committee manual, 981 

National committee chairmen, 822 

Nurses : their education and their role in 
health programs, 347, 696, 791 

Ticket of nominations, 376 

Yearbook of modern nursing, contribution 
to, 548 
Canadian Red Cross Society: 

Appointments, transfers, resignations, 60 
Cancer: 

Epidermoid carcinoma (Watanabe), 534 

Leukemia (Schweisheimer). 724 

Service social et le cancer (Chamard), 268 
Caplan, Hyman (Dimock) 

Student nurse in a pediatric setting, 959 
Carmel. Sister Theresa (por.), 255 

Why attend the CNA convention, (ed.), 
255 
Carpenter, Helen M. & por., 804 

Legislation and bylaws, 691 
Carter, G. B. 

Some considerations on the basic nursing 
curriculum, 357 
Cavell, Cynthia. 38 
Cavernous sinus thrombosis (Lawton, 

Hobin), 120 
Ceceija. Sister Mary Ann 

Child with laryngotracheo bronchitis, 351 
Chamard, Ghislaine 

Service social et le cancer. 268 
Change of address information, 676 
Changing attitudes (Phillips), 708 
Chapter meetings, ideas for. 898 



THE C A X A D I A X X U R S E 



Charley, Irene H. 

Birth of industrial mirsing (rev.), 218 
Child in hospital (Faughnan), 956 
Child with larvngotracheo bronchitis 

(Cecelia), 351 ' 
Chittick, Rae, 695 
Chromosome deletion in the Rh genotype 

(Graves), 18 
Christmas in Korea (McArthur), (ed.), 

949 
Circulatory system : 

For the man of the future, 836 
Civil defence : 

In time of need (MacGregor), 517 

Integration of, nursing into the basic 
curriculum, 47 

Nurses' role in, 186 

Panel discussion at biennial, 696 

Preparation for natural disasters, 454 
Clark, Jeanie S. (rev.), 140 
Clarke, Fred 

Life, profession and school, 530, 640, 715 
Cockayne, Elizabeth, 790 
Cohen. Fay (rev.). 384 
Collins, Ethel Armstrong 

What about vacation plans, 109 
Collmkille, Sister, 474 
Common sense safety precautions, 714 
Communicable diseases: 

Scarlatina plus endomyocardite (Payer), 
891 

Staphylococcal pneumonia (Demko), 971 
Confusing notions of mental health 

(Stokes), 519 
Conseils a une etudiante devant faire un 

stage a la salle d'operation (Lupien), 832 
Convention personalities : 

Arnstein, Margaret G., 214 

Sanders, Bvrne Hope, 350 

Schwier, Mildred E., 438 

Sinclair, Adelaide, 214 
Cote, Lucille &- por., 38 
Counterpane land (Bell), 107 
Cox, Dorothy & por., 199 
Crawford, Annie Laurie (Kilander) 

Nursing niamial for psxchiatric aides 
(rev.), 468 
Creative nursing (Schwier), 875 
Croll, Marie C. 

A women's auxiliary in action, 25 
Crouse, Vivian 

Infirmieres des .salles d'operation, 198 

Operating room nurses, 198 
Crow, A. (Crow, Skinner) 

Psychology i)i iiursiny practice (rev.), 466 
Crow, L. (Crow, Skinner) 

Psychology in nursing practice (rev.), 466 
Cruickshank, W. H. 

Mental health for nurses, 95 
Cummins, Jean A. (rev.), 218 
Curriculum : 

Direction in regard to, 126 

Some considerations on the basic nursing, 
(Carter), 357 
Curriculum study in basic nursing educa- 
tion (Sand), (rev.), 219 



Dalton, Ann 

My complaints, 197 



David, Paul 
L'evolution de la cardiologie et ses pro- 
blemes, 21, 101 
De la Sagesse, Soeur X'alerie & por., 978 
De Loyola, Sister Mary & por., 543 
De Montfort, Soeur Noemi & por., 977 
De Sales, Sister Mary Frances, 805 
Demko, Clara 

Staphylococcal pneumonia, 971 
Demonstrations of operative surgery 

(Bailey), (rev.), 218 
Dental hygiene : 

Fluoridation, 179 
Dersco, Mary 

Diabetes mellitus, 617 
Desjardins, p., 475 
Diabetes : 

Diabetes mellitus (Dersco), 617 
When a nurse has diabetes (Bell), 627 
Diabetes mellitus (Dersco), 617 
Dick, Dorothy (rev.), 288 
Dimock, Hedley G. 

Process notes on the work conference, 951 
DiMOCK, Hedley G. (Caplan) 

Student nurse in a pediatric setting, 959 
Dion, Soeur Annette 

Experimentation dans le domaine de I'edu- 
cotion de I'infirmicre, 445 
Disc lesions : 

Management of lumbar intervertebral 

(Rosen), 423 _ 
Xursing care of patients with lumbar in- 
tervetebral, (MacTavish, MacQuarrie), 
429 
Dish-Washing center (Barker), 380 
District nurse knows better (Kirk), 180 
Dixon, Nancy, 550 
DoDKiN, R. (Richards) 

Salt-losing nephritis, 537 
Doris, Sister Mary 

Glomerulonephritis, 712 

Drugs : 

Achrocidin tablets, 943; Actylasec, 414; 

Albamycin capsules, 774; Alma C, 6; 

Ambar, 6; Amyotensin, 512;- Analep- 

tone, elixir, 328 : Anatensin forte, 680 ; 

Antrenyl, 512; Azo-gantrisin, 680 

Bactisubtil, 943; Barbidex, 942; Bionet 

drops, 166; Bonadoxin, 774; Bonamine 

tablets, 680; Bontril, 6; Bronchyl D, 

414; Butiserpine, 328; Butisol, 166 

Calcidrine syrup with codeine, 942 ; Can- 

dettes, 328; Centrine injection, 590; 

Cerevon tablets, elixir, 510; Colace, 590; 

Colforos, 246; Colisal-H, 328; Colisone, 

166;, Colisyl plain, 942; Combistrep 

774; Constiban, 680; Convenil, 510; 

Cordex tablets, 774; Coricidin forte 

capsules, 590; Coroserp, 246; Cytoferin, 

590 

Debiline-homatrophine, 942 ; Deltra tablets, 

6; Denabyl, 942; Dexavite, 680; Dexo- 

hist. 510; Diacitrin, 414; Diaparene 

lotion, 246 ; Dicosal, 166 ; Dicurin pro- 

cain solution, 328; Dilanca, 414; Dithri- 

tol, 774; Dolorub, 246; Drapolene, 590 

p:bsophyllin-R, 6; Encote A.S.A., 6; En- 

terobiotic tablets, 246 ; Equanil, 246 
Falgos, 942; Fiorinal, 330; Fleet enema, 
774 ; Flexin, 590 ; Frenquel hydro- 
chloride, 88 



—3— 



INDEX TO VOLUME 52 



Gainadyne No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, 166; 
Gamatuss, 166; Gelusil-lac, 414; Gold 
sodium thiosulphate, 166; Gravol long 
acting, 591 

Hemo coavit, 330; Hexaphenyl, 88; 
Honvol, 414 ; Hydro dyne, 942 ; Hyptrol 
spansule, 863; Hylenta tablets, 168 

Ibacide cream, 776; I.D.M., 510; Influenza 
virus vaccine polyvalent, 168 

Juvalin, 330 

K-C tablets, 88 

Ledercillin tablets, 943; Liquid sobee, 168 

Medihaler-epi, 776; Medomin, 510; Mega- 
cillin drops, 863; Mephenesin, 510; 
Meratran with reserpine, 511; Mestinon, 
510; Meticortelone acetate, 592; Meti- 
derm with neomycin ointment, 680 ; 
Migraine tablets, 86; Mycostatin oint- 
ment, 415 

Nembu-serpin, 86; Neo-barb dures tablets, 
678; Neo-cortef lotion 1%, 591; Neo- 
tensol, 331; Neuro-centrine tablets, 88; 
Neutra detergent cake, 168; Neutratar 
shampoo, 168 

Pabalate-HC, 168; Pacatal, 678; Parasal- 
S.A. c INH, 678; Parenzymol, 415; 
Paynocil, 511; Pectorea, 168; Persistin, 
678; Placidyl, 86; (PR) corsalent, 680; 
Protost in oil, 6; Protovab, 776 

Relissen, 415; Rhulispray, 863; Ritalin, 
246 

Sabol, 590; Sedrate, 6; Sedwell, 88; 
Seromycin crystalline, 862; Seipatilin, 
776; Sertens, 678; Sigmagen, 330; 
Sparine, 678; Statimo, 86; Strepto- 
hydrazid, 862; Styrion, 862; Sulfacet 
suspension, 862; Sustagen, 416; Suvren, 
776 

Tarcortin cream, 331; Tes-tape, 862; 
Tetracyn-SF, 416; Thiosulfil solution, 
415; Thyama timesules, 168; Tolerin, 
591; Tolox expectorant, 512; Tranplex, 
416; Trawil capsule, 88; Tridal, 591; 
Triethylene melamine tablets, 248; 
Tronolen lotion, 511; Trulfacillin tab- 
lets, 862; Trypsogen, 88; Tylandril, 
864; Tyzine nasal spray, 416 

Urosulfa, 248 

Valmid, 86; V-CilHn, 328; Veratrite-R, 
414; Voyagol, 511 

Xylocaine viscous, 86 

Zyljectin ampoules, 776 



Editorials : 

Are we equal to our future (Sanders), 781 
Christmas in Korea (McArthur), 949 
Forty years of pilgrimage (Russell), 173 
In time of need (MacGregor), 517 
Our senior citizens (Wilson), 421 
Prairie convention, 687 
Salaam aliakum (Sharpe), 13 
Service, responsibility, nurture, action 

(MacKenzie), 337 
Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face a 

I'avenir (Sanders), 785 
Tomorrow's pattern (Sharpe), 597 
Too few for too many (Girard), 93 
Why attend the CNA convention 

(Carmel), 255 



Electrolytes : 

Fluid balance (Partington). 262 
Eliason, E. L. (Ferguson, Sholtis) 

Surgical nursmg (rev.), 56 
Emerson, Charles Phillips (Bragdon) 

Essentials of medicine (rev.), 56 
Enfant est ne trop tot (Saint-Martin), 345 
Epidermoid carcinoma (Watanabe), 534 
Essentials of medicine (Emerson, Brag- 
don), (rev.), 56 
Essentials of pediatrics (Jeans, Wright, 

Blake), (rev.), 218 
Ethical religious needs of the patient 

(Frumkin), 263 
Evans, Ruth E. 

Greenhorn on the frontier, 974 
Evolution de la cardiologie et ses problemes 

(David), 21, 101 
Experimentation dans le domaine de I'edu- 

cation de I'infirmiere (Dion), 445 



Fallis, Anne (rev.), 990 

Fatigue factor in peptic ulcers, 223 

Faughnan, Jeanne E. 

Child in hospital, 956 
Feely, Irene (rev.), 136 
Felicitas, Sister M. & por., 805 

Institute on communications, 346 
Ferguson, J. Frances & por., 199 
Ferguson, L. K. (Eliason, Sholtis) 

Surgical nursing (rev.), 56 
Ferguson, T. (MacPhail) 

Hospital and community (rev.), 458 
Fidler, Gail S. (Fidler) 

Introduction to psychiatric occupational 
therapy (rev.), 746 
Fidler, J. W. (Fidler) 

Introduction to psychiatric occupational 

therapy (rev.), 746 
FiELDWORK experience : 

Venture in, for graduate nurses (Allen), 
276 
Films : 

Rehabilitation, 824 
Fischer-Williams, M. 

Management of acute poliouivelitis (rev.), 
290 
Flander, Madeleine 

Pediatric work conference, 951 

Some thoughtful conclusions, 966 
Flitter, Hessel H. (Rowe) 

Teaching physiology and anatomy in 
nursing (rev.), 138 
Florence Nightingale International Founda- 
tion : 

Planning of nursing studies, 822 
Fluid balance (Partington), 262 
Fluoridation, 179 
Foot health : 

Scientists probe, 749 
Foreign countries : 

Korea — 
And the world too (McArthur), 703 
Christmas in (McArthur), 949 

Turkey — 

Salaam aliakum (Sharpe), 13 
Forty vears of pilgrimage (Russell), (ed.), 

173 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Foster, P. (McLeod, Palframan, Shouldice) 

Bandl's ring, 266 
From custodial to therapeutic patient care 

in mental hospitals 

(Greenblatt, York, Brown), (rev.), 912 
From little acorns (Butler), 31 
Frumess, Gerald M. 

Skin, mirror of emotions, 374 
Frumkin, Robert M. 

Ethical religious needs of the patient, 263 
Fun on trains (Steed), 185 
Future nurses' club, 533 



Galdston, lago 

Meaning of social medicine (rev.), 290 
Gastrointestinal conditions : 

Fatigue factor in peptic ulcers, 223 
Gazaway, Rena (Hayes) 

Hutnan relations in nursing (rev.), 288 
General staff nursing : 

K.P. for double-duty homemakers (Bell), 
884 
Geriatrics : 

Changing attitudes (Phillips), 708 

Impact of chronic ilhiess (Phillips), 524 

Meaning of rehabilitation (Wellard), 904 

Our senior citizens (Wilson), 421 

Proportion of aged in population, 975 

Role of the nurse in rehabilitation 
(Phillips), 810 

What it means to be old (Phillips), 611 
Germain, Guy 

Importance de dosage ingere et excrete, 
462 
Girard, Alice (por.), 84, 93, 693 (& por.), 

804 

Too few for too many (ed.), 93 
GiROUX, Suzanne 

Soin des enfants, 968 
Glomerulonephritis (Doris), 712 
Goostray, Stella (Schwenck) 

Textbook of chemistry (rev.), 468 
Ck)ULDiNG, Fern A. (Torrop) 

Practical nurse and her patient (rev.), 
748 
Graduation pictures (Bietsch), 980 
Graham, Muriel Jean & por., 544 
Graham, Pearl (rev.), 136 
Graves, Gilda G. 

Chromosome deletion in the Rh genotype, 
18 
Greenblatt, Milton (York, Brown) 

From custodial to therapeutic patient care 

in mental hospitals (rev.), 912 
Greenhorn on the frontier (Evans), 974 
Greisheimer, Esther M. 

Physiology and anatomy (rev.), 138 
Greville, Theresa (rev.), 218 

Role of the industrial nurse in accident 
prevention, 112 
Groenewald, Emily (rev.), 748 

With our training we can help, 122 
Growth and development of infants : 

Development at various ages, 834 

From little acorns (Butler), 31 
Gynecology for senior students of nursing 

(Cairney), (rev.), 216 



H 

Hall, Gertrude M. (rev.), 913 
Hallam, Ruth (rev.), 56 
Hamilton, James A. 

University education for administration in 
hospitals (rev.), 54 
Hayes, Wayland J. (Gazaway) 

Human relations in nursing (rev.), 288 
He.\lth insurance : 

New publications, 824 
Heart . conditions : 

L'evolution de la cardiologie et ses pro- 
blemes (David), 21, 101 

Scarlatine plus endomyocardite (Paver), 
891 
Heart disease nursing — Teachers College, 

Columbia University, 442 
Historic Manitoba, 339 
Historical: 

In the good old days (The Canadian 

Nurse), 42, 106, 220, 294, 387, 469, 554. 

646, 711, 835, 874, 973 
HoBiN, M. (Lawton) 

Cavernous sinus thrombosis, 120 
HoLLiSTER, Dorothy G. & por., 978 
Home care : 

plans, 982 
Hospital adult education (Vance), (rev.), 

456 
Hospital auxiliaries : 

A women's, in action (Croll), 25 
Hospital and communitv (Ferguson, Mac- 

Phail), (rev.), 458 ' 
Hospital in-service educational training 

program (Vance), (rev.), 456 
Hughes, F. N., 6, 86, 166, 246, 328, 414, 

510, 590, 678, 774, 862, 942 
Human relations in nursing (Hayes, Gaz- 
away), (rev.), 288 
Hunter, Trenna G., 698, & por. 799 
Hydrocephalus (Jenkinson), 885 
Hypotension (Schweisheimer), 53 

I 

Impact of chronic illness (Phillips), 524 
Importance de dosage ingere et excrete 

(Germain), 462 
Impressions d'Afrique (Tremblay), 630 
Improving nursing service (Arnstein), 869 
Infirmieres des salles d'operation (Crouse), 

197 
Infirmiere en obstetrique (Calve), 742 
In memoriam : 
Allison, Loila (Marshall), 264; Allison, 
Mary Gretchen, 545 ; Anderson, Ethel 
Hilda (Hennie), 978; Anderson, Ger- 
trude Irene, 363 ; Armstrong, Annie, 
264; Arner, Agnes, 39; Atkinson, Marv 
A., 806 
Bagshaw, Esthaol T., 200; Balloch, Jean, 
722: Barclay, Ethel, 363; Beach, Mar- 
garet (McCuUum), 979; Beckett, Mary 
Caroline, 806 ; Bowie, Elizabeth Jane, 
111; Bradley, Anne, 264; Burns, Mar- 
garet Marv, 200 
Caldwell, Mary Helen, 806; Campbell, 
Florence Nightingale (Sims), 363; 
Clark, Edith Grace (Bishop), 111, 
Clermont, Cecile, 910; Coleman, Delia 



—5— 



INDEX TO VOLUME 52 



Jean (Witts), 711; Coleman, Eva, 452; 
Con way- J ones, Katherine, 363 ; Corbett, 
Elizabeth (Quinn), 711; Cormie, Jean, 
HI 

Dalzell, Isabel Janet, 363 ; Darville, 
Mabel, 39; Davidson, Elizabeth (Dom- 
ville), 711; Dawson, Rosa (Moor), 
711; Day, Barbara Cecilia, 264; de 
rimmaculee, Soeur Marthe, 626; de 
Lorraine, Soeur Jeanne, 626 ; Dean, 
Mary Agnes, 363 ; Delves, Ann Eliza- 
beth, 452; Dock. Lavinia Lloyd, 806; 
Dorothea, Sister Mary, 626 ; Douglas, 
Alma, 545; Dvck, Katherine, 808; Dyer, 
Hilda May, 545 

Eaves. Eileen, 910; Elliott, Audrey Ber- 
nice, 910, 979; Ellis, Gladvs, 979; 
Erskine. Alice, 910 

Fabian, Sister, 39; Farrell, Kathleen G. 
(Trainor), 979; Farrell, Patricia (Baz- 
anet). 111; Feeny, Effie M.. 39; 
Forbes, Ella, 111; Forgie, Effie Helen, 
808; Forrest, Annie M., 545; Forrest, 
Ella Maude, 979; Forsey, Blanche, 626; 
Eraser, Annie (Smith), 808; Fretz, 
Mav Elizabeth, 200 

Gaasenbeek, Ruth (Kool), 910: Garrett, 
Mary Ann (Haire), 264; Gauthier, 
Doris (Trevors), 363; Gavin, Margaret 
Ann, 545; Glass, Robena (Williams), 
452 ; Goldhawk, Mary, 545 ; Good, Ber- 
nice, 452 ; Gunne. Mary Graham, 39 

Hanly, Lois, 626 ; Hanna, Evelyn 
(Beatty), 264; Harrison, Christine 
(Musselman), 200; Hawke, Evelyn 
Elizabeth (Gouldie), 111; Hiohens- 
Smith, Caroline Margaret, 711; Hill, 
Annie Louise (Brown), 39; Hodgins, 
Susan Emily. 363 ; Hogg, Grace Mar- 
garet, 264 ; Holland, Laura & por., 264 ; 
Horsnell, Cynthia Pauline. Ill; Hughes, 
Margaret & por., 910; Humphrey, 
Lenore (Lyle), 626; Husband, Mary, 
626 ; Hutchison. Ann Elizabeth, 39 

Jackson, Annie, 265 ; Jaques, Gwendoline, 
363 ; Jeanne d'Arc, Sister, 265 ; Johnson, 
Jean Elizabeth (Alexander), 808 

Kesselring, Mary Jane (Bannister), 722; 
Kilbnrn, Josephine F., 201 ; King, 
Frances, 979; Kornelson, Bertha, 808 

Lagiie, Louisia, 265 ; Laliberte, ]Marie 
Brigitte & por., 808; Langford, Lila M., 
808; Lawrence, Agnes Emily (Peder- 
son), 364; Leckie, Jemina, 111; Legge, 
Caroline, 626 ; Le Good, Sarah Annie, 
545 ; Liggett, Flora, 265 ; Lippert, Mary 
Carolyn (Peppier), 808; Long, Sandra 
Marie, 910; Lough, Laura B. (Mac- 
Dermid), 910 

Macaulay, Robina, 364 ; MacCuaig, Flo- 
rence, 39 ; MacDonald, Mary S., 979 ; 
Macintosh, Daisy (Grant), 111 ; Mac- 
intosh, Margaret Isobella, 979 ; Mac- 
Neil, Rita, 39; Mallock, Olive (Ben- 
tley), 711; Mallory, Bertha Lynetta, 
546 ; Martin, Elizabeth Jean, 265 ; 
McCTallum, Mary C (Hyde), 39; Mc- 
Cauley, Susanna, 979; McConnell, 
Florence, 722 ; McDermid, Margaret, 
111; McDermott, Bernadette (Walsh), 
111; McDonald, Florence, 722; Mc- 



Donald, Rose (Kemmet), 111; McElroy, 
Myrtle, 265 ; McGugan, Gwendolyn 
Frances (Birt), 711; McGuire, Cecelia 
Eileen, 808; Mclntyre, Alice (Mac- 
Leod). 724; McKeever, Grace, 545; 
McLaughlin, Kathleen (Grattan), 910; 
Miller. Mary, 626 ; Milligan, Frances, 
265; Miserva, Elizabeth (Jones), 39; 
Monan, Vera (McMullin), 452; Moody, 
Mary Elizabeth, 546; Moore, Celine, 
546 ; Morin, Antoinette, 201 ; Morrison, 
Barbara (Booth), 265; Morrison, Jean 
(Webster), 265; Morrison, Louisa, 626 

Neilly, Isabella Jane, 724; Neilson, Jean, 
626; Nelson, Mary (Woods), 626 

Page, Adeline Mary, 808; Paterson, 
Violet (Stevens). 808; Pedlow, Mar- 
garet Elizabeth (Hunter), 111; Pinder, 
Ethel Patricia (Sunderland), 979; 
Poetschke, Helen L. (Sheldon), 546; 
Portland. Isobel (Robertson), 834; 
Probert. Lillian (Bolin), 265 

Rankine, Elva (MacKenzie), 201; Red- 
mond. Elizabeth Mary, 201, 364; Reid, 
Elizabeth. 979 ; Rice, Flora Mary 
(Phillips), 201; Roberts, Mary Joyce, 
910; Rose, Ethel (Boultbee), 452; Ross, 
Charlotte Helen, 724. 

St. Bertha, Sister. 979; St. Onge, Marie- 
Adrienne, 364 ; Saunders, Ethel G., 201 ; 
Scott, Hattie May (Drake), 452; Scott, 
Rita Madeline (Leach), 201; Shuttle- 
worth, Anne (Blair), 626; Sivell, Mar- 
garet, 201; Smith, B. (Collier). 546; 
Smith, Jean (Vallance), 626; Stanley- 
Jones, Lucille Laura (Ross), 111; 
Stevens, Mary Francis, 911 ; Stuart, 
Hilda Muir, 911 

Taylor, Mary Natalie (McAulay), 265; 
Townsend, Estella (Beck), 452; Tra- 
quair, Doretta Mae (Minchin), 265; 
Tuck, Charlotte, 834; Turnbull, Roberta 
Hope, 979 

\"oisard, Andree. 39 

Wade, Maud (Bennett), 626; Walker, 
Kathleen H., Ill; Warwick, Irene 
(Follett), 834; Watson, Wanda 
(Hooper). 452; Watts, Caroline (Ken- 
nedy), 111; Webster, Clara (Evans), 
724; Welbourn, Ida Clara, 452; Whar- 
rey. Marguerite. 980; WHieeler, Mary 
Anne, 626; White, Genevieve, 364; 
Wigginton, Margaret M. (Aikman). 39; 
Willis, Clara (White), 201; Willis, 
Hilda, 265 ; Wiseman, Sally Ann. 626 ; 
\\'yand, Caroline Agnes (Ruthven), 980 
Ingram, Madelene Elliott 

Principles and techniques of psychiatric 
nursing (rev.), 990 
Institutes : 

Administration and supervision in nursing 
education, 140, 550 

communications (Felicitas), 346 

Nurses' role in civil defence (Sask.), 186 

Nursing aspects in rehabilitation (Nova 
Scotia), 65 

Process notes on the work conference 
(Dimock), 951 
Insulin therapy (Dersco), 621 
Integration of civil defence nursing into 

the basic curriculum, 47 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



I.C.N. Congress — 1957. 981 

Congress theme, 981 

Preliminary program. 981 
IxTERXATioxAL Council of Nurses : 

Planning of nursing studies, 822 

Salaam aliakum (Sharpe), (ed.). 13 
Introduction to psychiatric occupational 

therapy (Fidler, Fidler), (rev.), 746 
In time of need (MacGregor), (ed.j, 517 



James, Christina F. 

Parents' point of view. 963 
Jeans, PhiHp C. (Wright, Blake) 

Essentials of pediatrics (rev.), 218 
Jenkinson, Joanna 

Hydrocephalus, 885 
Johnson, Ida (rev.), 220 
Joseph, Sister Thomas (rev.), 385, (rev.), 
-990 
Joule, J. W. 

Textbook of medicine for nurses (rev.), 
466 



K 

Katz, Barney (Thorpe) 

Understanding people in distress (rev.), 
747 
Keegan, Soeur Florence (rev.), 384 
Kennedy, M. (Skerry, MacLean, Black, 

MacDonald) 

Radioactive isotopes, 800 
Kern, F. W., 696 
Kidney conditions : 

Glomerulonephritis (Doris), 712 

Salt-losing nephritis (Richards, Dodkin), 
537 
Kilander, Virginia Curry (Crawford) 

Nursing manual for psxchiatric aides 
(rev.), 468 
KiNGSFORD, Judith (rev.), 746 
K.P. for double-duty homemakers (Bell), 
^884 
Kirk, Margaret 

District nurse knows better, 180 
KiRKPATRicK, Vivian B., 977 



Laboratory procedures : 

A summary of clinical (Watson). 601 
L' Accreditation — ou en sommes-nous 

(McQuarrie), 444 
Lamp of the ivildcrness (Spencer), (rev.), 

47 
Lauder, Helen, 66 
Laurentia, Sister M. & por., 806 
Law, Alma 

Honorary life membership, 48 
Lawton, C. (Hobin) 

Cavernous sinus thrombosis, 120 
Leavell, Lutie Clemson (Stackpole) 

Textbook of physiology (rev.), 136 
Lefebvre, Sister Denise,"695 
Leone, Lucile Retry, 797, 820 
Lesnik, Milton J. (Anderson) 

Nursing practice and the laze (rev.), 556 
Let's look at accreditation, 368 



Leukemia (Schweisheimer), 724 
Libraries : 

Nursing school (Riddell), 798 
Life, profession and school (Clarke), 530. 

640, 715 V /. , 

LixDEBURGH, MaHou 

Memorial to, 464 
Long-Term illness : 

Impact of chronic illness (Phillips), 524 

What it means to be old (Phillips), 611 
Louis-Etienne, Soeur 

Schizophrenic, 539 
LupiEN, Marie 

Conseils a une etudiante devant faire un 
stage a la salle d'operation, 832 



M 



MacDonald, S. (Skerry, AfacLean, Black, 

Kennedy) 

Radioactive isotopes, 800 
MacGregor, Jean E. 

In time of need (ed.), 517 
MacIsaac, Rita, 822 

Public relations guide, 439 
Mackenzie, Mary T. (por.), 337 

Service, responsibility, nurture, action 
(ed.), 324 
MacLean, Beatrice A. 

A nurse's private devotions, 27 
MacLean, J. (Skerry, Black, Kennedy, 

MacDonald) 

Radioactive isotopes, 800 
MacLennan, E. a. Electa & por., 804 
Macleod, Agnes J. (rev.), 744 
MACLEOD, Christina M. & por., 200 
Macmili.an award winners, 324 
MacPhail, a. N. (Ferguson) 

Hospital and community (rev.), 458 
MacQuarrie, Dorothy (MacTavish) 

Nursing care of patients with lumbar 
intervertebral disc lesions, 429 
MacTavish, Donalda (MacQuarrie) 

Nursing care of patients with lumbar 
intervertebral disc lesions, 429 
Mackie, Jean (rev.), 466 
Male nurses : 

A new deal for (Wedgery), 636 
Malone, R. S.. 690 
Mallorv, Evelyn 

Report of Nursing Education Committee, 
694 
Management of acute poliomyelitis (Stott, 

Fischer-Williams), (rev.), 290 
Management of lumbar intervertebral disc 

lesions (Rosen), 423 
Manitoba : 

Historic, 339 

News notes, 226, 301, 391, 475, 561, 652, 
753, 995 

Our senior citizens (Wilson), (ed.), 421 

Provincial association activities, 440 

Winnipeg, the friendly city, 431 
AIanual of psvchiatry (Stallworth), (rev.), 

136 
Manuel du serz-ice du nursing a I'hopital, 

(rev.), 384 
Marcellus, Dorothy & por., 544 
Marie, Sister Helen, 805, (por.) 806 



—7— 



INDEX TO V O L. U M E 52 



Mary Agnes Snively memorial lecture : 

Are we equal to our future (Sanders), 
(ed.), 781 

Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face a 
I'avenir (Sanders), (ed.), 785 
Matiiewson, Mary S. 

Portrait unveiled, 134 
McArthur, Helen G. (por.), 46, 696 

And the world too, 703 

Christmas in Korea (ed.), 949 
McCallum. Helen Neil & por., 545 
McClure, Ruth Elizabeth & por., 977 
McIlwraith, Effie C, 476 
McIvER, Pearl, 791 
McKenna, Frances M. 

Thresholds to professional nursing practice 
(rev.), 913 
McLeod, a. (Foster, Palframan, Shouldice) 

Bandl's ring, 266 
McMillan, Patricia (rev.), 468 
McPhail, Dorothy Lyons (Kaufman) & 

por., 38 
McQuarrie, Frances U., 694 

Accreditation — ou en sommes-nous, 444 

Accreditation — what's on the record, 443 
Meaning of rehabilitation (Wellard), 904 
Meaning of social medicine (Galdston), 

(rev.), 290 
Meconium ileus (Wright, Bullock), 193 
Memorial to Helen S. Peters, 650 
Memorial to Marion Lindeburgh, 464 
Mental health : 

Confusing notions of (Stokes), 519 

for nurses (Cruickshank), 95 
Mental health for nurses (Cruickshank), 95 
Migration of nurses, 202 
MoNTAG, Mildred (Wright) 

Textbook of pharmacology and therapeu- 
tics (rev.), 745 
Moore, Edna L. & por., 976 
Morehouse, Carol E. 

Using case histories to learn, 361 
Morton, H. S. (rev.), 990 
My complaints (Dalton), 197 



N 

National health week, 30 
National immunization week, 751 
Nesbitt, Margaret (rev.), 136 
Neurological conditions : 

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (Lawton, 

Hobin), 120 
Hydrocephalus (Jenkinson), 885 
Neurosurgical conditions : 
Management of lumbar intervertebral disc 

lesions (Rosen), 423 
Nursing care of patients with lumbar 
intervertebral disc lesions (MacTavish, 
AlacQuarrie), 429 
New Brunswick : 

Annual meeting in (Archibald), 130 
Evaluating nursing education, 47 
Honorary life membership (Law), 48 
News notes, 64, 150, 227, 301, 391, 475, 

561. 653, 754 
Provincial association activities, 441 
New deal for male nurses (Wedgery), 636 
Newfoundland : 

Provincial association activities, 441 
Two-year educational program, 46 



New products, 6, 86, 166, 246, 328, 414, 510, 

590, 678, 774, 862, 942 
New year greeting (Ramage), (poem), 17 
News notes, 62, 144, 224, 299, 389, 472, 557, 

649, 752, 838, 920, 992 
Norton. Phyllis (por.), 125 
Nova Scotia : 

District nurse knows better (Kirk), 180 

News notes, 65, 562, 996 

Provincial association activities, 442 

Refresher course in administration and 
supervision in nursing education, 140, 
550 
Nurses as teachers of science (Reid), 187 
Nurses as women : 

Are we equal to our future (Sanders), 
(ed.), 781 

Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face a 
I'avenir (Sanders), (ed.), 785 
Nurse's private devotions (MacLean), 27 
Nurses' role in civil defence, 186 
Nurses ; their education and their role in 

health programs, 347, 696, 791 
Nursing across the nation, 46, 126, 202, 

280, 366, 454, 548, 734, 820, 896, 981 
Nursing assistant: 

Functions of, 280 
With our training we can help 
( Groenewald ) , 1 22 
Nursing a travers le pays, 48, 127, 204, 

281, 370, 458. 552, 738, 824, 900, 986 
Nursing care : 

Bandl's ring (Foster, McLeod, Palframan, 

Shouldice), 266 
Cavernous sinus thrombosis (Lawton, 

Hobin), 120 
Changing attitudes (Phillips), 708 
Child in hospital (Faughnan), 956 
Child with laryngotracheo bronchitis 

(Cecelia), 351 
Diabetes mellitus (Dersco), 617 
Epidermoid carcinoma (Watanabe), 534 
Glomerulonephritis (Doris), 712 
Hydrocephalus (Jenkinson), 885 
Impact of chronic illness (Phillips), 524 
Leukemia (Schweisheimer), 724 
Meconium ileus (Wright, Bullock), 193 
of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc 

lesions (MacTavish, MacQuarrie), 429 
Pediatric setting (Ross), 955 
Quelques considerations sur I'anemie et les 

etats anemiques (Tessier), 728 
Radioactive isotopes (Skerry, MacLean, 

Black, Kennedy, MacDonald), 800 
Rheumatoid arthritis (Ziehran), 448 
Role of the nurse in rehabilitation 

(Phillips), 810 
Salt-losing nephritis (Richards, Dodkin), 

537 
Scarlatine plus endomyocardite (Payer), 

891 
Schizophrenia (Stewart), 114 
Schizophrenie (Louis-Etienne), 539 
Service social et le cancer (Chamard), 268 
Staphylococcal pneumonia (Demko), 971 
Student nurse in a pediatric setting 

(Caplan, Dimock), 959 
When a nurse has diabetes (Bell), 627 
Nursing care of patients with lumbar 
intervertebral disc lesions (MacTavish, 
MacQuarrie), 429 



—8- 



THE C A N A D I A X X U R S E 



Nursing education : 
Accreditation — oil en sommes-nous 

(McQuarrie), 444 
Accreditation — what's on the record 

(McQuarrie), 443 
Adventures in science teaching (Alderson), 

271 
Creative nursing (Schvvier), 875 
Experimentation dans le domaine de 

(Dion), 445 
Forty years of pilgrimage (Russell), 

(ed.), 173 
Life, profession and school (Clarke), 530, 

640, 715 
Nurses as teachers of science (Reid), 187 
Nurses : their education and their role in 

health programs. 347, 696, 791 
Soin des enfants (Giroux), 968 
Some considerations on the basic nursing 
curriculum (Carter), 357 
NuRSixG manual for psychiatric aides 

(Crawford, Kilander), (rev.), 468 
Nursing practice and the lazv (Lesnik, 

Anderson), (rev.), 556 
Nursing profiles, 38, 199, 543, 624, 804, 976 
Nursing programs at the University of 

Saskatchewan (Willis), 40 
Nursing research : 

Improving nursing service (Arnstein), 869 
Nursing school library (Riddell), 798 
Nursing service : 

Improving (Arnstein), 869 
Orientation manual (Campion), 447 
Too many for too few (Girard), (ed.), 93 
Nursing Sisters' Association, 24, 470 

NuTRfTION : 

K.P. for double-duty liomemakers (Bell), 

884 
You are what you eat, 982 
Nutrition and diet therapy (Proudfit, 
Robinson), (rev.), 913 



Obstetrics : 
Bandl's ring (Foster, McLeod, Palframan, 
Shouldice), 266 
Occupational nursing : 
Role of the industrial nurse in accident 
prevention (Greville), 112 
OcHSNER. .\lton 

Smoking and cancer (rev.), 136 
Official directory, 80, 160, 240, 320, 495, 

672, 856, 1014 
Official travel agents, I.C.N. Congress, 338 
Ogilvie, Elsie C. & por., 625 
Ontario : 
Lying of the cornerstone, 548 
Memorial to lone Holdsworth, 562 
News notes, 66, 150, 227, 303, 392, 476, 

562, 653, 755, 920, 996 
Provincial association activities, 442 
Public health nursing service : appoint- 
ments, transfers, resignations, 60, 221, 
388, 470, 649, 917, 970 
Registered Nurses' Association of, change 
of address, 940 
Operating room nurses (Crouse), 198 
Orderly training program (Richmond), 191 
Orientation (Campion), 447 
Orientation manual, 280, (Campion), 447 



Our senior citizens (Wilson), (ed.), 421 
Owen, Joyce, 202 



Pain, breath of (Bromage), 45 
Palframan, J. (Foster, McLeod, Shouldice) 

Bandl's ring, 266 
Parents' point of view (James). 963 
Partington, C. N. 

Fluid balance, 262 
Patient care : 

Social sciences and improvement of, 
(Brown), 175 
Patterns of patient care (rev.), 220 
Paul of the Cross, Sister (rev.), 218 
Payer, Helene 

Scarlatine plus endomyocardite, 891 
Pearson. Nancy (rev.), 216 
Pediatric setting (Ross), 955 
Pediatric work conference (Flander), 951 
Pediatrics : 

Child in hospital (Faughnan), 956 

Counterpane land (Bell), 107 

From little acorns (Butler). 31 

Meconium ileus (Wright. Bullock). 193 

Parents' point of view (James), 963 

Process notes on the work conference 
(Dimock), 951 

setting (Ross), 955 

Soin des enfants (Giroux), 968 

Some thoughtful conclusions (Flander), 
966 

Student nurse in a, setting (Caplan), 
Dimock), 959 

work conference (Flander), 951 
Pepper, Evelyn 

Civil defence, 696 
Percy, Dorothy M., 548, 696, 820 

Signpost at Geneva, 790 
Perrodin, Cecilia M. 

Supen'ision of nursing service personnel 
(rev.), 140 
Phillips, Elisabeth C. 

Changing attitudes, 708 

Impact of chronic illness, 524 

Role of the nurse in rehabilitation, 810 

What it means to be old, 511 
Physical therapy after amputation, the 

treatment of the unilateral lojeer extremity 

amputee (Bryce), (rev.), 385 
Physiology and anatomx (Greisheimer), 

(rev.), 138 
Pike, M. (rev.), 912 
Play: 

Counterpane land (Bell). 107 
Poliomyelitis : 

Outlook in, 874 
Portraits unveiled (Alathewson), 134; 

(Munroe), 568 
Positions vacant. 71. 152. 232. 309, 398, 

483, 574, 661, 758, 841, 922, 1002 
Postgr.\duate courses available : 

Obstetrics — 
Royal Victoria Hospital. Montreal, 10. 
150, 170, 251, 334, 418, 514, 593, 681, 
777, 867, 946 
W^innipcg General Hospital, 10. 91. 169, 
251, 386, 417, 515, 594, 682, 775. 864, 
944 



-9— 



INDEX TO VOLUME 52 



Operating room — 

Winnipeg General Hospital. 10, 91, 169, 
251, 386, 417, 515, 594, 682, 775, 864, 
944 
Psychiatric nursing — 
Allan Memorial Institute of Psvchiatrv, 
8, 150, 170. 251. 334, 418, 514, 593, 
684. Ill, 866, 945 
Hospital for Mental Diseases, Brandon, 
Man.. 11, 91, 169, 251, 329, 417, 515, 
594, 684. 775. 866. 944 
Nova Scotia Hospital. Darmouth, 8, 90, 
170. 250. ill, 418, 515, 594, 682, 111, 
865, 945 
Tuberculosis — 

Mountain Sanatorium, Hamilton, Ont, 
8. 91, 167, 302, 388, 476, 514, 655, 681, 
in, 866, 945 
Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, 
N.S., 10. 90, 170, 250, iil, 418, 515, 
594, 682, 775, 865, 944 
' Universities — 

Alberta, 90. 169, 249 
Assumption, of Windsor, 250 
British Columbia, 249. 2>2>1, 415 
Dalhousie, 8, 149. 250, 417, 866 
Manitoba. 91, 169. 249, 329, 417, 775, 

864, 944 
McGill, 67. 225, 331, 512, 863 
McGill, Montreal Neurological Institute, 

514, 655, 750, 779, 946 
McMaster, 7, 148, 167, 248, 330, 416, 

511, 592 
Queen's, 10, 90, 167, 945 
Saskatchewan, 253 
Teachers College, Columbia — Heart 

disease nursing, 442 
Toronto, 329 
Practical nurse and her patient (Goulding, 

Torrop), (rev.), 748 
Practical suggestions : 

New autoclave tape (Norton), 125 
New spectacles aid the deaf, 134 
Prairie convention (ed. ), 687 
Premature infants : 

Un enfant est ne trop tot (Saint-Martin), 
345 
Presidential address : 

Tomorrow's pattern (Sharpe), (ed.), 597 
PRI^-CE Edward Island : 
Annual meeting in (Bolger), 50, 984 
News notes. 67. 228, 655, 998 
Provincial association activities, 442 
Principles and techniques of psychiatric 

nursing (Ingram), (rev.), 990 
Process notes on the work conference 

(Dimock), 951 
Professional ideals : 
My complaints (Dalton), 197 
We cannot come down (Spalding), 435 
Professional training grants, 456 
Program guide for future )iurses' clubs 

(rev.), 384 
Program planning, 112 
Proudfit, Fairfax T. (Robinson) 

Nutrtion and diet therapy (rev.), 913 
Provincial association activities, 440 
Psychiatric nursing (Bregg), 183 
Psychiatric nursing: 

Schizophrenia (Stewart), 114 
Schizophrenic (Louis-Etienne), 539 



Psychology in niirsing practice (Crow, 
Crow, Skinner ) , ( rev. ) , 446 

Public health nursing : 

Bifocal approach (Sinclair). 880 
District nurse knows better (Kirk), 180 
Greenhorn on the frontier (Evans), 974 
Quelques nouvelles tendances dans le 

nursing en hygiene publique, 206 
Societe des infirmieres visiteuses (Rivard), 
196 

Pl'blic relations : 
guide (Maclsaac), 439 
When the nurse is the patient, 127 

Public relations guide (Maclsaac), 439 



Ql.EBEC : 

Curriculum talks, 981 

Experimentation dans la domaine de I'edu- 

cation de I'infirmiere (Dion), 445 
Future nurses' club, 533 
Montreal General Hospital (alumnae) 

50th anniversary. 998 
News notes. 68, 228, 306, 393, 478, 566, 658, 

839, 921, 998 
Portrait of Mary Mathewson unveiled, 134 
Portrait of Fanny Munroe unveiled, 568 
Provincial association activities, 442 
Quelques considerations sur I'anemie et les 
etats anemiques (Tessier), 728 



Radioactive isotopes (Skerry, MacLean, 
Black, Kennedy, MacDonald), 800 

Ramage, James 

New year greeting (poem), 17 

Ranger, Monique 
Les besoins de I'ecolier en matiere de 
sante. 52 

Rawlings, Helen (rev.), 745 

Record keeping : 
Commentaires, 893 

Rehabilitation : 
Films on, 824 

Meaning of (Wellard), 904 
Miracles — yes or no. 896 
Role of the nurse in (Phillips), 810 

Reid, Alma E. 

Nurses as teachers of science, 187 

Religion in the life of a nurse : 
A nurse's private devotions (MacLean), 27 
Ethical religious needs of the patient 
(Frumkin), 263 

Report on the experiment in nursing educa- 
tion of the Atkinson school of nursing, 
Toronto Western Hospital, 1950-1955 
(Wallace), (rev.), 58 

Resolutions : 
Crest in two languages — English and 

French, 697 
Factual information about nursing in 

Canada, 697 
Pilot project on evaluation, 698 
Program of accreditation, 697 
Wording of a nursing pledge, 697 

Respiratory conditions : 

Child with laryngotracheo bronchitis 
(Cecelia), 351 



—10— 



THE C A X A D I A X X U R S E 



Rheumatoid arthritis (Ziehran), 448 
Richards. D. (Dodkin) 

Salt-losing nephritis, 537 
Richmond, Mary L. & por., 977 

Orderlj' training program, 191 
RiDDELL, Dorothy G. 

Nursing school library, 798 
RivARD, Renee 

Societe des infirmieres visiteuses, 196 
Roach, Florence Mary & por., 199 
Robinson, Corinne H. (Proudfit) 

Nutrition and diet fh crapy (rev.), 913 
Role of the industrial nurse in accident 

prevention (Greville), 112 
Role of the nurse in rehabilitation (Phillips), 

810 
Rosen, Harold J. 

Management of lumbar intervertebral disc 

lesions, 423 
Ross, Alan 

Pediatric setting, 955 
Ross, Marian (rev.), 913 
Rotunda textbook of iiiidicifcry for nurses 

(Browne), (rev.), 54 
RowE, Harold R. (Flitter) 

Teaching physiology and anatomy in 
nursing (rev.), 138 
Roy, Alberte & por.. 976 
RovAL commission on the economic future 

of Canada, brief to, 366, 548, 690 
RuANE, Kathleen (por.), 341 

Starting from scratch, 341 
Russell, E. Kathleen, 47, 164, 368, (por.^ 

173, 624 

Forty years of pilgrimage (ed.), 173 
Russell, J. A., 687 



Safety education : 

Common sense safety precautions, 714 
The role of the industrial nurse in accident 
prevention (Greville), 112 
Saint-Martin, Robert 

Un enfant est ne trop tot, 345 
Salaam aliakum (Sharpe), (ed.), 13 
Salle pour enfants brides (Tanner), 382 
SALT-losing nephritis (Richards, Dodkin), 

537 
Sand, Ole 

Curriculum study in basic nursing educa- 
tion (rev.), 219 
Sanders, Byrne Hope por., 350, 368, 698 
Are we equal to our future (ed.), 781 
Sommes-nous en mesure de faire face a 
I'avenir (ed. ), 785 
Sanderson, H. H., 689 
Saskatchewan : 

Annual meeting in (Wilson), 898 
expanding health services (Bentley), 699 
and its people (Smith), 257 
New university hospital organizes the 
nursing service department (Ruane), 341 
News notes, 68, 151, 229, 394, 478, 660, 

756, 921, 1000 
Nurses' role in civil defence, 186 
Nursing programs at the University of, 

(Willis), 40 
Provincial association activities, 442 
Service, responsibility, nurture, action 
(MacKenzie), (ed. ), 337 



Saskatchewan and its people (Smith), 257 
Saskatchewan's expanding health services 

(Bentley), 699 
Scarlatine plus endomyocardite (Paver), 

891 
Schizophrenia (Stewart). 114 
Schizophrenie (Louis-Etienne), 539 
Schweisheimer, W. 

Hypotension. 53 

Leukemia, 724 
Schwenck, J. Rae (Goostray) 

Textbook of clieniistry (rev.), 468 
Schwier, Mildred E. & por., 438, 695 

Creative nursing, 875 
Selected writings of Florence Nightingale 

(Seymer), (rev.), 744 
Selection : 

Besoins de I'ecolier en matiere de sante 
( Ranger), 52 

Comment vivent les homines en notre 
temps, 298 

Commentaires, 893 

Conseils a une etudiante devant faire un 
stage a la salle d'operation (Lupien), 
pi 

L'enfant a I'hopital, 132 

Importance de dosage ingere et excrete 
(Germain), 462 

Infirmiere en obstetrique (Calve), 742 

Une innovation qui pourrait reduire les 
coiits de construction des hopitaux, 546 

Les mefaits du bruit et leurs repercussions 
sur I'organisme humain, 546 

Les prejuges, 992 

Petite etude psycho-sociale, 634 

Quelques nouyelles tendances dans le 
nursing en hygiene publique, 206 

Salle pour enfants brules (Tanner), 382 
Service social et le cancer (Chamard), 268 
Seymer, Lucy Ridgely 

Selected icritings of Florence Xightingale 
(rev.), 744 ' 
Sharpe, Gladys J. (por.) 13, 597. 698 

Salaam aliakum (ed.), 13 

Tomorrow's pattern (ed.), 597 
Shaw, E. C. (rev.), 290 
Sholtis, L. a. (Eliason, Ferguson) 

Surgical nursing (rev.), 56 
Sholtis, Lillian A. (Bragdon) 

Teaching medical and surgical nursing 
(rev.), 56 
Shouldice, D. (Foster, McLeod, Palframan) 

Bandl's ring, 266 
Signpost at Geneva (Percy). 790 
Sinclair. Adelaide (Macdonald) por., 214, 

694 

Bifocal approach, 880 
Skerry. V. (MacLean, Black, Kennedy, 

MacDonald) 

Radioactive isotopes, 800 
Skin, mirror of emotions (Frumess), 374 
Skinner, C. (Crow, Crow) 

Psychology in nursing practice (rev.), 466 
Small, Barbara Joan & por., 543 
Smith, Christian 

Saskatchewan and its people, 257 
Smith, Grace (rev.), 468 
Smith, Lottie (rev.), 385 
Smoking atid cancer (Ochsner), (rev.), 136 
Social sciences and improvement of patient 

care (Brown), 175 



-11- 



INDEX TO VOLUME 52 



SociETE des infirmieres visiteuses (Rivard), 

196 
Soix des enfants (Giroux), 968 
Some considerations on the basic nursing 

curriculum (Carter), 357 
Some thoughtful conclusions (Flander), 966 
SoMMES-nous en mesure de faire face a 

I'avenir (Sanders), (ed.), 785 
Spalding, lone E. 

We cannot come down, 435 
Spencer, June 

Lavtfy of the zi-ildcrncss (rev.), 47 
Stackpole, Caroline E. (Leavell) 

Textbook of physiology (rev.), 136 
Stallworth, K. R. 

Manual of psychiatry (rev.), 136 
Staphylococcal pneumonia (Demko), 971 
Starting from scratch (Ruane), 341 
Steed, Margaret 

Fun on trains, 185 
Stewart, Ann 

Schizophrenia, 114 
Stewart. Isabel M. & por., 624 
Stiver, M. Pearl 

General secretary's report, 690 

Official notice, 28th biennial meeting, 356 
Stokes, A. B. 

Confusing notions of mental health, 519 
Stott, C. p. (Fischer- Williams) 

Management of acute poliomyelitis (rev.), 
290 
Stuart, Eugenie (rev.), 54 
Student day activities (Wildfang), 706 
Student nurse in a pediatric setting (Caplan, 

Dimock), 959 
Student nurses' association : 

of Alberta, 212 

Student day activities (Wildfang), 706 
Students' health : 

Besoins de I'ecolier en matiere de sante 
(Ranger), 62 
Summary of clinical laboratory procedures 

(Watson), 601 
Supervision of nursing service personnel 

(Perrodin), (rev.), 140 
Surgical nursing (Eliason, Ferguson, Shol- 

tis), (rev.), 56 



Tanner, J. R. 

Salle pour enfants brules, 382 
Taylor, Winifred E., 920 
Teaching medical and surgical nursing 

(Bragdon, Sholtis), (rev.), 56 
Teaching methods : 

Adventures in science teaching 
(Alderson), 271 

Nurses as teachers of science (Reid), 187 

Orderly training program (Richmond), 
191 

Using case histories to learn (Morehouse), 

361 
Teaching physiology and anatomy in 

nursing (Flitter, Rowe), (rev.), 138 
Television : 

Petite etude psycho-sociale, 634 
Tension : 

Mental health for nurses (Cruickshank), 
95 



Tentative program for the 38th biennial 

convention, 284 
Tessier, Eugenie 

Quelques considerations sur I'anemie et les 
etats anemiques, 728 
Textbook of chemistry (Goostray, 

Schwenck), (rev.), 468 
Textbook of medicine for nurses (Joule), 

(rev.), 466 
Textbook of pharmacology and therapeutics 

(Wright, Montag), (rev.), 745 
Textbook of physiology (Stackpole, Lea- 
vell), (rev.), 136 
Theriault, Michelle, 394 
Thomas, Dorothy, 550 
Thorpe, Louis (Katz) 

Understanding people in distress (rev.), 
747 
Thought for spring (Bangham), (poem), 

256 
Thresholds to professional nursing practice 

(McKenna), (rev.), 913 
Ticket of nominations (CNA), 376 
Tomorrow's pattern (Sharpe), (ed.), 597 
Too few for too many (Girard), (ed.), 93 
Torrop, Hilda M. (Goulding) 

Practical nurse and her patient (rev.), 748 
Tremblay, Claire 

Impressions d'Afrique, 630 
Trenna Hunter, president, 799 
Thresholds to professional nursing practice 

(McKenna), (rev.), 913 
Truth about cancer (Cameron), (rev.), 990 
Tuberculosis : 

prevention in the far north (Walz), 43 
Tweedie, Stuart, 690 
Two-year course in nursing : 

Experimentation dans I'education de I'in- 
firmiere (Dion), 445 

Program in Newfoundland, 46 

Report on the experiment in nursing edu- 
cation of Atkinson School of Nursing, 
Toronto Western Hospital, 1950-55 
(Wallace), 58 

u 

Understanding people in distress (Katz, 

Thorpe), (rev.), 747 
University hospitals : 

New. organizes the nursing service de- 
partment (Ruane), 341 
University programs : 

Nurses as teachers of science (Reid), 187 

Venture in field experience for graduate 
nurses (Allen), 276 
University schools of nursing: 

Nursing programs at the University of 
Saskatchewan (Willis), 40 
University education for administration in 

hospitals (Hamilton), (rev.). 54 
Using case histories to learn (Morehouse), 

361 



Vance. Russell E. 

Hospital adult education (rev.). 456 
Hospital in-seriice educational training 
(rev.), 456 

Vance, V., 563 



—12- 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Venture in field experience for graduate 

nurses (Allen), 276 
Victorian Order of Nurses : 

Appointments, transfers, resignations, 61, 
538, 837 
Visiting nursing: 

Societe des infirmieres visiteuses (Rivard), 
196 
Vital statistics, 840 



w 



Wall, Margaret Ann & por., 648 
Wallace, W. Stewart 

Report on the experiment in nursing edu- 
cation of the Atkinson school of nursing, 
Toronto Western Hospital 1950-55 
(rev.), 58 
Walters, Lurline, 202 
Walz, Josephine (por.), 43 

Tuberculosis prevention in the far north, 
43 
Watanabe, Lily 

Epidermoid carcinoma, 534 
Waters, S. Monica (rev.), 54 
Watson, E. M. 

Summary of clinical laboratorv procedures, 
601 
We cannot come down (Spalding), 435 
Wedgery, Albert (por.), 636, 691 

New deal for male nurses, 636 
Weiss, M. Olga 

Attitudes in psxchiatric nursing care 
(rev.), 385 
Wellard, Frank G. 

Meaning of rehabilitation, 904 
What about vacation plans (Collins), 109 
What it means to be old (Phillips), 611 
When a nurse has diabetes (Bell), 627 
Whiteford, Jean (rev.), 466 
Why attend the CNA convention (Carmel), 

(ed.), 255 



Wildfang, Edythe 

Student day activities, 706 
Willis, Lucy D. 

Nursing programs at the University of 
Saskatchewan, 40 
Wilson, Helen Christena, 545 
Wilson, Lola (rev.), 556 

Annual meeting in Saskatchewan, 898 
Wilson, Mary Emily, 412 

Our senior citizens (ed.), 421 
Wilson, M. Jean (rev.), 219 
Winnipeg, the friendly city, 431 
With our training we can help 

(Groenewald), 122 
Women's auxiliary in action (Croll), 25 
World Health Organization : 

Nurses : their education and their role in 
health programs, 126, 791 

Signpost at Geneva (Percy). 790 

Some considerations on the basic nursing 
curriculum (Carter), 357 

That the people be served, 820 
Wright, Alice L. & por. 471, 548 
Wright, Doris (Bullock) 

Meconium ileus, 193 
Wright, E. Howell (Jeans, Blake) 

Essentials of pediatrics (rev.), 218 
Wright, Harold N. (Montag) 

Textbook of pharmacology and thera- 
peutics (rev.), 745 



Yearbook of modern nursing, CNA con- 
tribution to, 548 

York, Richard Y. (Greenblatt, Brown) 
From custodial to therapeutic patient care 
in mental hospitals (rev.), 912 



Ziehran, Rita 

Rheumatoid arthritis, 448 



—13— 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 

Editor and Business Manager 
MARGARET E. KERR. M.A.. R.N. 

Assistant Editor 
JEAN E. MacGREGOR. B.N.. R.N. 

EDITORIAL BOARD 

Chairman — Isobel MacLeod 

Rae Chittick 

Sister Mary Felicitas 

Suzanne Giroux 

Alma Reid 

Margaret \\'heeler 

Trenna Hunter 

Alice Girard 
Secretary — Margaret E. Kerr 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS 

Alberta Winnifred Norquay 

British Columbia Wilma Wood 

Manitoba Lillian Pettigrew 

New Brunswick Jean Lynds 

Newfoundland Lillian Coleman 

Nova Scotia Dorothy Gill 

Ontario Sarah Wallace 

Prince Edward Island Sister Mary David 

Quebec Margaret Wheeler 

Saskatchewan Catherine O'Shaughnessy 

Journal Address: 1522 Sherbrooke St., W., Montreal 25, Que. 



—14— 



.-p*"*^ 



When 

steam therapy, 

is prescribed'r.. 

Relief / 

may be' 

enhanced 

with/ 

Vicks VapoRub 




Ihe volatile ingredients included in 
the basic Vicks VapoRub formula will 
make a steam treatment more effective. 
These ingredients— menthol, thymol, 
camphor and oil of eucalyptus — offer 
added comfort to the patient, particu- 
larly where dry, irritated mucous mem- 
branes accompany respiratory infection. 

Recommending VapoRub can be as 
convenient for you as it is helpful for 
your patient, since there is a jar of 
VapoRub in almost every home— easy to 
use in a vaporizer or bowl of steaming 
water. 




JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



VOLUME 52 



NUMBER 1 



JANUARY 1956 



6 New Products 

13 Salaam Aliakum „ _ Gladys J. Sharpc 

1 8 Chromosome Deletion in the Rh 

Genotype Gilda G. Graves 

21 L'EvOLUTION DE LA CaRDIOLOGIE 

ET SES Probi.fmes Paul David 

26 A Women's Auxiliary in Action Marie C. Croll 

27 A Nurse's Private Devotions Beatrice A. MacLean 

31 From Little Acorns Ethelyn Butler 

38 Nursing Profiles 

39 In Memoriam 

40 Nursing Programs at the University 

of Saskatchewan Lucy D. Willis 

43 Tuberculosis Prevention 

IN the Far North Josephine Walz 

46 Nursing Across the Nation 

48 Le Nursing a travers le pays 

52 Selection 

53 Hypotension W. Schweishcimer 

54 Book Reviews 
62 News Notes 

T1 Positions Vacant 
80 Official Directory 



Editor and Business Manager 
MARGARET E. KERR, M.A., R.N. 

Assistant Editor 
JEAN E. MacGREGOR, B.N., R.N. 



The viezvs expressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
represent the policy 
or viezvs of 

The Canadian Nurse 
nor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association. 



Subscription Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 

Student nurses — one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. U.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 

In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $7.00. 

Single copies, 35 cents. 

Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian Nurse. 

Detailed Official Directory appears in June & December. 

Please give one month's notice of Change of Address. 

Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 

National Advertising Representatives: W. ¥. L. Edwards & Co., Ltd. 34 King St. E. Toronto 1, Ont. 

Member of Canadian Circulations Audit Board. 

1522 Sherbrooke Street, West, Montreal 25, Quebec 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



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Since glass, like wood, changes with age, thermometers 
need to be "seasoned" before release. Every B-D Thermometer 
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JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



^et€<^eeK Oun4€l(AeA 



True to tradition, the president of the 
Canadian Nurses' Association, Gladys J. 
Sharpe, is our guest editor this month. 
Her account of the meeting of the ICN 
Board of Directors in Istanbul, Turkey, 
last August is useful and informative. After 
you have read that summary, be prepared 
for an interest-packed story of places visited, 
of thrills and experiences on a tour through 
many parts of this little known country. 
Perhaps January with its icy blasts, deep 
snow and frozen radiators would be a good 
time to go to Turkey ! Since it is a physical 
impossibility for most of us to go perhaps 
you will draw vicarious enjoyment from 
the warmth and sunshine of Miss Sharpe's 
description of her trip. 

* * * 

Do you ever wonder, when you read part 
of a story in the daily paper or news mag- 
azine, what happened next ? Only occasional- 
ly at a later date can we find any reference 
to the story that held our interest. On one 
story at least we are privileged to bring 
you some of the inside information. Do you 
remember the story of the newborn infant 
in California whose life was saved by the 
transfusion of blood donated by two Indian 
women in Alberta? Every newspaper carried 
the story of the trip made by the R.C.A.F. 
to Redwood City to deliver the precious 
shipment of the very rare type of blood. 
We are delighted to bring you the story 
behind this news item. Gilda G. Graves 
has written a fascinating account of the 
extraordinary discovery of an Indian tribe 
in Alberta many of whose members have 
this exceedingly rare type of blood. Do not 
fail to read "Chromosome Deletion in the 
Rh Genotype." 

* * * 

Every now and then we receive letters 
from nurses who write us that they want 
to get away from routine duties in a city 
hospital. "Can you tell me where I should 
apply for a position in the far north ... in 
Labrador?" Josephine VValz did not write 
us for any such information but she has 
been having some truly wonderful experi- 
ences while carrying on her tuberculosis 
prevention program in northern Saskatch- 
ewan. It takes courage and stamina to de- 
velop a pioneer service of this kind so far 
from all the comforts and easy living in an 
urban job. Miss Walz is one of the growing 



company of nurses who get great personal 
satisfaction from the service they can offer 
to settlers in the vast, underdeveloped areas 
of our country. 

If any of you are interested in breaking 
away from the ordinary humdrum of rou- 
tine nursing care and want Adventure (with 
a capital A,) we suggest that you study the 
advertisement of the Federal Indian Health 
Services on page 69 or that of the Gren- 
fell Labrador Medical Mission on page 74 
Your life would be very different, to put 
it mildly. 

* * * 

It is an essential part of every nurse's 
training that she should become as familiar 
with the details of the growth and develop- 
ment of normal infants and children as 
that she should know the signs, symptoms, 
treatment and nursing care for all of the 
abnormal conditions she may see. Ethelyn 
Butler used a most refreshing approach to 
her learning situation when she vitalized 
every phase of it into a human interest story. 
You will enjoy reading about the fashion in 
which the "Stuarts" adapted their pattern 
of living around their adopted baby — and 
in the reading you will be reminded of many 
points of child training you may have for- 
gotten. 

* * * 

The new pattern in curriculum develop- 
ment that is emerging at the University of 
Saskatchewan* School of Nursing is de- 
scribed for us by Lucy D. Willis, who is 
an assistant professor in that department. 
Those of you who read Betty Ellison's 
discussion of the value of operating room 
experience to the student nurse in our 
November, 1955 issue will be interested to 
discover how this experience fits into the 
total picture of training. The learning op- 
portunities that will be provided in the 
rural hospital affiliations, that are a part 
of the students' experience, will be an in- 
teresting development to watch. 

* * * 

If we wish to avoid despair for the future 
of mankind, we must cherish the hope that 
the nations of the world will find their way 
back to humanity and thereby arrive at a 
deeper and stronger capacity for humanity 
than ever before flourished on earth. 

— Albert Schweitzer 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



^ERSONAL AND 
|ROFESSIONAL USE 



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7ca/ materials and according to the exact 
ula of *BEIERSDORF, makers of Europe's 

famous preparations for skin cora. 

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lient for the care of baby's skin is a proven aid 
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VANZA SUPERFATTED SOAP-Those sensitive to 
ordinary toilet soap or detergents, or having dry 
thin skin, benefit through the regular use of 
Vanza Superfatted Soap. It is invaluable for the 
nursery as a companion product to Vanza Creme. 

Coke: 25 cents 



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Edited by DEAN F. N. HUGHES 

Published Through Col'Rtesy of Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal 

AMBAR 

Manufacturer — A. H. Robins Co., Montreal, Que. 

Description — Each yellow compressed tablet contains methamphetamine HCl 3.33 
mg., and phenobarbital 21.6 mg. Each yellow coated extentab contains the equivalent 
of 3 ambar tablets, the release of ingredients being controlled to provide therapeutic 
effects for 10 to 12 hours. 

Indications — Tension-anxiety states; as an appetite depressant in management of 
obesity. 

Administration — One or 2 tablets 3 or 4 times daily or as prescribed; or one or 
2 extentabs before breakfast. 

ALMA C 

Manufacturer — Paul Money Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 

Description — Each tablet contains: Aluminum hydroxide 3 gr., magnesium trisilicate 
6 gr., ascorbic acid (as sodium ascorbate) 20 mg. 

Indications — Gastric hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, chronic gastroenteritis. 

Administration — Adults, one or two tablets after meals; children, less in proportion, 
as prescribed. 

BONTRIL 
Manufacturer — G. W. Carnrick Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Each tablet contains: Butabarbital sodium 10 mg., methylcellulose 350 
mg., d-amphetamine sulphate 5 mg. 

Indications — For appetite control in management of obesity. 

'DELTRA' TABLETS 
Manufacturer — Sharp & Dohme Division of Merck & Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Description — A derivative of cortisone with anti-inflammatory activity in lower 
dosage. 

Indications — Conditions in which cortisone may be indicated. 

EBSOPHYLUN-R 

Manufacturer — E. B. Shuttleworth Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Contains per tablet: Oxethyltheophyllin 200 mg., reserpine crystalline 
0.1 mg. 

Indications — Congestive heart failure, cardiac edema, angina, coronary thrombosis, 
cardiac and bronchial asthma, hypertension. 

Administration — One or two tablets three or four times a day. 

ENCOTE A.S.A. 
Manufacturer — Paul Money Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 
Description — Enteric coated red tablets acetylsalicylic acid 10 gr. 
Indications — Rheumatic disorders requiring large doses of acetylsalicylic acid with 
minimal gastrointestinal irritation. 

Administration — 2 to 8 tablets daily. 

PROTOST IN OIL 

Manufacturer — Paul Money Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 

Description — Each cc. contains: Progesterone 25 mg., testosterone propionate 25 mg., 
chlorobutanol anhydrous 0.5%, sesame oil q.s. 

Indications — Used as an aid in controlling functional uterine bleeding and amen- 
orrhea therapy. 

Administration — One cc. daily for 3 to 5 consecutive days by injection into the 
upper quadrant of the gluteal muscle or as determined by the physician.. 

SEDRATE 

Manufacturer — E. B. Shuttleworth Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Contains per tablet: Mephobarbital, 30.0 mg., reserpine crystalline 
0.1 mg. 

Indications — As a day-time sedative in treatment of agitated, depressed and anxiety 
states where a minimum of hypnotic action is desired. 

Tlic Journal presents pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses understand that only a physician may prescribe. 

6 THE CANADIAN NURSE 




McMASTER UNIVERSITY 

School of Nursing 

1956-1957 



DEGREE COURSE IN BASIC NURSING 

A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepare students for all 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.). It includes studies in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 

DEGREE COURSE IN SCIENCE TEACHING FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

A Two-Year Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree. Bachelor of 
Education in Nursing (B.Ed.N.). It includes studies in the humanities, the 
physical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 

For additional information, write to: 

School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS 
HOSPITAL 

SCHOOL 9{ NURSING 

OflFers to qualified Registered Nursei 
a 16-week supplementary course in 

OPERATIVE ASEPTIC TECHNIC 

with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic, 
orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic and 
ear, nose and throat operating room 
services. Maintenance and stipend are 
provided. 

For information write to: 

Director, School of Nursing 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital 

Baltimore 5, Maryland, U.S.A. 



WILLS EYE HOSPITAL 

Philadelphia, Penna. 

The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month course 
in Nursing Care of the Eye to Grad- 
uates of Accredited Nursing Schools. 
Operating Room Training is scheduled 
in the course. 

• Maintenanxe and Stipend: $165 
per month for four months and $175 
per month for the next two months. 



• Registration Fee is 
takes care of pin and 



$15 which 
certificate. 



• Classes start March 15th and Sept. 
15th. Ophthalmic nurses are in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms, ami ophthalmologists' 

othces. 

For information write to 

Director of Nurses, 

Wills Eye Hospital, 

1601 Spring Garden Street 

Philadelphia 30, Penna. 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



THE MOUNTAIN 
SANATORIUM 

HAMILTON, ONTARIO 

TWO-MONTH 

POST GRADUATE COURSE 

IN THE IMMUNOLOGY, 

PREVENTION & TREATMENT 

OF TUBERCULOSIS. 

This course is especially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis Nursing. 

For further information apply to: 

Director of Nursing, 

Mountain Sanatorium, 

Hamilton, Ontario. 



PSYCHIATRIC 
NURSING COURSE 

The Allan Memorial Institute of 
Psychiatry of the Royal Victoria 
Hospital offers six-month courses in 
Theory and Practice in Psychiatric 
Nursing to Graduate Nurses in good 
standing in their own province. 

Classes — Spring and Fall. 

Complete maintenance or living-out 
allowance, meals in hospital and uni- 
form laundry for the first three months. 
General duty rates the second three 
months. 

For further information zvrite to: 

Miss H. M. Lamont, Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 2, Que. 
or Miss Kathleeen Marshall, Supervisor of 
Nurses, Allan Memorial Institute of Psy- 
chiatry, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 
2, Que. 



PSYCHIATRIC COURSE 

for 

GRADUATE NURSES 

The Nova Scotia Hospital offers to 
qualified Graduate Nurses a six- 
month certificate course in Psychiatric 
Nursing. 

• Classes in June and December. 

• Remuneration and maintenance. 

For further information apply to: 

Superintendent of Nurses 
Nova Scotia Hospital 
Drawer 350 
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia 



DALHOUSIE 
UNIVERSITY 

Courses for Graduate Nurses 

Term 1955-56 

The School of Nursing offers one-year 
diploma Courses in the following fields : 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

The Director, 

School of Nursing 

Dalhousie University 

Halifax, N.S. 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




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PERIHEMIN certainly picks up 
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and Liver Fraction. 

PERIHEMIN is a master-builder of 
red blood cells and hemoglobin and 
is prescribed in the treatrnent of the 
common anemias and as an adjunct 
in treatment of pernicious anemia. 

PERIHEMIN is available in these 
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JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 

Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities lor ach anced preparation : 

1. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Obstetrics. 

2. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Operating Room Principles and 
Advanced Practice. 

These courses commence in January 
and September of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is given after the first month. 
Enrolment is limited to a maximum of 
six students in each course. 

For further iitformation please n'rite to: 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING 

GENERAL HOSPITAL 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA 



ROYAL VICTORIA 
HOSPITAL 

School of Nursing, Montreal 

COURSES FOR GRADUATE 
NURSES 



1. A four-month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nursing. 

2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological Nursing. 

Salary — After second month at 
General Staff rates. 

For information apply to: 

Director of Nursing 

Royal Victoria Hospital 

Montreal 2, Que. 



QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 

COURSES OFFERED 

1. Degree Course leading to B.N.Sc. 
Opportunity is provided for special- 
ization in final year. 

2. Diploma Courses: 

(a) Teaching, Supervision in 

Schools of Nursing, 
(b) Public Health Nursing. 

For i)iformation apply to: 

DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 
QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



NOVA SCOTIA SANATORIUM 

KENTVILLE N.S. 

Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 

1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 

2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 

3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit. 

4. Full maintenance, salary & all staff 
privileges. 

5. Classes start May 1st and Novem- 
ber 1st. 

For information apply to: 

SUPT. OF NURSES, NOVA SCOTIA 
SANATORIUM, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



10 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



1955 INDEX 

SUBSCRIBERS WISHING TO RECEIVE COPIES OF THE 

f955 ^PtcUx 

ARE REQUESTED TO COMPLETE THIS COUPON AND MAIL 

IT TO 

THE CANADIAN NURSE 

1522 Sherbrooke St. West 
MONTREAL 25, QUEBEC 

Please print all details. 
Name 



Street 

City 

Number of copies desired 



Zone No. Prov. 



PSYCHIATRIC 

NURSING COURSE 

The Hospital for Mental Diseases, 
Brandon, Manitoba, ofifers a 6-month 
Diploma Course in Psychiatric Nursing 
to Registered Nurses. 

Applicants accepted in September of 
each year. Salary while taking course : 
$205 per mo. less $25 per mo. for full 
maintenance. 

Upon completion of course nurses are 
eligible for positions on Permanent 
Staff. 

For further information apply: 

Superintendent of Nurses. 

Hospital for Mental Diseases, 

Brandon, Manitoba. 



VICTORIAN ORDER OF 
NURSES FOR CANADA . . . 

requires 

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 

for Staff and Supervisory positions in 
various parts of Canada. 

Applications will be considered from 
Registered Nurses without Public 
Health training but with University 
entrance qualifications. 



I SALARY, STATUS AND PROMOTIONS 
I ARE DETERMINED IN RELATION 
I TO THE QUALIFICATIONS OF THE 
I APPLICANT. 

! 1 

Apply to: 

Director in Chief, 

Victorian Order of Nurses 
for Canada, 

193 SPARKS STREET, 
Ottawa 4, Ont. 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



11 



Abbott's 



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12 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



m cfififiDiflo nuRSE 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL FOR THE NURSES OF CANADA 
PUBLISHED BY THE CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 



VOLUME 52 



NUMBER 1 



MONTREAL, JANUARY, 1956 



Salaam Aliakum'^ 



IT HAS BEEN SAID that the pleasures 
of travel exist best in retrospect 
and seldom in the instant when ex- 
perienced. However, one infallible aid 
to retrospection is to prepare a report 
such as this, with the hope that you 
too will share these first brief and 
still vivid near-East impressions. Why 
Turkey? was an oft-asked question, 
and the answer takes us back to the 
I.C.N, meeting in Rio de Janeiro, 
July 1953, when the Turkish Nurses' 
Association invited the Board to hold 
their 1955 meeting in Turkey and 
thereby commemorate the 100-year an- 
niversary of the work of Florence 
Nightingale at Scutari. 

Our first impressions of Turkey were 
at Yesilkoy — Istanbul's modern air- 
port, reached after an uneventful trip 
with brief stops in London, Amster- 
dam and Munich. We were met by 
two members of the Turkish Nurses' 
Association and the husband of a third 
who expedited the details of passport 
and customs examination and police 
registration. Our hostesses knew a few 
phrases in English, we; not a word 



of Turkish. The hour-long drive to the 
largest city and former capital of 
Turkey took us on a rough, hilly road, 
through pastures of Biblical shepherds, 
to the city gate of Istanbul, a narrow 




* The common Turkish salutation 
"Peace be zvith you." 



Bros. Ltd., Montreal 
(ji^AUVb J. :3JiARPE 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



13 



opening in the 1500-year old wall built 
by Theodosius II. At intervals we 
caught the aroma of spicy cooking 
and heard strains of haunting Turkish 
music. It was midnight when we 
reached the fabulous Hilton Hotel and 
morning before we gained our first 
magnificent view across the Bosporus. 
Istanbul, formerly Constantinople, is 
built on many hills, on one of which 
is the Hilton Hotel. It is the site from 
which, in 1453, the Moslem Mehmet 
portaged his ships overland to drop 
them behind the defense chains guard- 
ing the entrance into the Golden Horn. 
By so doing he conquered the weak- 
ened Christian Byzantine Empire. 

It can truly be said that the week 
in Istanbul was constructive and in- 
spiring. There was good discussion 
of the business items of the Agenda ; 
social events and visits to historic 
places were wisely interspersed ; and 
from the windows of the room set 
aside for the meetings, delegates could 
look across the Bosporus to the Bar- 
racks at Scutari, where, one hundred 
years ago, Florence Nightingale car- 
ried out a revolution in nursing care 
and hospital administration. 

The meetings were presided over 
by our president, Marie Bihet, and 
attended by representatives of 26 
member associations. Executive sec- 
retaries from 16 associations were also 
present, and for the first time (by 
unanimous decision of the Board at 
its opening session) were permitted 
to participate freely in discussion. 

Here are some important matters 
on which the Board took action : 
It was recommended to the Grand 
Council, that there be a reorganization 
of the administrative "machinery" of the 
F.N.I.F., by which it will become the 
Educational Division of the I.C.N., and 
be associated with the total progn.m 
even more closely than at present. One 
activity of the F.N.I.F. has been the 
compilation of a bibliography on the life 
and work of Florence Nightingale. The 
bibliographer, the former head of the 
Wellcome Historical Medical Library 
has drawn to our attention that the col- 
lection of Florence Nightingale's letters 
will be something quite unique and 
probably much sought after by historical 
libraries all over the world. It will con- 
tain over 10,000 letters and will be the 



largest collection of letters written by 
one individual ever catalogued and pub- 
lished. 

New premises for I.C.N, headquarters 
have been purchased within five minutes 
walk of Westminster Abbey. 

The I.C.N. 11th Quadrennial Con- 
gress will be held at the Esposizione 
Universale Romana Congress Hall in 
Rome, May 27-June 1, 1957. It was de- 
cided that the registration fee will be 
5 shillings Sterling, exclusive of ac- 
commodation charges. As seating facil- 
ities in the Great Hall are limited to 
3000 an allocation will be made, each 
national association being allowed a 
percentage of places according to its 
membership. 

A meeting of the Grand Council will 
be held during the Congress week, and 
(for the first time in I.C.N, history) 
will be open to all Congress participants. 
The theme of the Congress will be 
"Responsibility" (the watchword given 
by the retiring president, Miss Gerda 
Hojer, at the last session of the Con- 
gress in Brazil, in 1953). The languages 
of the Congress will be Italian, French 
and English. 

Exchange privileges of nurses between 
various countries were studied. In the 
past two years more than 4,000 nurses 
have obtained employment in countries 
abroad and 1200 have studied abroad. 

The committee on nursing service 
presented a valuable report on the need 
for, and the development of acceptable 
standards of nursing care throughout 
the world. A paper of acceptable stand- 
ards of neurosurgical nursing presented 
by the Swedish Nurses' Association was 
accepted for release to all countries. 
On the final day of meetings our 
group, of comparable size to the one 
led by Florence Nightingale, made a 
pilgrimage to the Selimiye military 
barracks in Scutari which includes 
the historical barracks hospital. The 
immense square building of three 
stories surrounds a court. At each 
corner is a tower and the distance 
from the entrance to the Nurses' 
Tower is roughly a quarter of a mile. 
Visualize a colonnaded corridor, each 
column effectively draped with the 
crimson and white national flag, and 
in front of which stand alternately a 
member of the garrison forces and a 
Turkish nurse. A brass band occupies 



14 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




I.C.N. Board of Directors af If old Hilton. Istanbul. 



one wall. At the signal "present arms," 
the officers of the garrison honored 
those of us who represented the 
450,000 nurses of the world and re- 
mained at salute until all members of 
the Board had filed past. Then came 
the stirring roll of drums and a few 
seconds of deep silence ! Such an emo- 
tional experience comes but once in 
a lifetime ! Following several addresses 
from military and other dignitaries, 
the Board of Directors presented to 
Miss Esma Deniz. president of the 
Turkish Nurses' Association a cita- 
tion : 

Here in Turkey the spirit of nursing 
was born. Here in Uskudar, Florence 
Nightingale, pioneer of nursing, admin- 
istrator and statesman, demonstrated to 
the world the efficacy of nursing care. 
Here, during the century that has fol- 
lowed her great achievements, her spirit 
has remained, her memory has been 
cherished, and her work carried on. 
The ceremony concluded with the 
presentation of flowers to Mile Bihet 
by a member of the Turkish Nurses' 
Association with whom we agreed 
when, in making the presentation, she 
exclaimed, "I am so exciting!" 

Our business concluded. Miss Stiver 
and I were free to see and learn more 
of our environment. Istanbul is the 



only city in the world "astride two 
continents." Europe on the west and 
Asia on the east, it is situated on the 
entrance of the Bosporus which links 
the Sea of Marmora with the Black 
Sea. While no longer the capital. Is- 
tanbul is still Turkey's most important 
social, intellectual and commercial 
centre. The 1950 census gives the 
population as slightly over one million 
— that of Turkey as 21 million. 

Accompanied by guides who spoke 
fairly good English we were taken 
on a tour of the city and, in a most 
interesting manner, briefed as to its 
social and archaeological history. We 
were impressed by the many references 
to the driving Kemal Ataturk, who it 
is said, "carefully transplanted the 
western deiuocratic system like so 
much new turf on Turkey's ancient 
culture where it has taken root and 
grown." We learned how, from 1923 
until his death 15 years later, he re- 
made the language and the laws, broke 
the hold of church on state, organized 
industry and education, brought 
women froiu "Yasmak" to franchise 
and abolished the Fez. We visited the 
bedroom in a former Sultan's palace 
in which Ataturk died, and saw the 
reverence with which it was viewed 
by the Turkish nurses in our party. 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



15 



The old part of Istanbul is sur- 
rounded by Byzantine walls repaired 
and enlarged by the Ottoman Turks 
in the mid-sixteenth century. Viewing 
the city from the sea or from any hill, 
one is impressed by the domes and 
minarets of its many mosques, some 
500 in all. One of the most beautiful 
visited was that of Sultan Ahmed, 
better known in the west as the Blue 
Mosque. Built in 1609 it is the only 
one in the world sentinelled by six 
minarets. The luminous blue air is 
made so by the blue-green mosaic of 
its enormous dome around the outside 
of which pigeons circle, while inside, 
soft Turkish carpets stretch over a 
floor "the size of four baseball dia- 
monds." As we replaced our shoes 
we heard the cries of the muezzins, 
who are chosen for the beauty and 
power of their voices, calling from 
the minarets the five Moslem hours 
of prayer. Iii response came the faith- 
ful, pausing in the courtyards to wash 
head, arms and feet. 

We travelled on the car-ferry from 
European Istanbul across the Bos- 
porus to the Asiatic suburbs in 20 
minutes and for less than ten cents. 
On board, the other passengers drank 
cofifee and tea without milk, from 
tiny glasses standing on saucers. (A 
demi-tasse of Turkish cofifee at the 
Hotel Hilton cost the equivalent of 
40 cents.) In the corner of the deck 
sat a group of older Turkish women 
wearing heavy black clothes with 
shawls covering their heads and held 
over the lower parts of their faces. 
Passing up and down Bosporus were 
the peaked-sterned, blue and orange 
fishing boats which daily weave 
through the submarine nets at the top 
of the Bosporus to fish in the choppy 
Black Sea. 

On one trip we passed Leanders 
Tower where legend says the unfor- 
tunate Hero watched her lover 
Leander drown as he swam to meet 
her. Our port of call was the Billue 
Kosk where delicious tea was brewed 
the Turkish way in a tiny teapot 
atop a samovar. Here we saw men 
smoking the long curved waterpipe 
called the Nagleh which is "fired" by 
jasmin wood and Persian tobacco, then 
cooled by being passed through rose- 
water. 



One day we drove to the small sea- 
side village of Shile some 80 miles 
along the south coast of the Black Sea. 
There, as guests of a former Egyptian 
Princess, we were welcomed in homes 
where we saw flax being spun, woven 
and embroidered. The houses were as 
clean as scrubbing could make them, 
but of course, we unbelievers had re- 
moved our shoes. When we saw a row 
of only partially covered buckets along 
the wall of the central living-room and 
learned these comprised the sanitary 
facilities of the average village home, 
the presence of many flies and the 
high rate of infantile diarrhea were 
understood. The peasant women wore 
long black Russian-type blouses over 
fitted white trousers above bare feet 
with a balaclava-like head dress of 
yellow. We saw a wedding party leave 
the Shile village, the bride weeping 
bitterly, the groom somewhat embar- 
ressed as they sat on opposite sides 
of a small bus which was taking them 
and some two dozen guests to their 
new home in another village. 

Our chauffeur doubled as waiter 
and provided a meal such as we had 
not dared indulge in during the meet- 
ings. An old Turkish proverb says 
"The spirit gets into a man with the 
food he eats" and so the Turkish 
spirit entered us as we enjoyed : 
Dolmas — green peppers stufifed with 
rice and meat cooked in olive oil, 
Gullac — a typical dessert of starch 
wafers with pounded almonds, all 
soaked in milk, white cheese, olives. 
Yogurt — which the Turks eat as 
much as we eat ice cream — Anatolian 
wine, and finally bunches of white, 
red, green and blue grapes. The strong 
Turkish coffee acted as a salutary 
digestive ! 

From the normal disorder of Istan- 
bul to Greece was a matter of about 
three air hours. We were greeted at 
Athens airport by members of the 
Greek Nurses' Association and a 
station wagon inscribed "gift from 
Kanada." We considered ourselves ex- 
tremely fortunate in that our visit co- 
incided with the "Festival of Athens." 
A great philosopher once said that the 
function of drama is to cause a purga- 
tion of the emotions through pity and 
fear. That was our experience. We 
sat on the weather-beaten tiers of the 



16 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ancient odeion of Herod Atticus and 
heard Ghick's presentation of "Orfeo 
and Euridice" in the original Italian. 
Problems of an everyday world sud- 
denly became insignificant. 

Leaving the theatre and the very 
seats on which the Greeks had sat 
for 2,000 years we were awed by the 
splendor of its natural setting. From 
under the shadow of the Parthenon, 
moonlight flooded the Acropolis and 
the hill of the Muses, and we were 
transported to the Golden Age. There 
is no doubt that the ancient Greeks 
chose ideal sites for their temples and 
theatres for each fulfills a practical 
purpose, and also satisfies one's high- 
est sense of beauty. On a spot of awe- 
inspiring grandeur was built the 
sanctuary of Aesculepias. It was here 
that our guide, an instructor at the 



Red Cross school of nursing, was in 
her element. We were guided step by 
step through the ruins of the world's 
first hospital, and followed the medical 
routine prescribed for the people of 
centuries ago, impressed again and 
again by the wisdom of the Ancients 
whose dream oracle — baths and gym- 
nasia — were directed towards pre- 
vention and cure just as surely as the 
psycho-therapy and physiotherapy of 
20th century medical science are direc- 
ted towards rehabilitation. 

Here, reflecting on the most beau- 
tiful ruins of antiquity, I would take 
leave of the age of Pericles and return 
to our 20th century task of meeting 
the health needs of Canada's people. 

Gladys J. Sharpe 

President, 

Canadian Nurses' Association 



A New Year Greeting 



May Faith be with thee thro' the year, 

That realizes God is near, 

That fills with peace and life and light, 

That guides thee in the darkest night, 

Whate'er thy circumstances be, 

May steadying faith abide with thee ! 



May love be with thee thro' the year, 
A love that shall make duty dear, 
That breathes in word and shines in deed 
That's richer, grander far than creed. 
That's quick to feel and do and see. 
May strengthening love abide with thee ! 



May hope be with thee thro' the year. 

To smooth tliy way and give thee cheer, 

To sing to thee in cloudy day, 

To pour on thee her gladdening ray. 

However drear thy lot may be. 

May heartening hope abide with thee! 



May God be with the thro' the year. 
Thy hand to hold, thy path to clear, 
To feed thee on the bread of life. 
To crown with victory in the strife, 
In this and in the world to be, 
May God himself abide with thee! 

James Ramage 



In 1956 may you have — 

Enough happiness to keep you sweet ; 
Enough trials to keep you strong ; 
Enough sorrow to keep you human ; 
Enough hope to make your heart sing ; 
Enough labor to keep you from rust ; 
Enough leisure to make you broad ; 

Enough religion to make you value the best ; 
Enough of the love of Christ to make you serve. 



Things cannot always go your own way. 
Learn to accept in silence the minor ag- 
gravations, cultivate the gift of taciturnity 
and consume your own smoke with an extra 



draught of hard work, so that those about 
you may not be annoyed with the dust and 
smoke of your complaints. 

— Sir Wii.i.iam Osler 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



17 



chromosome Deletion 

in the Rh Genotype 



Gild A G. Graves, B.N. 



IN REDWOOD CITY, California, a baby 
was born by Caesarean section. 
Newspapers over the entire North 
American continent carried news of 
her condition. Radio stations in the 
United States, Canada, and as far 
away as Lausanne, Switzerland, in- 
formed their listeners in both French 
and English that baby Denise Robert- 
son had survived. 

The story behind the press releases 
was as fascinating as the medical case 
itself. Baby Denise had been trans- 
fused, following her birth, with blood 
donated by two Canadian women of 
Indian extraction — two, of only three 
known donors, of sufficient age and 
rare blood type, who could have given 
her the precious chance of life. 

The story, of course, goes further. 

In the Rh genotype there are two 
chromosomes with six genes, two pairs 
of three. They are lettered in the fol- 
lowing manner : cde/cde. One set is 
transmitted by the mother, the other 
by the father. If any of these six genes 
is expressed by a capital letter 
CDe/cde or cDE/cde, or any number 
of possible variations, the individual 
is Rh positive. If expressed in small 
letters, with the absence of even one 
capital letter, the individual is Rh 
negative — that is, cde/cde. To estab- 
lish which of the letters are present, 
the blood cells are tested with anti- 
sera C, antisera D, antisera E, and 
antisera c, and antisera e (small d 
being unavailable.) If agglutination 
occurs with large anti-C for example, 
you would know that the serum being 
tested would have a large C on at 
least one "side" of the division or 
chromosome. Similarly, if agglutination 
occurs with anti-small c serum you 
could assess that the patient possesses 
a small c gene on the other "side" 



Miss Graves has joined the faculty 
of her Alma Mater, the General Hos- 
pital, Edmonton, Alta. 



or chromosome. The only unknown is 
the small d gene. When the patient's 
cells are negative (are not agglutin- 
ated) by anti-D, the small "d" is be- 
lieved to be present — as in the Rh 
negative cde/cde. 

So it progresses, with the D, and 
E, e antisera until the entire geno- 
type can be worked out (excepting d). 

In 1950, Dr. R. R. Race of London, 
England, discovered an extremely rare 
case of chromosomal deletion, where an 
individual was found to possess no c,C, 
and e,E, genes, and the blood geno- 
type was expressed -D-/-D- the pa- 
tient being Rh positive. 

Until 1954, only four such persons 
had been discovered in the entire 
hematological world — Dr. Race de- 
scribing one case, Drs. Waller, Sanger 
and Bobbitt, one case in 195v3, Dr. 
Phillip Levine of the Ortho Research 
Foundation, Raritien, New Jersey, 
.also describing one case. In all four 
of these isolated cases, the familial 
geneology and relative blood testing, 
drew forth no new cases. 

Then in March, 1954, a thirty-one 
year old woman of Indian descent was 
admitted to the Misericordia hospital, 
Edmonton, with a hemoglobin of 8.5 
gm. per cent on admission. Cross- 
matching by the Canadian Red Cross 
Blood Transfusion Service showed her 
to be group O, Rh positive, and yet 
none of the 22 bottles of Group O Rh 
positive blood, held at the bank, 
matched the patient's specimens. 

It was realized that here must be 
an extremely rare type of blood. Speci- 
mens were sent to Toronto, and to 
Dr. Levine who confirmed this fact. 
Rarest of medical rariti'es — her blood 
proved to be a chromosomal deletion 
-D-/-D-. 

As her hemoglobin further dropped 
to 5.8 gm. per cent, relatives were 
called for cross-matching, and one 
sister's blood was compatible in saline, 
albumin and indirect Coombs method. 



18 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



After only 250 cc. had been adminis- 
tered the transfusion had to be dis- 
continued. This could have been a 
pyrogenic reaction but could also have 
been due to the fact that in 1951-52, 
the patient had been given a total of 
eight transfusions of 500 cc. each of 
blood containing C,c, and E or e an- 
tigens to which she had developed 
antibodies. Her sister's blood also con- 
tained anti-e and probably anti-c re- 
sulting from three previous pregnancies 
and two transfusions. At the time of 
the donation, she was in the sixth 
month of another pregnancy at which 
time the antibody level was further 
increased. 

Dr. D. I. Buchanan, Provincial 
Director of the Canadian Red Cross, 
then began his quest, which continues 
after 18 months, as elusive as when 
commenced. Blood specimens were ob- 
tained from the original patient, her 
husband, and family, and samples were 
sent to Dr. Race and Dr. Levine for 
confirmation of results. Unbelievably, 
it was found that the patient had 
married a man who also possessed 
the rare deletion on one side CDe/-D-. 
This had no known precedent in med- 
ical history. 

Since, at that time, I was the nurse 
in charge of the Edmonton Indian 
Agency, Indian Health Services, and 
knew so many of the relatives of these 
people, Dr. Buchanan asked me to 
assist him in obtaining blood speci- 
mens of the family. 

Knowing these people well, and 
knowing of their close intermarriages 
(the original patient was second 
cousin to her own children) and the 
magnitude of the groups, we needed 
some guide to selectivity of blood 
specimens. 

Dr. Buchanan had been asked to 
write a paper on the original case for 
the International Convention of Hema- 
tology in Paris in September, 1954, 
and the paper was to be ready by 
June. Since it was already April, and 
the roads were quagmires of mud we 
could not waste time. 

Knowing that the entire group were 
Roman Catholics, I realized that at 
least the deaths, baptisms, and formal 
marriages had been faithfully recorded 
by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate 
order, who have been working with 



this particular group since 1845. The 
hub of this wheel was the Parish of 
St. Albert, where by rare good luck, 
we discovered the parish priest, Father 
Emile Tardif, o.m.i., to be the ideal 
partner we needed. 

For the next two months Father 
Tardif and I spent every available 
moment reading page after page of 
old church records; St. Albert, Ville- 
neuve, Riviere Qui Barre, Lac Ste. 
Anne, and even to Lesser Slave Lake. 
We sent to Quebec for information. 
We pondered over minutely small 
handwriting long faded with age, 
checking and rechecking. Two months 
later, as we eased aching fingers and 
burning eyes, we realized that we had 
traced over 1650 people, through six 
generations, back at least to the year 
1750. 

Now, as I met these people in my 
daily travels, all those who belonged 
on our "family trees," in the direct 
lines of descent, further augmented 
our information. They willingly gave a 
blood specimen. More elusive people 
were sought on our muddy expeditions 
by station wagon, panel, team, or on 
foot until we had collected over 150 
blood specimens. We found 24 people 
Avith the deletion on one or both sides 
of the genotype! 

The first paper on the mating of 
rare chromosomes was presented in 
Paris in September 1954 by Dr. 
George Miller, National Director of 
Red Cross, Toronto. The ten minutes 
alloted for this paper were doubled 
due to the extreme interest of the del- 
egates. 

A second paper was presented in 
Toronto at the Canadian Red Cross 
meeting in June, 1955, and a third 
on the successful completion of a 
pregnancy of a -D-/-D- mother and 
a complete chromosome father, at the 
joint British Canadian Medical con- 
vention in June, 1955, in Toronto. 

When it was found, at the Sequoia 
Hospital, in Red Wood City, that 
Mrs. Nadine Robertson, an obstetrical 
patient, had a missing E-e gene, an 
appeal was made to Dr. Levine for 
assistance in locating blood for the 
expected complete replacement of 
blood that the baby would require. 
Knowing of our work, he suggested 
an immediate contact through the Red 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



19 



Cross. The California hospital author- 
ities notified the National Office of the 
Canadian Red Cross in Toronto, and 
California joined Alberta in an inter- 
national effort to save the life of a yet 
unborn child. 

Dr. Buchanan knew he had three 
donors whose blood would match, 
being universal donor type O, Rh 
positive as was Mrs. Robertson. Since 
one donor had already given 1500 cc. 
of blood in February for his sister's 
delivery, it was decided to take the 
two sisters' blood — both group O, 
Rh positive -D-/-D-. Since they pos- 
sessed no cC/eE, there could be no 
reaction to Mrs. Robertson's anti- 
bodies that she had developed from the 
pregnancy. She possessed no small e, 
that her husband had transmitted to 
their unborn child. 

Thirty-five miles northwest of Ed- 
monton to the Michel Band, Dr. 
Buchanan and I went by station 
wagon and, completing the trip by 
horse and wagon, we obtained the 
first donation. The next day Dr. Buch- 
anan drove to Marlborough, 140 miles 
west of Edmonton for the second 
donation. 

Tests completed ; the blood cleared 
through customs ; special filters pro- 
vided to prevent the bottles bursting 
at high altitudes ; the blood was taken 
by an R.C.A.F. jet to California. On 
arrival the blood was spun down a 
centrifuge to remove all the plasma 
(the antibodies present from the don- 
or's transfusions and pregnancies are 
in the plasma) and the packed cells 
were then washed in saline (anti- 
bodies also coat the outside of the 
cells). The blood was then recon- 
stituted in group AB antibody free 
plasma. 

The replacements were carried out 
through the baby's umbilical vein. After 
the cut-down incisions of the ankles 
had healed, baby Denise joined her 
ten-year old sister Susan at home with 
her mother and father. xA.nd no happier 
than they were two Canadian women, 



of Indian ancestry, who wanted no 
thanks or praise. They were truly 
happy that they had saved the life 
of a baby by their own generosity. 

Now the publicity has died, and 
one can barely recall the event. Yet 
the work will continue. Partial dele- 
tions are still found as we explore the 
fringes of our two groups and there 
are many questions still awaiting 
answers. Why do their cells agglutin- 
ate in saline with blocking anti-D? 
Why did the c or C and e or E drop 
off in the first instance? Is it due 
to some weird transmutation or freak 
of nature, or do these people possess 
some other factor — an inhibitor or 
destroyer, that Father Tardif and I 
like to call our "X" factor for want 
of a better term? What is filling in the 
void created by the absence of four out 
of the six genes? Is the remaining -D— 
chromosome a more complex factor 
than is known or might they have a 
chromosal type for which a testing 
antisera is, as yet undiscovered? 

My main query is unanswered. Why 
did our molher with -D-/-D- geno- 
type deliver a baby of the identical 
-D-/-D- genotype when the father 
was of genotype CDe/cDE? If he 
transmitted one or other of the chrom- 
osomes CDe or cDE what happened 
to the c, C or e, E in the baby's geno- 
type? Of course, a simple explanation 
is that he was not the father, but men 
of -D- type are rare and the mating 
with a deletion should not have caused 
the increased antibody titre up to 
some six weeks before full term, the 
extremely dark amniotic fluid, or the 
obvious distress of the fetus in utero 
as ascertained by the extremely rapid 
and weak fetal heart tones. Could these 
symptoms possibly have been caused 
by the breaking down or extrusion 
of the C, c or e,E of the father's genes ? 

These questions and countless others 
may never be answered. Still the re- 
search continues as we plow through 
the mud or snow in our own quest for 
information. 



In spite of their high efficiency mechanical 
respirators are sometimes unable to deliver 
as much oxygen as needed to patients par- 
alyzed by bulbar poliomyelitis. Dr. Gunnar 
Miorner and collaborators in Malmo, 



Sweden, have found that such patients can 
be helped by artifically lowering their body 
temperature. The procedure decreases the 
amount of oxygen they require. 

— Communications Associates Inc. 



20 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



['Evolution de la Cardiologie 

et ses Problemes 



Paul David. :\I.D. 



Les Grandes Epoques 
DE LA Cardiologie 

I — Epoquc anatomique et physio- 
logiqite: Les epoques de la cardiologie 
sont celles de la medecine en general. 
Ce qui nous parait simple aujourd'hui 
a exige des siecles de minutieuses ob- 
servations. Petit a petit s'edifia la 
comprehension anatomique du coeur, 
muscle puissant dans lequel sont pla- 
cees quatre cavites. ( Galien 138-201 
A.D., Ibn an-Nafis 1210-1288). Une 
cloison separe le coeur gauche du 
coeur droit mais oreillette et ventricule 
communiquent par des orifices sur 
lesqueLs sont fixees des valvules tri- 
cuspidienne et mitrale qui alternative- 
ment les ouvrent et les ferment. Le 
ventricule droit recjoit le sang des 
veines caves et il le chasse dans I'artere 
pulmonaire, le ventricule gauche le 
sang des veines pulmonaires qu'il 
ejecte dans I'aorte. A I'origine de ces 
arteres, sont placees des valvules en 
nid de pigeons dites pulmonaire et 
aortique. On identifia les diverses 
structures du coeur dont la masse 
musculaire. myocarde, est enveloppee 
au dedans par I'endocarde et au dehors 
par le pericarde. Le microscope permit 
une etude detaillee de ces structures a 
leur etat sain et pathologique. (Van 
Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723). 

Beaucoup plus tard et c'est la pe- 
riode physiologique, on identifia le 
jeu de la circulation sanguine. Sang 
veineux arrivant au coeur droit et 
transforme par oxygenation en sang ar- 
teriel dans le poumon pour etre chasse 
par le coeur gauche dans la grande 
circulation (Harvey 1578-1657). La 
force de propulsion du ventricule 
gauche fut mesuree (Hales 1677-1761). 
Les lois de la contraction cardiaque 
furent decrites (Starling 1866-1927). 



Docteur David est directeur de I'lns- 
titut de Cardiologie de I'Hopital Mai- 
sonneuve de Montreal. 



Si la physiologic du coeur normal est 
maintenant bien connue, la physio- 
pa thologie du coeur malade presente 
encore aujourd'hui bon nombre de 
mysteres. 

II — Epoque clinique: La decou- 
verte du stethoscope (Laennec 1781- 
1826) ouvre cette epoque extreme- 
ment riche et qui fut I'epoque glorieuse 
de la medecine frangaise en particulier. 
Mais tons les pays de I'Europe civi- 
lisee ont edifie cette medecine d'abord 
strictement clinique, c'est-a-dire, repo- 
sant sur des symptomes et des signes 
visibles, palpables ou audibles. Puis 
la clinique s'est enrichie d'appareils 
rendus accessibles par les progres de la 
physique. Les rayons X ( Roentgen 
1845-1922) et 1 'electrocardiographic 
(Einthoven 1860-1927) devinrent les 
instruments toujours indispensables de 
la cardiologie moderne. 

Les bruits et les soufiles anormaux 
furent decrits et interpretes a la lu- 
miere des observations anatomiques. 
On identifia le role de la syphilis, 
maladie courante a Tepoque, sur I'aorte 
et les valvules sigmoides aortiques. 
Les rapports entre le rhumatisme ar- 
ticulaire aigu et les lesions valvulaires 
furent codifies dans les lois celebres 
de Bouillaud (1796-1881). Les troubles 
du rythme ont ete classifies. Le symp- 
tome angineux fut decrit (Heberdeen 
1710-1801) et ses rapports avec I'arbre 
coronarien etablis. L'occlusion de ces 
vaisseaux et I'infarctus du myocarde 
rentrerent definitivement dans le cha- 
pitre des cardiopathies (Herrick 
1912). L'hypertension et ses conse- 
quences vasculaires et cardiaques sont 
depuis deja longtemps fixees. Signa- 
lons le travail de pionnier du docteur 
Maude Abbott de Montreal dans le 
domaine des maladies congenitales 
(1869-1940). 

En meme temps que s'edifia la car- 
diologie clinique on a etabli une thera- 
peutique rationnelle dont plusieurs 
medicaments sont encore d'usage 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



21 



courant tels la digitale (Withering 
1785, Nativelle 1872), la quinidine 
(Wenkebach et Frey 1918), les sali- 
cylates. 

Ill — Epoque Chirurgicale: Nous 
vivons actuellement cette epoque qui 
debuta vers les 1945 a Baltimore 
lorsque Blalock et Taussig imaginerent 
une technique chirurgicale pour ame- 
liorer la condition des bebes et enfants 
bleus. Leurs succes precipiterent des 
recherches qui s'etendent aujourd'hui 
a la correction chirurgicale de toutes 
les maladies congenitales et acquises. 
II faut souligner que tous ces exploits 
chirurgicaux, dont la presse et les 
revues a grand tirage sont remplies, 
ont ete rendus possibles par I'avance- 
ment des sciences connexes a la 
chirurgie, en particulier I'anesthesie, 
Citons quelques-uns seulement des 
pionniers dont les noms resteront pro- 
bablement dans les annales des pro- 
gres de la chirurgie mondiale ou 
locale — Blalock, Baltimore; Gros, 
Boston ; Crawford, Stockholm ; Bailey, 
Glover, O'Neil, Philadelphie ; Murray, 
Toronto ; Brock, Londres ; Mercier- 
Fauteux, Gagnon, Vineberg, Montreal. 

II est reconfortant de vivre cette 
periode oil les chirurgiens du monde 
entier rivalisent d'audace et d'ingenio- 
site pour le seul interet des malades 
du coeur et des vaisseaux. II est in- 
quietant de suivre cette course non 
moins spectaculaire du developpement 
atomique a laquelle participent les 
physiciens de genie de tous les pays, 
course qui prepare possiblement la 
destruction d'une partie de I'humanite. 

Nous dirons plus loin quelle attitude 
me semble saine et raisonnable de la 
part du medecin et de I'infirmiere 
devant les progres ahurissants et reels 
de la chirurgie. Nous parlerons aussi 
des problemes sociaux et economiques 
qui vont de pair avec cette thera- 
peutique nouvelle. 

Les Maladies du Coeur aux 

DiFFERENTES EtAPES DE LA ViE 

Les premieres annees: Pour des fins 
pratiques, cette premiere etape s'eten- 
dra de la naissance a cinq ans. Les 
cardiopathies observees sont essen- 
tiellement congenitales. Leur incidence 
dans notre milieu est certainement 



superieure a ce que laisse soup^onner 
I'experience hospitaliere courante. 
Beaucoup de lesions congenitales sont 
decouvertes apres la cinquieme annee 
faute d'examens plus precis avant. A 
ITnstitut, nous avons confie au 
Docteur Ghislaine Gilbert ce chapitre 
de la cardiopathie. La congenitalite 
cardiaque pose au cardiologue deux 
problemes : celui du diagnostic et celui 
du traitement, I'un et I'autre etant 
intimement associes. 

II est important d'avoir une claire 
vision et une saine comprehension de 
nos pensees lorsqu'un medecin nous 
refere ou des parents nous amenent 
un enfant porteur d'une cardiopathie 
congenitale. Avant I'ere de la chirur- 
gie, le diagnostic etait un acte de gym- 
nastique intellectuelle qui n'aboutissait 
a aucune sanction therapeutique. On 
pouvait sans aucune importance pour 
I'enfant ni les parents commettre toutes 
les erreurs possibles de diagnostic. 
Nous ne pouvions rien faire d'autre 
que d'assister au cours inexorable de 
la maladie. Or, nous savons que la 
survie d'un enfant porteur d'une lesion 
quelconque congenitale depasse rare- 
ment la vingtieme annee. Nous savons 
qu'en tres grande majorite ces enfants 
ont un retard remarquable de crois- 
sance. Nous savons que trois fois sur 
cinq aujourd'hui une cure chirurgicale 
peut guerir ou ameliorer ces enfants. 
Pour nous, cardiologues, convaincus 
de ces faits, le choix est fait. Nous 
proposons une operation chaque fois 
que la chose est possible c'est-a-dire 
chaque fois que la lesion dont est por- 
teur I'enfant est susceptible d'etre 
guerie ou amelioree par un acte chirur- 
gical. Mais, et sur ce mais, j'insiste, 
il faut operer exclusivement sur des 
diagnostics certains. Les types de 
lesions congenitales du coeur sont 
nombreux et les techniques chirurgi- 
cales n'en corrigent actuellement qu'un 
certain nombre. Si dans le langage 
courant on entend dire qu'un enfant 
a un coeur congenital cela ne veut pas 
dire que tous les enfants qui ont un 
coeur congenital ont tous la meme 
maladie c'est-a-dire la meme lesion. 
Afin d'apporter plus de lumiere sur ce 
point mal compris du public et de bon 
nombre de medecins, permettez-moi 
d'inserer une classification des princi- 
pales cardiopathies, classification que 



22 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



nous avons, en collaboration avec le 
Docteur Gilbert, deja publiee dans 
rUnion Medicale. 

Classification des cardiopathies con- 
genitales cvanogenes et acyanogenes 
d'apres le Dr. H. B. Taussig: 

Maladies cyanogenes 
(shunt vci>wartcr{el) 

A — Avcc debit pulmonairc diminnc : 

1. Tetralogie de Fallot 

2. Trilogie de Fallot 

3. Pentalogie de Fallot 

4. Atresie triscuspidienne 

5. Transposition vasculaire avec 
stenose pulmonaire 

6. Tronc arteriel commun avec 
circulation bronchique 

7. Ventricule unique avec stenose 
pulmonaire 

8. Maladie d'Ebstein avec com- 
munication interauriculaire 

9. Hypertension pulmonaire con- 
genitale (PPH) avec persis- 
tance du foramen ovale. 



pul- 



avec 
pul- 



B — Avec debit pulmonaire augment c: 

1. Complexe d'Eisenmenger 

2. Anevrisme arterioveineux 
monaire 

3. Syndrome Taussig-Bing 

4. Transposition vasculaire 
S.P. 

5. Tronc arteriel commun 
implantation directe des 
monaires sur le tronc arteriel 

6. Ventricule unique sans S.P. 

Maladies acyanogenes 

A — Ai'ec shunt arterioveineux: 

1. Communication inter-ventricu- 
laire 

2. Communication inter - auricu- 
laire 

3. Persistance de I'ostium primuni 

4. Persistance de I'orifice auri- 
culo-ventriculaire commun (A. 
V. Cummunis) 

5. Syndrome de Lutembacher 

6. Anomalies du retour veineux 

7. Persistance du canal arteriel 

8. Communication aortopulmo- 
naire (aortic septal defect) 

9. Anevrisme du sinus de Val- 
salva 

10. Anevrisme arterioveineux sys- 
temique. 



B — Sans shunt: 

1. Stenose pulmonaire isolee 

2. Stenose aortique et subaortique 

3. Coarctation de I'aorte 

4. Arc aortique double (vascular 
ring) 

5. Stenose mitrale. 

C — Autres malfonnations : 

1. Anomalies des arteres coro- 
nariennes 

2. Fibroelastose 

3. Maladie de Fiedler 

4. Maladie de Van Gierke 

5. Tumeur auriculaire 

6. Bloc auriculo-ventriculaire 

7. Methemoglobinemie congenitale 

8. Kyste et tumeur du pericarde. 

En conclusion, seules les lesions 
operables peuvent evidemment etre 
operees avec succes. Dans nul autre 
chapitre de la cardiologie doit-on etre 
plus precis que dans celui-ci et c'est 
pourquoi tons les raffineinents de la 
cardiologie moderne sont employes. 
Un certain nombre de cardiopathies 
congenitales sont d'un diagnostic facile 
aux seuls examens de routine cardio- 
logique, c'est-a-dire, clinique, radio- 
logique et electrocardiographique tels 
la coarctation de I'aorte et le canal 
arteriel ; d'autres resistent a ccs exa- 
ments courants et pour eux furent 
iniaginees des techniques plus recentes 
de diagnostic, le cathctcrisme des 
cavites cardiaques et de I'artere pul- 
monaire et V angiocardiographie . Resu- 
mons ces techniques qui pour un 
certain nombre d'entre vous sont pen 
ou mal connues. 

CATHETERISI\rE DU COEUR 

Par une veine du pli du coude, 
sous anasthesie locale, est introduit un 
catheter special tres solide quoique 
flexible et opaciue aux Rayons X. II 
est achemine vers I'oreillette droite, 
passe la tricuspide dans le ventricule 
droit et franchit les sigmoides pulmo- 
naires vers le tronc commun et les 
branches de I'artere pulmonaire. L'ope- 
rateur et le radiologue suivent sous 
ecran fluoroscopique le trajet du ca- 
theter qui pent, avec certains types 
de lesions, emprunter des chemins 
anormaux dans I'oreillette gauche par 
une communication interauriculaire 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



23 



dans le ventricule gauche par une com- 
munication interventriculaire. Mais en 
dehors de suivre le trajet de la sonde, 
cet examen a deux buts precis : 

1 — La mesure des pressions dans 
les diverses cavites, mesures qui ren- 
seignent sur les obstacles valvulaires 
ou infundibulaires possibles ou sur des 
apports supplementaires de sang par des 
communications anormales. 

2 — Le prelevement d'echantillons 
sanguins aux differentes etapes. Ces 
echantillons sont preleves dans des 
eprouvettes sans convert de parafine et 
leur contenu en O est examine au labo- 
ratoire au Van Slyke ou par lecture 
directe a I'oxymetre. Des variations 
significatives du taux d'oxygeneration 
dans les diverses cavites examinees sont 
les elements important s pour le dia- 
gnostic de presence ou absence d'un 
shunt. 

Angiocardiographie 

Examen qui consiste a injecter rapi- 
dement par voie veineuse une subs- 
tance radiopaque et a sectionner le 
passage de cette substance par des 
prises rapides de cliches sous une ou 
deux incidences. Le but de cet examen 
est de suivre dans le coeur le temps 
et rintensite de I'opacification des dif- 
ferentes cavites, voies d'apport et 
voies de debit. Nous nous servons d'un 
appareil Suedois, un Schoenander, qui 
permet d'impressioner des films sous 
deux incidences simultanement a la 
Vitesse que nous fixons avant I'examen 
a 2, 4 ou 6 films a la seconde. La 
substance de contraste utilisee chez 



nous est de I'urokon a 70 pour cent. 
Nous tirons 60 films, 30 sous chaque 
incidence. 

Xous sommes loin d'un diagnostic 
stethoscopique ! II n'est pas du cadre 
de ce travail de discuter les limites 
de ces examens qui n'eclairent pas 
automatiquement tons les mysteres. 
J'aimerais souligner la depense consi- 
derable que supposent ces examens et 
le personnel enorme mis en activite. 
Le catheter isme demande une equipe 
qui, a rinstitut, comprend deux mede- 
cins, un radiologiste, une technicienne 
en radiologic, une technicienne de labo- 
ratoire. une garde-malade et un physi- 
cien. Chaque examen prend entre deux 
et trois heures. L'analyse des gaz d'un 
seul examen demande un minimum de 
six heures de travail. Que dire du 
temps que doit prendre le radiologue 
pour examiner dans ses plus petits 
details soixante films ! II faut egale- 
mcnt avouer que ces examens pre- 
sentent un risque. Les accidents sont 
rares mais possibles, fait que nous 
revelons chaque fois aux parents. Nous 
sommes cependant moralement bien 
convaincus qu'il est infiniment moins 
grave de faire I'un ou I'autre ou les 
deux examens que d'operer sur un 
diagnostic d'a peu pres. Presque tout 
enfant porteur d'une lesion congenitale 
dont le thorax est ouvert et chez qui 
le chirurgien ne fait rien meurt des 
suites de cette operation inutile. De- 
puis I'ouverture de I'lnstitut. nous 
avons fait 85 catheterismes avec un 
deces dans les vingt-quatre heures et 
64 angiocardiographies sans incident 
mortel. 



(La suite au prochain nuniero) 



Nursing Sisters' Association 

The Winnipeg Unit had an active and 
interesting year in 1955. The annual dinner 
meeting was held in the Business and 
Professional Women's Club. Mrs. E. A. 
Rabson, national president, stressed the aims 
of the association in her address. These 
were : to stimulate friendship among mem- 
bers ; to work for national unity and in- 
ternational peace ; to give aid and comfort 
to nurses in need. 

Three general meetings were held during 



the year. A raffle was conducted in con- 
junction with the annual spring tea, the 
proceeds being used for welfare work. The 
Remembrance Day tea was held in Novem- 
ber. Mrs. F. Sharp, president, and Miss E. 
Hudson represented the Unit at the Memo- 
rial Day service when Mrs. Sharp placed 
a wreath on the Cenotaph. Plans are being 
made to welcome and entertain the nursing 
sisters who attend the biennial convention 
in June this year. 



24 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



A Women's Auxiliary in Action 



Marie C. Croll 



THE women's auxiliary of Victoria 
Hospital, London, Ont., was or- 
ganized in April, 1924, when 12 mem- 
bers, who had been specified and 
appointed by the Hospital Trust, met 
and elected their officers. Twenty-five 
associate members joined the Auxil- 
iary soon afterwards. Now the mem- 
bership is about 350. It fluctuates as 
new members join and old members 
neglect to renew their membership fees 
which are only 50 cents. 

The object of the Auxiliary is "To 
assist in every way possible the Hos- 
pital Trust, the Superintendent, and 
the Superintendent of Nurses in mat- 
ters pertaining to Hospital patients, 
nurses or equipment." (Quoted from 
Constitution) It is affiliated with the 
following : 

1. Local Council of Women 

2. Good Will Industries 

3. Women's Hospital Auxiliary of 
Ontario 

4. National Hospital Association 

The Board consists of 20 members, 
10 elected each year for a two-year 
term. 

Tag Day, an annual affair, is held 
on the Saturday nearest Hospital Day, 
May 12th. This is the only money 
raising effort for the Auxiliary as a 
whole and the only time in the year 
when they go to the public for funds. 
One hundred fifty members and 260 
school children assisted with Tag Day 
last year, when $1,500 was raised. 

The Auxiliary is composed of 12 
committees or groups, each doing its 
specific work. Each member is urged 
to assist with the work of the Aux- 
iliary by belonging to one of these com- 
mittees. Some of these groups raise 
money to carry on their work, while 
others are purely service groups. The 
smallest group has 12 members, while 
the largest has over 60 members. 

Each February, a Membership Tea 
is held at the nurses' residence when 



Mrs. Croll is president of the 
Women's Auxiliary of Victoria Hos- 
pital, London, Ontario. 



new members are welcomed, and old 
members may come and renew friend- 
ships as well as their membership. 
Each member then joins the group or 
groups of her choice, to carry on the 
work in which she is most interested. 

Committees 

1. The Membership Committee is in 
charge of the Membership Tea and all 
social affairs as well as the member- 
ships. 

2. The Literary Committee operates 
a lending library of books and maga- 
zines for the use of the hospital 
patients. The members of this com- 
mittee take turns with a cart which 
is taken twice weekly around to the 
patients in the wards, loaded with 
magazines and books donated by mem- 
bers and their friends. They visit with 
the patients on their rounds. About 30 
members are on this committee. 

3. Entertainment and Cheer Com- 
mittee provides special treats for ward 
patients at Easter, Thanksgiving and 
Christmas. Fruit, candy and cigarettes 
are arranged on the patients' trays as 
well as special gifts at Christmas, some 
of which are articles made by the 
members, such as bed-jackets. Bridge 
parties and rummage sales are their 
main sources of revenue. This group 
furnished a three-bed room in the 
new wing at a cost of $1,000 the 
money being raised in addition to the 
sum reqtiired for their regular work. 
They have 25 members. 

4. National Council of Jewish 
Women visit their own patients and 
entertain relatives and friends of out- 
of-town patients. Their money is 
raised through voluntary subscription. 
They furnished a two-bed room in the 
new wing at a cost of $750. 

5. Flozcer Committee places flowers 
in the wards, at the hospital entrance, 
Cancer Clinic, x-ray department and 
nurses' residence weekly. Money for 
this work is raised by private dona- 
tions (sometimes talent money) within 
the group. They have about 30. 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



25. 



6. Nurses - in - Training Committee 
provides entertainment for student 
nurses. Parties are given in the fall 
and at Christmas. A reception and tea 
on graduation day make this a special 
occasion for the nurses' relatives and 
friends. Sick nurses are remembered 
with cards and magazines. Four com- 
munity concert tickets are purchased 
for the use of the nurses and given 
out at the discretion of the director 
of nursing. As a special project this 
group is gradually furnishing a roof 
garden on the nurses' residence. There 
are about 30 members. The work of 
this group is much appreciated by the 
director of nurses who would like the 
Auxiliary to extend its work for the 
nurses. 

7. Motors Group, which consists of 
only 12 members, meets regularly for 
social affairs and raises its money 
among the members. Transportation 
for student nurses is provided at 
graduation and on other special oc- 
casions. Theatre and concert tickets 
are provided by this group also. 

8. Prenatal Committee, one of the 
largest groups with a membership of 
about 40, assists in the obstetrical 
wards and operates a gift shop in the 
hospital. Their very smart and modern 
new shop in the main corridor of the 
hospital was opened last June. It is 
operated from 2-4 and 7-9 daily by the 
members of the group, who also make 
the knitted and hand-sewn baby gar- 
ments which are for sale, as well as 
toys etc. Two Isolettes were donated 
by the group in 1954 at a cost of $825. 
Two mobile sitz baths at a total cost 
of $465 were given in 1955, as well 
as the ofifice furnishings for the nurse 
in charge of the obstetrical ward, at 
a cost of nearly $600. 

9. Visiting and Service Comm-ittee 
stands ready to give personal service 
to patients who may require it. This 
group has offered assistance in the 
psychiatric ward when an occupational 
therapist is available. A dessert bridge 
in April provided them with funds for 
material and equipment. They have 
about 20 members — nearly all young 
doctor's wives. 

10. The Educational Committee 
awards a scholarship of $350 each year 
for graduate work at the University 
of Western Ontario School of Nursing 



to the new graduate who stands high- 
est in her class. Several tickets for 
London Little Theatre are also pro- 
vided for the student nurses. Money 
for these projects is raised through 
an annual Garden Tea in June. Last 
year the membership of about 60 
raised $425. 

11. The Cancer Committee serves 
coffee and cookies three mornings each 
week to the patients in the Cancer 
Clinic — there are as many as 30-40 
patients each time. All equipment for 
making and serving the coffee, as well 
as the coffee, is supplied by the com- 
mittee. Tea was served at the formal 
opening of the Cancer Clinic (Fall, 
1954), by the group. Magazines, flow- 
ers and newspapers are also supplied. 
A large tea is held in May to assist 
the membership of 30-35 in raising 
the funds required for these projects. 

12. The Coffee Shop, that is owned 
and operated by the Auxiliary, is our 
chief source of revenue. It is managed 
with all paid help under the supervision 
of a committee consisting of the past 
presidents. In June 1954, the Coffee 
Shop was opened in new quarters 
in the main corridor of the new wing 
of the hospital. It was completely 
furnished by the Auxiliary at a cost 
of over $18,000. It is very bright and 
modern and provides a wonderful 
service to the hospital patients and 
staff. 

In addition to the contributions of 
the various committees, the Auxiliary 
has taken care of the following : 

A $350 scholarship to University of 
Western Ontario School of Nursing. 

Christmas trees provided for the hos- 
pital entrance, nurses' residence and 
War Memorial Hospital. 

Furniture for the waiting room in the 
new x-ray department, cost $950. 

Curtains for admitting room, cost $250. 

Tea and reception following opening 
of the new wing for 400-500 guests. 

"Pourquoi diable," demande ie medecin a 
son confrere, "demandez-vous toujours a vos 
malades la composition exacte de leurs re- 
pas?" "Parce que cela m'aide a fixer le 

montant de mes honoraires." 
* * * 

Un homme, toujours satisfait de lui-meme 
Test peu souvent des autres ; rarement on 
Test de lui. 



26 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



A Nurse's Private Devotions 

Beatrice A. MacLean 



"We are either instruments or 
agents of God." This arresting thought 
made me pause and consider my rela- 
tionship to God. An instrument may 
serve a very useful purpose but it lacks 
feeling or response either for what is 
happening to it, or how its use may 
be affecting others. An agent is con- 
stantly aware of his function. He is able 
to enjoy the privilege of responding to 
the call to be an ambassador and of 
sharing responsibility. To qualify as a 
good agent, one must really believe 
in one's product, know it well — be 
sold on it. 

I began to wonder about my own 
status. Was I an instrument or an 
agent of God? Very quickly I decided 
— I was an agent. Then I began to 
appraise myself. What kind of an agent 
was I ? How effective was I ? Was I 
sold on my product 100 per cent all 
of the time or just when I was with 
a group of enthusiastic people who 
shared my beliefs? How vital and 
important would my product be to me 
in the face of opposition ? What would 
I do when others said, "Oh yes, that 
can be used here, here and here, but 
in this practical situation, forget it — 
it just won't work." There is no doubt 
that I would prefer to be a good 
agent. Wishing would not make me 
one. What must I do? 

A good agent must know his pro- 
duct well. I must get to know God 
better. I knew much about Him. I 
knew many who testified to the fact 
that He had made a great success (in 
His terms) out of each life fully com- 
mitted to Him. I had increased my 
knowledge about God through the 
Bible, and by observing His creation 
all around me. Still I really did not 
know Him. He was not a living God 
to me. I thought of Him as a rather 
stodgy, old, far-away Spirit. This con- 
ditioned my prayers into becoming 
burdensome duties — a matter of re- 



Miss MacLean is associated with Five 
Oaks Christian Workers' Center, Paris, 
Ontario. 



citing petitions for things I could have 
accomplished for myself had I tried 
hard enough. I prayed only when I 
happened to have spare time, was in 
the mood or thought of it. I looked 
upon prayer as an unimportant duty 
with no expectation of results — al- 
together a pretty static affair. Was it 
any wonder that I had little assurance 
about private devotions? How could 
I put into words for someone else a 
faith which was not a living, dynamic 
one for me personally? 

The late Professor Einstein once 
wrote that the problems of the world 
will only be solved when we have 
dealt with the problems of the human 
heart. He was right. All other prob- 
lems are symptomatic of personal 
problems. We need to know God be- 
cause we find the world has become 
too complex for us to handle it ade- 
quately alone. We are not self-suffi- 
cient. For a long time we have been 
content to busy ourselves with every- 
thing but the development of our 
spiritual nature. A great many of us 
are content to concentrate on building 
generations of physically healthy 
giants who are babes in spiritual de- 
velopment. The basic solution to our 
spiritual growth is to be found in our 
own private devotions. I would like 
to share some of the discoveries I have 
made in enriching and vitalizing my 
own devotions, 

I began by reading so that I might 
profit by the experience of others. I 
wanted to see how they had handled 
this question. Some books I read 
simply to broaden my view and un- 
derstanding of the world in which I 
lived. I sought to improve the quality 
of my prayers through this. Another 
great aid to me was attending retreats. 
Here I found splendid opportunity to 
receive spiritual instruction from those 
long experienced in the field. I shared 
in the discussion, studied the Bible, 
read devotional helps, and had a period 
of quiet time to meditate. In addition, 
I prayed. I was more convinced than 
ever that one could only learn by 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



2T 



doing. If one is to learn to pray, one 
must practise praying. 

Purpose 

What was my purpose in having 
private devotions? I concluded that it 
was that I might know God and His 
nature, in order to have fellowship 
with Him as a friend. We do not make 
friends with the idea of using them 
to further our own purposes. No more 
should we approach God in this 
fashion. Primarily we want to be 
friends with Him so that we may 
enjoy His fellowship. As we grow in 
our knowledge of Him, we come to 
love Him more and more. We find 
that He has a purpose for each one 
of our lives. 

Finding Time 

I had to be willing to make time. 
I could always do this for anything 
I deemed really important. Rare was 
the occasion when I did not take time 
thrice daily for the meals to nourish 
my physical body. Was not nourish- 
ment of my spiritual nature equally 
important ? Was I more interested in 
making a living than in making a 
life? If I was to know God, I had to 
consciously take time out to commune 
with Him. 

When should I take time ? This could 
not depend on just whether or not I 
was in the mood. Our God is a jealous 
God and makes imperious demands 
upon us. He insists on being put first 
in all things. What would happen to 
our clubs if we only attended meetings 
when we felt like it ? Or to the quality 
of our nursing if we only attended 
lectures when we were in the mood? 
We must be equally regular in our 
private devotions. 

We must pray daily — not because 
we are being good but because we need 
the friendship of God daily that we 
may live at our best. I remember a 
friend saying "It is when I'm wanting 
most to do the will of God that I feel 
temptation closest. In fact, the devil 
is sitting right there on my shoulder 
working overtime to lead me into 
temptation. The devil is not nearly so 
concerned over those who are indif- 
ferent to Christ's claims as he is over 



those who are seeking to do the will 
of their Father and so be rid of his 
evil influence." This is one reason why 
we need to pray daily for God's help. 

Hour of the Day 

I found that my best time for devo- 
tions was when I was most alert. We 
always want to be at our best for 
company, when applying for a job, 
or when meeting someone we feel to 
be important. The same principle ap- 
plies to our periods of private worship. 
The time set aside has varied. Ideally, 
I found that when I took time out for 
private devotions before breakfast, I 
was better equipped for whatever the 
day might bring. 

Place 

I like to have a definite and quiet 
spot. It helps me to concentrate more 
quickly. Perhaps when my prayer life 
has developed more richly this will 
seem less important to me. 

Attitude 

When I expected little or nothing 
to happen during this period, usually 
little or nothing did. I discovered that 
if God was to become real to me, I had 
to be utterly sincere in my seeking. 
I shall always be grateful to the minis- 
ter who illuminated the statement 
"Thou shalt not take the Lord's name 
in vain." Until very recently I had 
thought that this statement applied 
only to swearing. Now it has taken 
on a much richer meaning for me. 
If I am not to take His name in vain, 
I must not pray half-heartedly, not 
really meaning what I say. If I am 
sincere, my devotion will be a rich 
time of fellowship. 

My chief obstacle in finding real 
communion with God lay in the verse 
of scripture to be found in St. Matthew 
5:23, "So if you are offering your 
gift at the altar and there remember 
that your brother has something 
against you, leave your gift there be- 
fore the altar and go ; first, be recon- 
ciled to your brother." An unforgiving 
heart and unwillingness to put every 
area of life in God's hands can con- 
stitute a complete block to efifective 



28 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



prayer. We must implicitly believe in 
His great power, that in and through 
Him all things are possible. 

Our approach to God should be un- 
hurried and thoughtful. We must come 
before Him purposing to be obedient 
to the guidance He gives. This God 
of ours is not a wishy-washy Spirit. 
He demands complete obedience. We 
must come into His presence humbly 
— - remembering Who He is. He is 
a God whose wisdom and love is so 
vast that it is beyond the comprehen- 
sion of our finite minds. Our minds 
must be free of distractions with our 
attention centred completely on Him. 
I have found the Lord's prayer par- 
ticularly helpful as a guide to what 
should be included in prayer. For a 
moment, let us think of it phrase by 
phrase. We will by no means exhaust 
its implications but merely touch on 
them. 

Our Father — What does this per- 
sonal pronoun mean? Simply that no 
one of us can think of ourselves as being 
favorites with God. He is impartial to- 
wards all of His children. He is con- 
cerned about the welfare of each 
regardless of what part of town, or in 
which part of the globe they live. Father 
implies that we are all His children, 
therefore we are brothers whatever our 
color or nationality. He amply supplies 
our every need. He disciplines us for 
our own good because He loves us. He 
rightly expects our love and devotion 
in return, for He is very much alive. 

JJ'hich art in Heaven — Heaven is 
not a ])lace for God is everywhere. 
Heaven is a relationship - — the right 
relationsliip between God and man. 
Therefore He is there with me in my 
prayers if I fulfill my duties towards 
Him. 

Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be done 
on earth as it is in Heaven — These 
phrases are coupled together because one 
can be accomplished only as the other 
is fulfilled. 

Give us this day our daily bread — 
This reminds me that we are to live 
one day at a time. 

And forgive us our trespasses as tcr 
forgive others — Note the condition. 
Think of the great number of times in 
our lives when we have disappointed 
God, Yet He is always ready to forgive. 
He is so gracious — we can be so 



grudging with our forgiveness towards 
others. 

It has been said that prayer should 
include adoration, thanksgiving, con- 
fession, petition and intercession. 

Adoration for what He is. We adore 
Him because He first sought us and by 
His Spirit prompted us to seek Him. 

Thanksgiving — How ungrateful we 
are to accept His countless blessings 
which have surrounded us from birth, 
and yet neglect to take time to so much 
as murmur a word of thanks to Him. 

Confession — How the light of His 
presence brings to mind so many sins 
we would not otherwise see ! 

Petition — Recently a retreat leader 
described this portion of prayer as 
presenting God with a shopping list and 
expecting Him to fill it "but quick." 
Is God to be merely our errand boy? 
Do we seriously consider to Whom we 
are speaking and what we are asking? 
Is it a purely selfish request? Is it a 
wise request? Should we just leave it to 
His wisdom to decide what will be best 
for our ultimate and greatest good? 

Intercession — With the knowledge 
that God alone can adequately supply 
every need of His children, we are eager 
to bring our friends and our enemies 
into His presence. I can recall including 
in this part of my prayer only those 
who were my friends or for whom I 
had a special concern. Suddenly one day 
two verses of Scripture flashed into 
my mind. "Love your enemies" and "If 
you love them that love you, what do 
ye more than the others ? Do not even 
the publicans so?" Right then I started 
to think of the person I disliked most 
and sincerely asked God to bless her 
richly and fill her every need. 
During my prayer time I like to 
read a portion of the Bible. I first ask 
God to open my eyes to the truths 
which lie therein, then proceed rever- 
ently, expectantly, intelligently, slowly 
and thoughtfully. I usually find some- 
thing which arrests my attention. I 
close the Book and ponder on what 
it has to say to me. This is essentially 
a portion of the listening process in 
prayer. Too frequently we are inclined 
to go ahead with our own plans, (in- 
stead of first seeking God's will) and 
then ask His blessing for what we 
have attempted to do. Let us remember 
He will give us victory in all things 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



29 



as long as we abide in Him. 

I have not related this private de- 
votion period to the nursing situation 
particularly. It is an individual mat- 
ter and each of us has her own special 
needs regardless of which branch of 
nursing we follow. Each of us has to 
work out our own salvation and estab- 
lish our own personal relationship 
with God. 

What fruits can we expect from 
our period of private devotion? When 
we fulfill the conditions this period will 
become increasingly meaningful to our 
lives. We will find it absolutely in- 



dispensable. We will find ourselves 
increasingly dependent upon His 
guidance and steadfast goodwill. 
Prayer will become more stimulating. 
It will cause us to grow in under- 
standing of our Father, of the world 
in which we live and of ourselves. It 
will give us a new sense of values 
and a new freedom. It will give us a 
high purpose for living and a new zest 
for life. We will experience a true 
inner joy and peace because we are 
not frustrated trying to serve two 
masters. Rather we are agents of one 
Lord Who takes priority in all things. 



National Health Week 



This year, Canada's 12th National Health 
Week, sponsored by the Health League of 
Canada in cooperation with Departments 
of Health and Education from coast to 
coast, will take place from January 29 to 
February 4. 

How many of us realize the millions of 
dollars that are poured out on medical care 
— medical care for diseases that could be 
prevented each year in Canada. 

A regular, paved, two-lane highway, com- 
plete with underpasses and sidewalks, could 
be built from Halifax to Vancouver and 
back for what Canadians pay out in medical 
and dental bills in one year. The yearly bill 
for dental care alone runs over the seventy- 
million dollar mark. 

Time lost at work through illness mounts 
to a staggering figure — 143,150 years of 
working hours — or a period many times 
longer than all recorded history is lost in 
one year by Canadian workers. 

Eight thousand Canadians lose their lives 
through accidents. Of this figure, 1,500 are 



children, under the age of 15. Death comes 
from traffic accidents, drowning, fires, suf- 
focation by ingested objects, accidental 
poisoning, falls and crushings, firearms and 
accidental electrocution. 

Much illness and disease can be prevented. 
The enormous dental bills can be reduced 
by fluoridation of communal water supplies, 
which measure has already reduced the in- 
cidence of tooth decay by as much as 69 
per cent in some areas. 

The grisly yearly toll of human lives 
lost, and the greater number of cripplings 
resulting from accidents, can also be low- 
ered. Health is everybody's business — and 
everybody can help. 

Health Week will focus attention upon 
two particular phases of health this year 
— accidents, that could be prevented, and 
fluoridation of communal water supplies, 
that has been called one of the greatest 
discoveries in the field of public health in 
the past century. 

— The Health League of Canada 



The shortage of public health personnel 
is felt in most countries of the world, and 
nowhere so keenly as in the rural areas. 
It is perhaps difficult for city-dwellers to 
realize that over two-thirds of the world's 
population live in technically less developed, 
largely rural, areas, that their life expect- 
ancy at birth averages only 30 years, in 
contrast with 63 years in the more favored 
countries, and that their average annual 
per capita income is under 50 dollars. 

Poverty helps to create more disease 



which, in turn, tends to perpetuate poverty. 
It is a challenge of our times to apply 
properly the technical advances now avail- 
able to combat such communicable diseases 
as typhus, yellow fever, malaria, tuberculosis, 
and the treponematoses, and thus bring to 
this large group of people an improvement 
in health without which they are unlikely 
to realize their full social, cultural and 
economic potentialities. It should be added 
that the improvement of environmental 
sanitation is fundamental to any advance, 
— Pan American Sanitary Bureau 



30 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



From Little Acorns 



Ethelyn Butler 



WE ARE GOING to tracc the growth 
and development of a child from 
birth to adolescence so let us, for the 
sake of interest, make it a living child. 
To be sure, statistics are derived from 
living children, but let us dust off 
the dryness of mere statistical facts. 
Let us give this child not only sex but 
a name, weight, color and individual 
characteristics. Let us give him parents 
and a home. In a manner of speaking, 
we are going to watch this child 
through several years of growth and 
development so what would be more 
natural than that we should come to 
know him well and to like him. 

Let us say that his parents are a 
young couple named Stuart who live 
in a small house on the outskirts of a 
large city. Mr. and Mrs. Stuart are 
college educated people who have plan- 
ned for a child for several years. That 
is why they bought the house in the 
suburbs rather than going on living 
in their city apartment. They are keen- 
ly interested in every phase of their 
child's growth and development not 
only because they are intelligent people 
but because they have found that they 
are unable to have a child of their 
own and so must find one they can 
adopt. 

The Cradle Agency has had the 
Stuarts' name on their list of approved 
parents for some time and finally they 
have made the happy announcement 
that a child of suitable background 
(that is, race, coloring, mental level 
of parents) will be born in the middle 
of March. If Mr. and Mrs. Stuart are 
willing to take the child regardless 
of its sex they may take it home from 
the hospital five days after it is born. 
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart really don't care 
at all whether the child is a boy or a 
girl. They even enjoy the clement of 
surprise which is the normal condition 



Miss Butler wrote this as a student 
from Columbus Hospital School of 
Nursing, Seattle, Washington, when she 
was on affiliation in pediatrics at the 
Vancouver General Hospital. 



for prospective parents. Let us say that 
the great day has come. The child was 
born at 8:10 p.m. on March 14th. It 
is a boy who has been listed as "ap- 
parently normal" and entered into the 
newborn nursery. Mr. and Mrs. Stuart 
have hurried to the hospital and are 
standing outside of the glass partition 
waiting for a look at what will be, 
for the rest of his life, their son. 

The first thing that struck Mr. and 
Mrs. Stuart was the realization that 
birth is not the beginning at all. Of 
course they had known this all during 
the time they had been gathering 
clothes and equipment for the baby but 
they were reminded more forcibly 
when they observed the perfection of 
the child's small body. They read on 
the card on his bassinet that his birth 
weight was seven pounds and eight 
ounces, his length was 20 inches, the 
circumference of his head 13^^ inches, 
his chest 12^ inches and his crown- 
rump measurement 13^ inches. They 
were happy to learn that these 
measurements were considered quite 
normal. They knew that the propor- 
tions were correct because the chest 
measurement is supposed to be one 
inch less than the head measurement 
and the crown-rump measurement^ is 
supposed to be the same as the head 
measurement. The child's birth had 
been normal, so he lay in a rather 
curled up position. The doctor dein- 
onstrated to them that the baby had 
normal muscle tone by showing them 
how he resisted extension, that is, 
when his small arms were straightened 
out they immediately curled up again 
when released. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stuart surreptitiously 
counted the number of fingers (and 
found five) when the doctor demon- 
strated the grasp reflex. The baby 
grasped fingers so tightly that the 
doctor was able to lift him. This was 
as it should be as a baby is capable 
of tensing his muscles only to their 
maximum, and having done this, can- 
not readily release the tension as he is 
onlv a creature of reflexes of the sim- 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



31 



plest sort at birth. Next the doctor 
showed the "walking reflex" which 
made Mr. Stuart think he was acquir- 
ing a Herculean child until it was 
explained that this is quite normal. 
It was, none the less, quite impressive 
when they saw that when the baby's 
body weight was supported he made 
walking movements with his feet. 

When the baby was laid back in 
his bassinet the Stuarts noticed fine 
tremors in his little hands. They might 
have worried that this indicated some- 
thing wrong had they not known that 
this is normal and caused by the in- 
complete development of a newborn's 
nervous system. The baby had about 
fallen asleep at this point when the 
doctor jarred the base of the bassinet 
sharply as he had another reflex to 
demonstrate. This was the Moro 
reflex, sometimes called the "startle" 
reflex. The baby reacted normally, 
shooting his arms and legs out quicklv 
like a frog. He began crying at the 
same time but the doctor paid no 
attention to this as he wanted his 
examination to be quite complete. He 
turned the baby's head to the right 
and observed that when he did this 
the child's right arm and leg extended, 
and when he turned the child's head 
to the left his left arm and leg ex- 
tended. This appeared to be quite a 
ridiculous bother to the baby but the 
Stuarts knew that the absence of this 
normal reaction would have indicated 
soqiie defect in the baby's nervous 
system. 

There was no decision to make 
about whether the Stuart's baby was 
to be breast fed or bottle fed so Mrs. 
Stuart had ready a dozen bottles made 
of heat resistant glass, a sterilizer 
with a rack for holding the bottles, 
nipples and nipple covers and large 
gripping forceps for handling the hot 
bottles. The doctor had already given 
her a formula that was quite simple. 
It was 8 ounces of evaporated milk, 
14 ounces of water, and 2 tablespoons 
of sugar. She knew how to prepare 
the whole day's amount, at one time, 
using aseptic technique, and put it 
into six bottles. The bottles were to 
be_ covered with nipples and nipple 
shields and put immediately into the 
refrigerator. Mr. and Mrs. Stuart 
wanted to watch their baby being fed 



so they went to the hospital and waited 
outside the window of the nursery. 

"They're starving our baby," Mr. 
Stuart said, "Some of those babies are 
getting milk but all our baby has had 
is a little water!" "But he's only two 
days old, dear," Mrs. Stuart reminded 
him. "Don't you remember that the 
books all said that mothers' milk 
doesn't begin for about three days, 
and that it is not good for a baby to 
have milk before then? Anyway, that 
water he's getting contains 5% sugar, 
the doctor said. You remember that 
the books on infants agreed that babies 
are born with a calcium accumulation 
and that the giving of milk at too early 
an age might raise the baby's phos- 
phorus level which would lower his 
calcium balance, which would be 
bad for him? You don't want him to 
have convulsions, do you ? 

"That's right, I guess," Mr. Stuart 
admitted, "but it does seem heartless. 
See how he keeps trying to suck. 
Every time something touches his 
cheek he turns his head towards it as 
if he were hungry." 

"Well, the impulse to suck is one 
of the primary ones he's born with. 
The nurse says that the sugar and 
water solution he gets will not only 
keep him from getting dehydrated but 
also give him some practice in sucking 
so that when he begins on formula 
he'll be able to take it without any 
difficulty. Besides that, his taking the 
water well will prove that there is no 
obstruction or abnormality which 
would need to be corrected before he 
really begins to eat. Tomorrow he'll 
be three days old and then we'll see 
some milk in his bottle." 

When he was five days old Mr. 
and Mrs. Stuart brought their baby 
home and began trying to remember 
to call him "Joe," the name they had 
chosen for him, instead of "the 
baby." Their homecoming with Joe 
coincided with that of their neighbors, 
the Smiths, who had had a baby girl 
born to them on the same day that 
Joe was born. This was a happy 
coincidence as the two new mothers 
could look forward to companionship 
for their children when they were old 
enough to enjoy it. Besides this, they 
could have fun comparing their babies' 
growth and development. 



32 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



At first it seemed that Joe's only 
interests in life were food and sleep. 
Joe's mother, who spent the most time 
with him, knew that he did respond 
to various things in his environment. 
She could tell that, though he couldn't 
really see very well, he knew the dif- 
ference between light and dark as he 
would blink his eyes and turn away 
from a bright light. She knew that he 
enjoyed some sort of emotional pleas- 
ure while eating. She found, for in- 
stance, that when the holes in one of 
the nipples were too large that he 
could finish all his feeding in ten 
minutes but that this left his sucking 
impulse somewhat unsatisfied so that 
after he had eaten all he wanted he 
would continue to suck on whatever 
was near his mouth, often his fist when 
he could find it. His mother adjusted 
this so that all the nipples were made 
to offer enough resistance to his stick- 
ing that a feeding would take 20 
minutes time to finish. When this was 
done Joe fell asleep after each feed- 
ing. To accomplish this Mrs. Stuart 
bought new nipples which did not have 
any holes so that she could make the 
holes herself with a hot, sterilized 
needle. She found that they were just 
right when they would pour milk out 
in a fine spray for the first moment 
after she tipped up the bottle and then 
quickly drop milk in drops. The nip- 
ples that continued to dispense milk 
in a spray were giving it too fast. 
Those that dropped milk in drops 
when first tipped up were dispensing it 
too slowly so that a baby would be- 
come too tired to suck enough to get 
all the milk he should have. 

For a few days Joe had small blis- 
ters on his lips which were caused 
from sucking. At first Mrs. Stuart was 
afraid that the nipples she had bought 
were too harsh and irritating, especial- 
ly when she saw that her neighbor's 
baby, who was breast fed did not have 
these. Although her books stated that 
this was quite normal she felt a little 
better when, one day, little Cora Smith 
developed a blister too. 

When Joe's mother cleaned his 
nostrils with cotton-tipped applicators 
he opened his mouth wide to protest 
this indignity. When he did this his 
mother noticed that he had small, 
white spots on the midline of his hard 



palate and gums. She took a clean ap- 
plicator and tried to wipe them away 
but this could not be done so she knew 
that they were what the books had 
described as "epithelial pearls" caused 
by normal excess of epithelial cells. 
Had these spots appeared on his 
tongue or in the folds of his cheeks 
she would have known that he had 
thrush, and she would need to consvilt 
the doctor for treatment. 

One day when Mrs. Stuart visited 
Mrs. Smith she observed that Cora's 
stools were of a difierent color and 
consistency than those of her baby. 
Joe's stools were a uniform, semi- 
firm consistency and a light tan color 
while those of the Smith baby were 
more mucoid appearing and a bright 
yellow color. The difference here did 
not indicate anything wrong with 
either child, but was due to the fact 
that one baby was formula fed and the 
other was breast fed. 

Joe's parents had studied the graphs 
on normal child development so they 
waited for his first voluntary effort 
to appear when he was between two 
and three weeks old. His parents were 
satisfied when they were able to attract 
his attention with a brightly colored 
toy held for him to see. He stared 
fixedly at it as if fascinated. 

By the time Joe was five weeks old 
he was quite in the habit of staring at 
whatever face was peering down at 
him. One day when he was staring 
at his mother he broke into his first 
big, unmistakable smile. She was not 
only glad that he was happy but was 
pleased that he had passed this par- 
ticular milestone in his development, 
which should occur between the ages 
of four and six weeks. 

When Joe was two months old he 
sometimes sucked his little curled up 
fipts but when he moved his arms away 
from his mouth he did not know how 
to guide them back to it again. By the 
time he was three months old, how- 
ever, he was able to put his fists into 
his mouth whenever he liked. He could 
not yet reach for an object though his 
eyes would be fastened on it longingly, 
but if the object, such as a rattle, were 
put into his hand he would wave it 
around happily. Joe's parents wanted 
their baby to develop right on sched- 
ule, but when he did, it sometimes 



JAxNUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, iXo. 1 



33 



seemed a mixed blessing. Mr. Stuart's 
close-up views of Joe were myopic 
because the baby usually snatched off 
his glasses. He was six months old 
when he had become expert at this and 
his mother found it a bother too as 
he was equally good at putting her 
beads into his mouth or picking up any 
tiny objects, all of which he routed 
for digestion. 

Joe weighed 18 pounds when he was 
six months old. He had weighed 15 
pounds at four months which was 
right for his age according to the 
progress graphs. His parents knew 
this was right as it was double his 
birth weight. He was a good natured, 
healthy baby. He was able to reach 
for things with both hands or with 
one hand. He could pull himself to a 
standing position by the bars of his 
crib or play pen, though he was not 
much good at getting himself down 
again once he was up. He often 
laughed and crooned and babbled non- 
sense. He would reach for his mother 
when she came near him and seemed 
to play most happily when he was in 
the same room with her. He greeted 
his father each evening with happy 
squeals of anticipation for the rough 
sort of play that his mother pretended 
to scold about. Besides his formula 
he was getting quite a variety of soft 
strained vegetables, fruit and cereal. 
He had had a small amount of egg 
yolk. Occasionally his mother oft'ered 
him milk from a cup. 

Joe had been such a good baby that 
his mother was a bit worried when he 
became cross and irritable, refused his 
food and ran two degrees of tem- 
perature. Mrs. Stuart telephoned her 
doctor for advice and he suggested 
examining the baby's mouth for teeth. 
Mrs. Stuart found no teeth but there 
were some light colored raised areas 
where teeth appeared to be about to 
come through and his gums were gen- 
erally red and swollen. During the 
next few weeks Joe cut four teeth. 
The first to appear were the lower 
first incisors ; next came upper front 
incisors to match. During this time 
Joe/s mother gave him firm rubber 
toys to chew on. and put away all 
toys made of such material as celluloid 
which might have broken into pieces 
he could swallow. Cora Smith, the 



neighbor baby, was cutting teeth at 
this same time at about the same rate. 
After a few days spent with their 
irritable children the two mothers be- 
gan snarling at their husbands. One 
day the fathers were caught making 
small bets on which child would cut 
the most teeth the fastest. For some 
rea«on this increased the domestic ten- 
sion and tranquillity wasn't restored 
until the babies had been left with 
a sitter and the mothers taken out 
to dinner ! 

A double birthday party was held 
for Joe Stuart and Cora Smith but 
the occasion was appreciated more by 
the parents than the guests of honor. 
The babies reached for the lighted 
candles but were not allowed to have 
them. Their parents even ate their 
birthday cakes except for small bits 
which had the icing removed. The two 
children were put in a pen to play 
together but at one year they had not 
learned much about sharing so their 
playing was mostly of the "parallel" 
tvpe. They observed each other closely 
from time to time, but mostly their 
direct contact was for the purpose 
of one taking the particular toy that 
the other was holding. Early in the 
evening the babies grew bored and 
fell asleep which left the parents free 
to get on with the main purpose of 
the party which was evaluation of 
their children's year of growth and 
development. 

Physical development records show- 
ed that each child had tripled the birth 
weight, which meant that Joe weighed 
22y2 pounds. Each child had grown 
9 inches in length, which meant that 
Joe was 29 inches long. Joe had 6 
teeth, which is normal. Cora had 7, 
which Mr. and Mrs. Stuart told each 
other later was all right but not a bit 
necessary. Their motor development 
was such that they could pull them- 
selves erect, and manage their arms 
and legs quite well. Cora Smith had 
been able to walk alone for two days 
but Joe could walk only if someone 
held onto at least one hand. He could 
stand alone, though, especially when 
he didn't notice that he was doing it. 
rn.ch as when he held some interesting 
o!)iect in both hands. 

Personal-social devel()])ment showed 
the good effect of a wholesome en- 



34 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



vironment as the babies were happy 
and outgoing. Cora was a Httle shy 
but would allow herself to be picked 
up by a stranger if given an hour or 
two to study her from a distance first. 
Both children slept well almost any- 
where, often in very awkward posi- 
tion^. Elimination had never been a 
problem. Each mother had learned her 
child's schedule so well that a casual 
sort of toilet training had been begun. 
At this time, this only amounted to 
a usually productive time spent on a 
child's pot in the morning. The main 
habit peculiarities were that Cora 
would not go to sleep without a par- 
ticular rag doll and Joe would always 
crawl to the foot of his bed where he 
could see his mother through the door- 
way. Joe's mother adjusted this by 
moving his crib a little so that he could 
watch her while lying in a normal po- 
sition. 

Adaptive development was meager 
at this stage. Cora had a vocabulary 
of a dozen words, or so her parents 
claimed, but all that coukl be under- 
stoo'l by outsiders was "Mamma, 
Dada, and ball." Joe could say only 
three words but everyone could under- 
stand them. They were "Mama, Dada 
and eat." Cora had several inches of 
fine, dark hair but Joe's little bald 
head was just beginning to show some 
yellow fuzz. Cora's cheeks were quite 
]Mnk while Joe was cream-colored all 
over. Mr. and Mrs. Smith thought this 
indicated that Cora was healthier until 
they read that many babies, especially 
those of blonde coloring like Joe, were 
normally pale. 

During their next year Joe and 
Cora played in the same yard but they 
didn't learn much about playing to- 
g^'ther. They apjx'ared to entertain 
each other but did not work long on 
a community project. This could be 
observed in the sand box, for instance. 
One would watch the other shoveling 
sand into a pail but when given like 
equi])ment, would fling sand about in- 
dependently. By the time they reached 
th'.'ir second birthdays each child had 
not only front teeth but upper and 
lower bicuspids, sometimes called 
"two-year molars." Cora could walk 
quickly and run without falling br.t 
Joe lumbered about more awkwardly. 
His i>a rents believed this was because 



Cora was thin and wiry while Joe was 
plump and sturdy. Both children ate 
chopped food that was usually part of 
the family meal rather than special 
baby food. Cora talked a great deal 
and quite plainly ; Joe used only simple 
sentences such as "This is my truck" 
or "You go home." He forgot even 
the words he knew when Cora incited 
his anger, so would revert to a tor- 
rent of nonsense words, delivered with 
great feeling. Joe's father maintained 
that Cora spoke more because she was 
going to be a woman and was getting 
into practice. If he had any secret 
fears, he needn't have, because by the 
time both children were three years 
old they could talk equally well. In 
fact Joe learned two words that Cora 
had never heard. Had it not been for 
the book's recommendation against it, 
his mother would have washed his 
mouth out with soap. 

One afternoon a little old lady who 
was collecting funds for a charity 
visited Mrs. Stuart as she was about 
to get Joe up from his nap. She in- 
troduced herself as Mrs. Gunder, ex- 
plained her mission and received a 
contribution. A near fall over a toy 
on the floor brought the conversation 
around to children and resulted in 
Airs. Gunder's staying to see Joe. 
After admiring him enthusiastically 
enough to please his mother, she asked 
if he resembled his father. This brought 
out the fact that he had come from 
the Cradle Agency. On hearing this 
Mrs. Gunder nearly choked with 
emotion. 

"How I admire you, my dear" she 
said "for giving this fortunate child 
a home! When I think of the institu- 
tions crowded with hundreds of babies 
needing to be adopted my heart 
aches !" 

"Hundreds of—" Mrs. Stuart sput- 
tered, "It's zee who are lucky! We 
were on a waiting list for four years 
before we got this l)aby ! It took sev- 
eral years before that for us to become 
established well enough to even get 
on a waiting list. This house, our sav- 
ings, my husband's job. the security 
of our marriage, all had to be proved 
before any agency would even accept 
our application. Don't you know there 
aren't enough adoptab'e infants to go 
around? In this cilv. this year, there 



JANUARY, 1936 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



3S 



are eleven qualified couples waiting for 
each adoptable baby. Those who can 
have their own don't realize how much 
easier it is!" "Why I had no idea it 
was like that," said Mrs. Gunder dis- 
appointedly. Then, brightening, she 
whispered, "Are you ever going to tell 
him he's a-d-o-p-t-e-d ?" 

"Why, we've told him that since 
the day we got him," replied Mrs. 
Stuart. "Joe, who's our best little 
adopted boy?" 

"Me," answered Joe with a wide 
grin. 

"Oh, I know he doesn't know the 
meaning of the word now but by the 
time he does he'll be used to it and 
then we'll tell him how we wanted him 
so much that we chose him out of all 
others." 

Mrs. Gunder was leaving and had 
gone as far as the front porch steps 
when she thought of one more pos- 
sibility for drama in the situation. 
"How long will it be before you can 
tell if his blood is tainted ?" she asked. 
Mrs. Stuart's puzzled expression made 
her explain, "You know, bad blood in 
case any of his ancestors were 
criminals ?" 

Mrs. Stuart wavered for a moment 
between humor and exasperation. 
Humor won, and she answered, "Sci- 
ence had made great strides in the last 
few years, you know. We had a 
sample of Joe's blood tested in a big, 
shiny laboratory and now we know 
we don't have to worry. The report 
told' us that his blood is as pure as the 
driven snow. Goodbye Mrs. Grundy 
— I mean Mrs. Gunder." And Joe 
and his mother went in and shut the 
door. 

Joe's year from two to three was 
fun to watch because of his rapidly 
expanding vocabulary and because of 
his attempts to imitate the adults in 
his life. He acted out the delivering 
of milk, the selling of newspapers and 
the departing for work with hat and 
brief case. His motor development 
showed most in his improved body 
balance which made it possible for him 
to be pushed a little without falling. 
He had learned to play with other 
children so that he would often help 
to make a snow man. build a fort, or 
pull a wagon. At his third birthday he 
weighed 34 pounds and was 23^ inches 



tall. His toilet training was complete 
now except for some occasions when 
he was away from home. He was 
still friendly and happy but not quite 
so docile as he had been. For a while 
he had an almost automatic habit of 
saying "no" to everything, even before 
he knew what the request was going 
to be. This negative attitude was just 
as noticeable in Cora Smith. 

Joe's and Cora's fourth birthday 
party was the first one they really 
enjoyed because they were old enough 
to anticipate events to some extent, 
and also they could enter into group 
games with several children. Joe 
weighed Z7y2 pounds and was 26 
inches tall, which was normal for his 
age. His play showed more imagina- 
tion now. He often insisted that he 
was not Joe but Dick Tracy on the 
trail of bandits. 

By the time Joe's fifth birthday 
came his parents were considering 
buying more books so that they could 
look up suitable answers to his many 
questions. "Why" and "how" prefaced 
most of the things he said. Some of 
the questions like "how far away is 
the moon" and "why is ice cold" sent 
his parents scurrying for references. 
The answers to these things had to be 
simple and brief, though, or his atten- 
tion would wander. Sometimes he in- 
terrupted an overlong explanation of 
something with another question. Joe's 
height was now 2^ inches more than 
the year before, and his weight was 42 
pounds. His eagerness to learn things 
and his ability to play well with other 
children brought him to the right stage 
of development for kindergarten. 

Before Joe started school at age six, 
he had cut two more molars behind 
those he had cut at age two. This did 
not cause the distress that his first 
teeth had, though he did salivate a bit 
more than usual. He had lost three of 
his deciduous teeth in front. He rather 
liked this process of losing teeth be- 
cause each one turned into a dime 
when put under his pillow and, besides 
that, adults seemed to think his smile 
was more dazzling. His weight on 
entering school was a husky 48 pounds 
and he was 32 inches tall. He had, 
by this time, absorbed a simple sex 
education, as his mother was wise 
enough to answer his questions simply 



36 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



and matter-of-factly as he asked them. 
At this age he often avoided his friend, 
Cora Smith, as he was beginning to 
beheve that there was some sort of 
stigma attached to boys playing with 
girls. He had a few brief, transient 
compulsions at this time, some ap- 
parently copied from the other children 
at school, and some of unknown 
origin. Examples of these were the 
avoiding of all cracks in a sidewalk, 
scratching his ribs like a monkey, and 
automatically saying "what?" so that 
questions had to be repeated. 

At age seven, even Joe's mother 
admitted that he was no longer a cute 
baby. He had grown three inches 
during the last year but had gained 
only four pounds. His baby "tummy" 
had disappeared and he had a long and 
stringy look. Two enormous teeth in 
his upper gums and one and a half 
teeth in his lower gums made his 
remaining baby teeth look even 
smaller. He regarded his teachers at 
school as more lofty authorities than 
his parent '^, on all things scholastic, 
anyway. He refused to wear any sort 
of clothes that were not the same as 
those being worn by every other boy 
at school. 

At age eight Joe looked better to his 
parents. He had enough of his per- 
manent teeth to make a more even 
smile now and his face had grown 
enough to fit them a little better. He 
was not so intense about school and 
had even decided that his parents 
probably had education enough to help 
him with his homework. He had 
gained another four pounds and had 
grown another two and a half inches. 

Joe's ninth, tenth and eleventh 
birthdays saw no great change in him 
except for the normal increase in 
height and weight. Of course his mind 
developed in pace with his body so 
that at eleven he was in the sixth 
grade, was 58 inches tall and weighed 
7S pounds. His neighbor Cora, was 2 
inches shorter and six pounds lighter 
but she, too, was within the range of 
normal. Cora began her pre-pubertal 
development at this age but Joe did 
not begin this process until two years 
later. 

During the years between eleven 
and thirteen it looked as if Cora and 
Joe could not possibly have been babies 



born on the same day and year. She 
grew at the rate of 3 inches a year 
until she towered over Joe. She gained 
a total of thirty pounds without be- 
coming at all overweight. By the time 
she was thirteen, even her parents 
were admitting that she would soon 
be a young lady. She imitated older 
girls so that she seemed even older 
than she was. She repaid Joe's years 
of neglect by scornfully referring to 
him as "the little boy next door." 

By the time he was thirteen Joe's 
puberty development was most notice- 
ably manifested by the fact that his rate 
of growth stepped up very sharply. 
When he was fifteen he was 68 inches 
tall, a good four inches more than 
Cora Smith. Cora, at fifteen, had at- 
tained all but ^ inch of the height 
she was to have as an adult, but Joe 
continued to grow until he was nearly 
eighteen. The growth after fifteen was 
slower, totaling only two inches. 

At age fifteen Joe and Cora won- 
dered whether they were adults or 
children. Most people considered them 
children, of course. They were still 
dependent upon their parents in many 
ways and they still had years of educa- 
tion ahead, but mixed with the accept- 
ance of these facts was a restlessness 
and a desire to manage their own lives. 
Joe was bigger than his father and 
Cora was bigger than her mother. 
Each weighed less than the parent of 
like Sex, however, as their develop- 
ment was not so complete as they 
thought. Cora and Joe became friends 
again at this age. They cheered each 
other in sports activities, associated 
with the same group of young people 
and attended the same school afi^airs. 
They never quite regained the unself- 
conscious relationship they had en- 
joyed as small children, but they didn't 
mind this. Once they had been small 
and their world had been small. Now 
they had grown larger physically and 
mentally and their world had grown 
larger still. Their physical develop- 
ment was largely, but not entirely 
complete. Their personal, social and 
adaptive development would go on all 
their lives. They had little idea where 
their growth and development would 
lead them or what factors would in- 
fluence it, but at age 15 they were 
eager to get on with it. 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



37 



Nursing Profiles 



During this past year, Dorothy Lyons 
(Kaufman). McPhail assumed her duties 
as director of the Division of Public Health 
Nursing with the Alberta Department of 
Public Health. 

Born in Alberta, Mrs. McPhail received 
her professional training at the Hospital for 
Sick Children, Toronto. Securing her di- 
ploma in public health nursing and a cer- 
tificate in advanced study in practical 
obstetrics occupied her time following gradu- 
ation. She began her professional career as 
a district nurse with the department sl.e 
now serves. Later she travelled much farther 
afield, spending several months with the 
United States Army as a civilian charge 
nurse in Nanking, China. Back in Canada 
again, Mrs. McPhail rejoined the Alb:rta 
Department of Public Health, acting at 
various times as assistant director of public 
health nursing and assistant director of 
health units. Interested in professional af- 
fairs, she has found time to carry out th? 
duties of program convener with her provin- 
cial association and to serve on the enter- 
tainment committee of th: .X'oeita Public 
Health Association. 



Cynthia Cavell has been appointed to the 
teaching staff of the University of Toronto 
School of Nursing where she will assist 
with the teaching of nursing in the basic 
course. A graduate in arts of the University 
of Toronto, she studied at the Yale Univer- 
sity School of Nursing receiving her 
master's degree in nursing in 1952. After 
completing her professional preparation. 
Miss Cavell joined the nursing staff of the 
Yale Psychiatric Institute for a year of 
practical e-pcrience. A desire to study 
methods elsewhere lead her to Middlesex 
Hospital, London and later to the American 
Hospital of Paris before accepting her 
present position. 

Lucille Cote, as director of nursing, 
Queen Mary Veteran's Hospital, Montreal, 
brings a rich backgroimd of experience to 
her new position. A graduate of I'Ecole des 
Infirmieres de I'Hopital de la Providence, 
Montreal, Miss Cote obtained h"r diploma 
in public health nursing from the University 
of Montreal and a master's degree in arts 




JJoROTiiY McPhail 



38 



Li.cii.LE Cote 

THE CANADIAN NURSE 



from Columbia University. Her practical 
experience has been varied and enriching. 
As visiting nurse with the Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company, she spent several 
years in charge of the Thetford Mines dis- 
trict. This was followed by administrative 
experience as director of the Orientation 



Centre of Montreal. As assistant director 
of the Scliool for Public Health Nurses, 
University of Alontreal, she shared her 
knowledge of public health requirements and 
problems. Now her professional talents are 
being directed towards the field of institu- 
tional nursing. 



3(n iMemoriam 



Agnes Arner, a graduate of Grace Hos- 
pital, Windsor, Ont., died at Leamington, 
Ont., in September, 1955, following a year's 
illness. For ten years Miss Arner was in- 
dustrial nurse for Canadian Automotive 
Trim at Windsor. 



she maintained an active interest in her 
Alma Mater and its graduates. 

Florence MacCuaig, who graduated from 
the General Hospital, Cornwall, Ont., in 
1922, died at Toronto on October 1, 1955. 



Mabel Darville, who graduated from 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, in 1919, 
died at Vancouver on November 13, 1955, 
following a lengthy illness. After many 
years as a head nurse at R.V.H., Miss Dar- 
ville was in charge of the student health 
service prior to her retirement. 

* * * 

Effie M. Feeny, who graduated from 
Toronto General Hospital in 1907, died at 
Dearborn, Alich.. on September 11, 1955. 
Mrs. Feeny was appointed as the first school 
nurse in Prince Albert, Sask., in 1913. She 
joined the staff of the School Hygiene 
Branch of the Saskatchewan Department 
of Education in 1918, transferring with that 
Branch to the Department of Public Health 
in 1928. She retired from her work as a 
public health nurse in Regina in 1935. 

* * * 

Mary Graham Gunne, a graduate of the 
General Hospital, Dauphin, Man , died at 
Winnipeg on October 19, 1955. Miss Gunne 
was one of Winnipeg's first school nurses. 
She had also served as matron at Dauphin. 

!C * * 

Annie Louise (Brown) Hill, who grad- 
uated from Winnipeg General Hospital in 
1901, died at Winnipeg on September 24, 
1955, at the age of 79. 

* * * 

Ann Elizabeth Hutchison, who gradu- 
ated from the General Hospital. S*:. Cath- 
arines, Ont., in 1892, died at Orillia, Ont., 
on October 17, 1955. Miss Hutchison was 
superintendent of nurses at the St. Cath- 
arines hospital 1893-96. During her active 
career in nursing sItc also engaged in 
private duty and public health nursing 
servic\ Throughout her years of retirement 



Rita MacNeil, who graduated from the 
General Hospital, Brockville, Ont., in 1936, 
died at Cornwall, Out., on October 5, 1955, 
in her 42nd 3'ear. Miss MacNeil had prac- 
tised her profession in Cornwall and district 
prior to her illness in 1954. 

Mary C. (Hyde) McCallum, who grad- 
uated from Toronto General Hospital in 
1900, died at Toronto on October 5, 1955, 
at the age of 83. Airs. McCallum's first 
assignment following graduation was to care 
for victims of a typhoid epidemic at Copper 
CliiT, Ont. In 1907 she became matron of 
the hospital at Dauphin, Man. leaving that 
position to be married. 

* * * 

Elizabeth (Jones) Miserva, a Canadian 
graduate of an American Hospital who 
served on the staflf of Royal Alexandra 
Hospital, Edmonton, and at Cold Lake, 
Alta., died at Stettler, Alta., in October 
1955, after a lengthy illness. 

* * * 

Sister Fabian, formerly superintendent of 
St. Joseph's Hospital, London, Ont., died 
there on October 8, 1955, at the age of 63. 

* * * 

Andree Voisard, who graduated from 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, in 1955, 
was instantly killed by the accidental dis- 
charge of a gun on October 24, 1955. She 
was 11 years old. 

* * * 

Margaret M. (Aikman) Wigginton, 

wlio graduated from the Winnipeg General 
Hospital in 1929, died on .August 12, 1955, 
following an illness of many months. At 
one time, Mrs Wigginton was on the staff 
of the Winnipeg Municipal Hospitals. 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



39 



OfilG {DUG 



Nursing Programs at 

the University of Saskatchewan 



Lucy D. Willis, M.A. 

THE OPENING of the University Hos- 
pital on the campus of Sas- 
katchewan has made possible both 
enlargement and diversification of the 
School of Nursing programs. 

The basic degree program follows 
a pattern of two academic years, two 
calendar years, one academic year — 
in all 45 months of study spread out 
over four and one-half years. This 
basic pattern remains the same but 
within the framework there have been 
major changes. The full clinical pro- 
gram with the exception of tuber- 
culosis and rural experience is now 
available on the campus. University 
faculty members direct, supervise and 
participate in the clinical program. 
It has also been possible to include 
a nursing science class with laboratory 
periods on the hospital wards during 
the second university year. Thus stu- 
dents have a gradual introduction to 
the clinical field and are able to make 
earlier applications of some of their 
basic science courses. 

A three-year diploma program, also 
under the direction and supervision of 
the University School of Nursing, has 
been launched. In late August, 1954, 
80 students entered this school and 75, 
or 95 per cent of the original group, 
have completed their first year. Stu- 
dents selected by School of Nursing 
faculty are admitted once a year only. 
They spend the first 16 weeks of their 

Miss Willis is assistant professor of 
nursing education in the School of 
Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, 
Saskatoon. 



40 



course along with students from other 
Saskatchewan schools in the Central- 
ized Lecture Program. During the 
next 16 weeks their time is divided 
between classroom lectures and dem- 
onstrations and practice in the 
classrooms and wards. Nursing fun- 
damentals are taught gradually 
throughout this period. Considerable 
use is made of patient-centred situa- 
tions and whenever possible these are 
taken directly from the students' 
current experiences. Other classes 
commonly taught in the junior period 
are given, such as diet therapy, 
pathology, pharmacology, junior med- 
icine and surgery. Clinical practice is 
limited to the general medical and 
surgical wards. A new course, "Health 
as a Community Problem" has been 
introduced. This includes a survey of 
public health and social service re- 
sources, an introduction to major 
health problems and concludes with 
comtnunicable diseases. Use is made 
of films, tours, projects and group 
work. 

Basic degree course students who 
have already completed pathology, 
pharmacology, and some of the nurs- 
ing fundamentals course follow a 
somewhat similar pattern to the above 
during the first 12 weeks of their pro- 
gram. 

During the remainder of the clinical 
program for both groups of students 
the theory and clinical experience are 
concurrent. This is made possible by 
the cooperation "and interest of the 
professors and lecturers in the clinical 
areas and by blocked rotations. This 

THE CANADIAN NURSE 




University Hospital, Saskatoon, Sask. 



' Len Hilliard 



means that a group of students go 
together to a clinical service and while 
there have lectures and experience 
concurrently. All rotations and hours 
for students are planned by the teach- 
ing stafif in cooperation with the nurs- 
ing supervisors. The student follows 
through the usual basic experiences 
of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, pedi- 
atrics, operating room. Every student 
spends 12 weeks in psychiatry, and 
plans are under way for each to have 
six weeks of tuberculosis affiliation. 
Three weeks are spent in diet therapy. 
Here students are assigned specific 
experiences by the teaching dietitian. 
They spend one-half of their time on 
each of the medical and surgical serv- 
ices where, under the supervision of 
a dietitian, they learn to select and 
supervise the diets of patients. 

In our proposed third year we are 
looking toward helping solve some of 
the problems of nursing in Saskatch- 
ewan. Our province has 121 hospitals 
with 50 beds or less. Many of our 
young graduates go out into these in- 
stitutions. We hope to help them do 
a better job. Larger city hospitals and 



small hospitals alike are employing 
nursing assistants and trained-on-the- 
job nursing personnel. We hope our 
graduates will be prepared in some 
measure to work with and guide such 
workers safely. We refer to our third 
year experiences as maturing ones. 
As we have no third year students to 
date we can only speak of plans. 
Students will return to the operating 
room for four weeks for further scrub- 
bing experience and to learn the in- 
tricacies of setting up for various 
operations, cost and care of equipment 
and instruments, preparation and 
sterilization of packs. Some of this 
time will be spent in central supply 
service. A return of four weeks to 
obstetrics will concentrate on respon- 
sibility in the nursery, greater re- 
sponsibility in supervision of labor, 
preparation for delivery, setting up the 
delivery room, and additional experi- 
ence in teaching the mother in the care 
of herself and the infant. A week in 
the dietary department will be spent in 
learning about large scale ordering, 
superv-ision of the preparation of food 
in large quantities and menu-planning 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



41 




University Hospital Gal's. 



Fore 



Aft 



for regular diets. Concurrent with or 
prior to these experiences the student 
will have basic lectures on principles 
of administration and supervision. 
With supervision, she will have an 
opportunity to be a team leader and 
will have a senior night or even'ng 
term and senior experience in med'cine 
and surgery. Arrangements are being 
made for a four- week period in selec- 
ted rural hospitals for experience in 
giving nursing care and learning some- 
thing of the administrative relation- 
ships and responsibilities of the nurs". 
These "maturing experiences" w'll 
be incorporated in the basic degree 
program during the latter months of 



the clinical program and in a thorough 
and more extens've way in the final 
academic year. It is interesting and 
encouraging to note that the degree 
program has continued with markedly 
increased enrollment even after the 
opening of the shorter basic diploma 
program. 

The diploma program in teaching 
and supervision for graduate nurres 
has benefited from the opening of the 
hospital also. To a small extent last 
year, and it is hoped in larger measure 
this year, we have had a convenient 
field for observation and for practice 
teaching during the university term. 



In the Good Old Days 

{TJir Canadian Nurse — January, 1916) 



For the first time in history, an a:my in 
the fi?l(l is b:;ing protected ag irst the 
onset of an infectious disease by inocula- 
tions. Among 20 000 of tlie Canadian fores 
there was not one case of serious trouble 
from the typhoid fever inoculations nor did 
any of the men take the disease. 
* * * 

One of the large problems is the integra- 
tion of the foreigners who have ccme to our 
country into the Canadian way of lif^ This 
is especially true in Western Canada wh:re 
the women r.rc married wh'^n very young — 
13 very often — and f^w live to be 30 In 



one district when the nurse urged that 
a doctor be called for a desperately sick 
woman, the husband said : "No, it's too much 
money. I can get another wife for $5 00." 

* * * 

The Alumnae Association of the Hospital 
for Sick Children has rememb;red its mem- 
bers who are serving overseas by sending 
a box of apples to each. 

* ^ ^ 

Tlie scho(>l nurses of Toronto have estab- 
lished a fund, on a per-cent-of-sa!ary basis, 
to assist in caring for specially urgent cases 
of need that they find. 



La reputation d'un hcmme est comme son 
ombre, qui lantot le suit, et tantot le pre- 



cede : quelcuefois elle est plus longue et 
qu'lqu fois plus courte que lui. 



42 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



UfiS 



b 



SERVICf 



Tuberculosis Prevention 

in the Far North 



Josephine Walz 

I AM NOW WELL ALONG in my seventh 
year in northern Saskatchewan. 
The first four years were spent in a 
generalized pubHc health program. 
Then, in March 1953, I was asked to 
initiate a tuberculosis prevention pro- 
gram throughout this enormous area 
that covers the top half of this large 
province. 

The question that was uppermost 
in all our minds as the prevention 
program was launched was "Will there 
be a response?" The future course of 
my work hirged on the answer. It 
is most gratifying to report that the 
response has been magnificent. The 
people have been wonderful ! Many 
have returned to my clinics for the 
second and third time. Just as soon 
as they learned that the object of the 
program was to prevent the spread 
of tuberculosis, they were all for it. 
They knew, from bitter loss, the toll 
that tuberculosis takes — many times 
wiping out whole famil'es. 

There are many difficulties to be 
overcome in organizing successful 
clinics in isolated areas where there 
is infrequent or no mail service. The 
B.C.G. vaccine, which comes all the 
way from Montreal, has a value-span 
of only five days by the time it reaches 
me. Since tuberculin tests must be 
made and read before B.C.G. is given, 
careful planning is necessary to reach 
as large a i)roportion of th-; negative 



Miss Walz is employed by the Sas- 
katchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League to 
carry on this very effective program 
that she describes. 

JANUARY. 1956 • VoL C2. No. 1 



reactors as possible. There has been 
splendid cooperation so the survey 
work has not been nearly as difficult 
as I had thought it would be. 

I fly into the larger settlements that 
have mail service. I make this place 
my headquarters for quite a large 
surrounding area. Then I notify the 
settlers over "Northern News." when 
I will arrive in their locality. "North- 
ern News" is a daily radio program 
for the people of the north, by which 
we send messages and news. To these 
smaller settlements I travel by canoe, 
speed-boat, bombardiere, dog-sled or 
walk, always with an Indian guide. 
At times we are accompaniefl by the 
Conservation Officer or R.C.M.P., but 
more often I travel alone with the 
guide. I never know just where I will 
eat or sleep, but northern hospitality 
has never left me standing on the dock 
for long. I a'ways carry a bed-roll, 
in which I sleep most of the time, just 
occasionally in a bed. Only once d d I 

I-' I 




[osEPiiixE Walz 



43 



spend the night in the canoe out on 
the river. I took off my boots, opened 
up my bed-roll and stretched out under 
the bars, with the beaver swimming 
about rocking me to sleep. The guide 
slept on the bank — or spent the night, 
I should say — as he almost froze 
for it was October. At six in the 
morning we were on our way again. 

Another time in May 1953, at Ile-a- 
La-Crosse the mail plane arrived with 
my B.C.G. on it. At 12 :30 noon I 
started out for Beauval. Since it was 
the break-up period we had to travel 
with dogs, skiff and canoe. The trip 
was started with a dog-team, but be- 
fore I could sit in the dog-sled, I had 
to slide down a rope off the dock to 
get over the open water onto solid ice. 
What I didn't know was that 50 three- 
week-old turkeys and 104 three-week- 
old chicks were travelling with me. 
They had also arrived on the mail 
plane from the Prince Albert hatch- 
eries, for the R.C. mission at Beauval. 
But how were they to get to Beauval 
gt this time of the year? My trip was 
the solution. When the ice was be- 
coming soft, and the dogs started to 
fall through it, we transferred to a 
skiff'. We travelled by skiff until we 
reached the Beaver River. There we 
transferred to speed-boat as the river 
was open, arriving in Beauval at five 
in the afternoon, chickens and turkeys 
very much alive, but thirsty I am 
certain. 

In January, 1954, I travelled by 
train to The Pas, Manitoba. It was 
extremely cold, and although the train 
was four hours late, our faithful bom- 
bardiere driver waited. After complet- 
ing arrangements for my B.C.G. pick- 
up, we started across the lakes for 
Cumberland House. This was a 45- 
mile trip. It almost seemed like coming 
home, as I had lived there for three 
years doing public health nursing. I 
spent more than a month in that area, 
conducting clinics in four other settle- 
ments, travelling 350 miles by bombar- 
diere across lakes and portages. The 
weather remained 40-50° below zero 
the whole time. One day the tuberculin 
froze solid in my brief case, while I 
was walking from hut to hut vaccinat- 
ing the aged and the blind. I also had 
to walk to the settlement of Pemican 
Portage, a distance of three miles, 



when it was 50° below. No transpor- 
tation was available that day — not 
even dogs. To keep the B.C.G. from 
freezing, I put it in my ski pants 
pockets. By wiping my face frequently 
to remove the frost, I didn't even 
freeze my nose. 

In February, 1954, I arrived in Lac 
La Ronge by bus. This was my head- 
quarters for the area of Little Hills, 
Egg Lake, Potato River and Sucker 
River. Here I travelled by bombar- 
diere, and by plane where there were 
no bombardiere trails to the settle- 
ments. One day the public health nurse 
of Lac La Ronge and I flew to Little 
Hills, a distance of 15 miles, and then 
walked back. There were huts all along 
the trail and this was the only way of 
conducting a clinic for this area. We 
did not have to be rocked to sleep 
that night, as we had been walking 
on a narrow toboggan trail all the 
way ! Even this was soft in places, 
for quite frequently we passed open 
water on the lake. 

By March I was on my way back 
to Prince Albert by bus. Along the 
way the bus driver was kind enough 
to wait on the roadside, while I ran 
to a hut in the woods to see a sick 
baby, for the public health nurse. The 
baby appeared very ill, so right there 
and then I decided to take it with me. 
By six that evening it had been ad- 
mitted to hospital in Prince Albert. 

Still another time in May, 1954, I 
flew mto Fond-Du-Lac from Uranium 
City on a chartered Cessna, still on 
skis, with the break-up imminent. I 
hoped that five days later the plane 
would still be able to land. Otherwise 
I would have had to remain for six 
weeks with only a tooth-brush and 
the clothes I wore. I travelled as light 
as I could, for even now we had to 
land quite a distance out on the lake, 
then walk into the settlement through 
slush of water, snow and caribou hair 
up to our knees. The young pilot was 
helping me by carrying my bed-roll 
and brief case, my only baggage, while 
I had to take only myself. Even then 
I became winded and wanted to pause 
a moment to sit on the snow, but the 
pilot would not allow this in case the 
ice gave away. The bush pilot takes 
all responsibility until we are safe on 
land. The water all but ran into my 



44 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



sheepskin-lined boots, and I arrived 
in the settlement with a ring of caribou 
hair on my ski pants about my knees. 
The natives had dumped all these hairs 
on the snow on the lake as they tanned 
the hides that winter. I managed to 
leave five days later on a ski equipped 
aircraft after a successful clinic. 

In August, 1954, I went from Ile-a- 
La-Crosse to Canoe Lake by speed- 
boat. I put my bed-roll in a log cabin 
then ran down to the dock each mor- 
ning in the rain to wash my face and 
brush my teeth. There I also did my 
laundry. My meals I had with a native 
family. Five days later I returned by 
canoe. In March 1955, I flew into 
South End, a settlement on Reindeer 
lake. Next morning it was 46° below 
— br-r-r ! There they only have out- 
door plumbing. I offer this tip to new- 
comers on their first experience of 
this type of nursing — wear your 



pyjamas as underwear. It not only 
lessens your baggage, but it's a most 
convenient way to get into your bed- 
roll, when there is little or no privacy. 
It is also easier to get dressed when 
it is 50 below. 

The only time that I am not in the 
north is during the freeze-up period. 
Although this is a very rugged life, 
I have enjoyed every moment of it, 
especially because the northerners have 
shown such interest, appreciation and 
cooperation. Were it not for this, plus 
the wonderful plane and radio service, 
it would be impossible to carry on a 
program of this kind. I have seen 
about 7,000 of the 12,000 folk I have 
to contact. Some of them I have seen 
two or three times. So great is their 
interest, if they suspect a member of 
the settlement of having tuberculosis, 
they bring him to me to take out to 
the sanatorium. 



The Breath of Pain 

In the development of improved drugs for 
relieving pain, the great problem is not the 
devising of promising new agents, for chem- 
ists these days have no end of ingenuity. 
The problem is finding out whether the 
drugs really relieve pain. For pain is an 
experience as well as a sensation ; people 
differ in the way they react to pain, prob- 
ably more than in the degree to which 
they sense it. The effectiveness of pain- 
relieving drugs cannot be based on measures 
of tranquillity, for there are drugs that make 
patients tranquil without relieving pain. Nor 
can one rely entirely on studies with labor- 
atory devices like the dolorimeter, which 
inflicts graded heat burns on experimental 
subjects; the pain of dolorimeter burns is 
not the same as natural pain. 

A resourceful English anesthesiologist, Dr. 
P. R. Bromage, has found a way out of the 
dilemma for one kind of natural pain at 
least — the severe pain occurring after 
operations on the chest or upper abdomen. 
Upper abdominal pain notoriously restricts 
breathing, often to the point where the 
patient turns blue though lying as still as 
he can. Dr. Bromage tests pain-relieving 
agents by measuring their ability to restore 
the patient's breathing capacity. He meas- 
ures the patient's vital capacity — the 
volume of air he can expel after taking a 
deep breatli — before operation to provide 
a base line. The vital capacity is measured 



after operation but before administration of 
an analgesic, and then again after the pain- 
relieving agent has an opportunity to take 
hold. 

Dr. Bromage employed the method to 
test demerol, methadon, xylocaine and a 
nerve-blocking procedure in 20 patients. The 
purpose was more to test the method than 
to test the drugs themselves. His results 
are nevertheless of interest. 

The nerve-blocking procedure — epidural 
block — was much the most effective ; it 
restored an average of 86 per cent of the 
breathing capacity lost through pain. Meth- 
adon restored 35.4 per cent of lost vital 
capacity, and xylocaine, administered intra- 
venously, 22.8 per cent. Demerol was least 
effective; it restored only 13.5 per cent of 
pain-lost vital capacity. 

The method has limitations. It is possible 
that upper abdominal pain can no more 
be equated to other kinds of pain than 
can the pain of dolorimeter burns. There 
are, for example, situations where demerol 
and xylocaine have advantages over metha- 
don, though this test shows methadon to be 
a most potent analgesic drug. However, Dr. 
Bromage's procedure comes close to achiev- 
ing true objectivity in measuring pain relief. 
For observation indicates that even tranquil- 
lized patients will not breathe deeply if it 
hurts. Patients will breathe deeply only 
when it reallv doesn't hurt. 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



45 



pf^a^^^'t^Ha^ 



prepored by your national office Canodian Kurses' Association, Ottawa 



books recount 
amusing and 
service. Study 



To Serve 

In the field of nursing, books may 
be written, research projects devel- 
oped, outstanding contributions recog- 
nized, but behind it all kcs the word 
"service." The events chronicled in 
the activities, both 
moving, in nursing 
and research in the 
field of nursing aim at the im- 
provement of the service rendered to 
mankind. But the recognition of out- 
standing contributions to the improve- 
ment of the general welfare of others 
brings to mind the devotedness and 
unselfishness of the nurse in the cause 
of humanity, be it in the large modern 
hospital or on the frontiers cf our far 
flung country. 

Katherine Brandon 
is Remembered 

We read with pride in the press 
clippings of an impressive ceremony 
which took place, late in October, at 
the Indian reservation at Morley, 
Alberta, near the foot of the Rocky 
]Mountains. 

Indian school children, proud chiefs 
and government officials paid tribute 
to a Canadian nurse. Honoring Kath- 
erine Brandon, former supervi-^or of 
nurses for the Department of Indian 
Health Services, a cairn, built by the 
Indians at their personal expense, was 
unveiled in remembrance of her 
dedicated service. 

Miss Brandon, whose dea'h from 
polio occurred two years ago, had ren- 
dered untiring service to the Indian 
population which won her ih ■ love 
and respect of more than 700 persons 
living in the foothills settlement. 
Heartfelt tribute was expressed "n the 
words of Chief Walking Bufifalo "Our 
hearts are pouring out v.'-ith remem- 
brance of her." 



Helen McArthur Returns 




' ■■ ■ '(/ hii'.-i >\ ///; //;,• Inter- 

national R:-d Cross since July, 1954, Miss 
McArthur returned to Canada last month. 
Miss McAr'.hur is iinniediafe past president 
of the C.N. A. 

Projects in the Atlantic Provinces 

Miss Pauline Laracy, executive 
secretary of the Assoc'ation of Regis- 
tered Nurses of Newfound'and, has 
been sending us some interesting in- 
formation about changes in two of 
their schools of nursing. In tlie fall 
of 1955 extensive curriculum changes 
were made so that the traditional three 
year program could be revised to allow 
a one year internship after a concen- 
trated two year educational program. 
It was felt that such a program would 
have greater educn ional value, would 
be more attractive to prospect ve stu- 
dents of nursing, would help to 
stabilize nursing slafif and, above all, 
would improve patient care. In setting 



46 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



up the new curriculum the content 
was selected on the basis of its im- 
portance in helping the student to meet 
the needs of the people she is to serve 
and to adjust to the changing demands 
of the practice of nursing. 

From Xew Brunswick comes word 
that ]\Iiss E. Kathleen Russell is well 
into her project of evaluating nursing 
education in that province. From this 
evaluation will come recommendations 
regarding future policy. In this, the 
second month of a full year project, 
it is too early to have any 'ndication 
of what the results may be. However, 
all nursing educa'ion waits with an- 
ticipation the publication of reports. 
Besides the -nfluence the project may 
have on nursing in general, it is of in- 
terest to us in that it is the first p-ece 
of research in nursing education 
financed by a Dominion-Provincial 
health grant. 

Lamp of the Wilderness 

In a recent issue of Nci<<s of Reel 
Cross we find that there is a new book- 
written by yet another Canadian nurse. 
The book was written under the pen 
name of June Spencer but the author 
is Mrs. j. Osinger R.X. A graduate 
of Torono East General Hospital, 
the author is now on the staff at 
King's Daughters' Hospital, Duncan, 
B.C. "Lamp of Wilderness" describ?s 
the varied experiences of two years' 
nursing service at a Canadian Red 
Cross Outpost Hospital in an isolated 
district of the Cariboo. 

Nursing Educators Meet 

The second course on the "Integra- 
tion of Civil Defence Xursing into the 
Basic Curriculum" was held in Oc- 
tober at the Civil Defence Col'ege, 
Arnprior. Sixty-four nurses from 
across Canada, active in nursing edu- 
cation, attended. Following a week of 
lectures and demon'^trations, the last 
day was set aside for the nurses to 
discuss problems relating to the topic. 
A panel of four nurses fir=t discussed 
the additional responsibilities and 
functions that would fall to nurses in 
a mass disaster, the special attitudes, 
sk-ills and knowledge which the nurse 
must acquire and the implication rf 
these in ])lanning the basic curricukun. 



Small group discussions followed the 
panel discussion. 

It was recognized that the principles 
underlying good nursing care would 
be the same in disaster or emergency 
nursing. It is important that all nurses 
know and understand the basic prin- 
ciples and be able to apply these and 
adjust their practice to meet varying 
situations. It seemed generally accep- 
ted that civil defence nursing cou'd 
be integrated throughout the cur- 
riculum. Some examples discu'sed 
were : 

Th? care of psychiatric casualties 
occurring in m:'ss disaster. This can bs 
integrated by helping the student recog- 
nize stress siluitions of varying degrees 
present in each individual patient an! 
by giving students guidance in interper- 
sonal relations throughout their basic 
course. 

The care of patients with radiation 
sickness can start early in the stu- 
dent's science course. An understanding 
of radioactive materials can be given 
and continued in the nursing care of 
patients having radiation therapy wi'h 
emphasis on the effects of radiation in 
atomic warfare. 

Principles of decontamination are the 
same as those underlying the nursing 
care of patients with communicable 
diseases and the special techniques used 
in Civil Defence may be taught at the 
same time. 

The heavy responsibilities and ad- 
ditional functions which a nurse would 
have to assume in a mass disaster 
such as atom'c warfare were brought 
out frequently 'n the lectures and dis- 
cussions during the week. It is impor- 
tant that we emphasize the necessity 
of helping the student develop into a 
mature, professional person who will 
react well in emergency situations. 
Special effort should be made to pro- 
vide learning experiences and to utilize 
teaching methods which will he'p the 
student develop skill in human rela- 
tionships, in leader'Oiip, in teaching 
and in acquiring the ability to evaluate 
a situation, to use gord judgment, and 
to act in a purposeful manner. 

Nurses should be aware of and be 
active in the total planning for civil 
defence, particularly in hospital dis- 
aster planning. The need for findirg 
ways of improving our commrn'ct- 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



47 



tions in all nursing relationships was 
also stressed. The nursing service 
administrator's responsibility in emer- 
gency disaster planning was clarified. 
She must know the total plan of civil 
defence on the national, provincial and 
local levels ; be prepared to fit into the 
overall plan ; and stimulate an interest 
in hospital disaster institutes. 

The duties and responsibilities of 
nursing service personnel should be 
clearly defined and a continuous edu- 
cation and planning program main- 
tained. 

T.V. Comes to Annual Meeting 

October 19-20. 1955, marked the 
39th annual meeting of the New 



Brunswick Association of Registered 
Xurses. The sessions were held at 
Hotel Dieu de L'Assomption Hospital 
in Moncton. In an impressive ceremony 
Miss Alma Law, for many years sec- 
retary-registrar of the N.B.A.R.N., 
was given the first honorary life mem- 
bership. The citation was read by Miss 
Marion Myers, director of nursing, 
Tuberculosis Hospital. East Saint 
John, and the presentation was made 
by the president. Miss Grace Stevens. 
The ceremony was televised and 
later viewed with great interest by all 
New Brunswickers. Is this unique in 
the annals of provincial annual meet- 
ings? It seemed to us that it was. 
Congratulations to New Brunswick in 
this successful effort. 



^e T^tdcf^ k t%€i(Ae%^ ie fMCf^ 



Servir 

Le nursing, dans tout son ensemble, re- 
pose sur ce terme. On peut, dans ce domaine, 
ecrire des volumes, executer des programmes 
de recherches, apporter la contribution de 
tout son talent; servir, reste toujours le 
principe fondamental de toute cette activite. 
Des faits, parfois amusants, parfois tou- 
chants, de la profession d'infirmieres, sont 
relates dans les livres et revues. L'etude et 
la recherche ont pour objet I'amelioration 
des services rendus a I'humanite mais une 
conception nette de tout ce qui peut etre 
accompli pour ameliorer le bien-etre general, 
le sort de I'humanite, voila ce qui inspire 
au coeur de I'infirmiere le devouement et 
I'oubli de soi pour soulager et pour consoler 
les autres que cela se passe dans un grand 
hopital moderne ou sur les frontieres les 
plus reculees de notre pays. 

Commemoration du souvenir 
de Katherine Brandon 

Nous avons lu avec fierte dans les jour- 
naux un compte rendu de la ceremonie 
impressionnante qui a eu lieu, a la fin d'oc- 
tobre, a la Reserve Indienne de Morlej', en 
Alberta, au pied des Montagnes Rocheuses. 

Les enfants indiens des ecoles, les chefs 
altiers de meme que les dignitaires du 
Gouvernement ont rendu hommage a une 



infirmiere canadienne en honorant la me- 
moire de Katherine Brandon, ancienne 
directrice des infirmieres au Service de 
Sante des Indiens, par le devoilement d'un 
tumulus de pierre edifie par les Indiens a 
leurs propres frais, en souvenir de ses ser- 
vices devoues. 

Mile Brandon, morte de la polio il y a 
deux ans, a rendu a la population indienne 
d'inappreciables services qui lui ont valu 
I'amour et le respect de plus de 700 per- 
sonnes vivant dans ce vallon. Le Chef Indien 
a exprime du fond de son coeur les senti- 
ments de la bourgade, dans ces mots : "Nos 
coeurs debordent de son souvenir." 

Pro jets des Provinces de I'Atlantique 

Mile Pauline Laracy, secretaire-registraire 
de I'Association des Infirmieres enregistrees 
de Terre-Neuve nous a communique des 
renseignements interessants au sujet de 
changements apportes dans deux de leurs 
ecoles d'infirmieres. A I'automne 1955, le 
programme d'etudes fut considerablement 
modifie, de fagon a permettre que le cours 
comprenne desormais deux annees d'etudes 
intensives suivies d'une annee d'internat. 
L'on a cru qu'un tel programme aurait une 
plus grande valeur educative et serait plus 
attrayant aux futures etudiantes en nursing 
puis, qu'il aiderait a stabiliser le personnel 
infirmier et contribuera, par-dessus tout, a 



48 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ramelioration du soin des malades. L'ela- 
boration du nouveau programme a ete basee 
sur I'importance de preparer I'etudiante a 
repondre aux besoins de la population qu'elle 
est appelee a servir puis a s'adapter aux 
exigences changeantes de I'exercice de la 
profession d'infirmiere. 

Du Nouveau-Brunswick nous arrive la 
nouvelle que Mile E. Kathleen Russell a 
mis a execution son projet d'evaluation de 
I'enseignement du nursing dans cette pro- 
vince. De cette analyse emergeront des 
recommandations au sujet de la politique 
future. II va sans dire qu'au deuxieme mois 
d'execution d'un projet d'une annee, il est 
encore trop tot pour tirer des conclusions ; 
on attend cependant avec impatience la 
publication des premiers rapports. A part 
I'influence que ce projet peut exercer sur 
le nursing en general, il est interessant de 
noter que se sont la les premiers travaux 
de recherche sur I'education en nursing, 
finances au moyen d'un octroi federal-pro- 
vincial. 

Lamp of the Wilderness 

C'est le titre d'un ouvrage recemment 
public par une autre infirmiere canadienne, 
sous le nom de plume "June Spencer" mais 
dont le nom veritable est Mme J. Osinger, 
R.N., diplomee de Toronto East General 
Hospital. Get ouvrage decrit les experiences 
varices d'un service de deux annees dans 
un hopital d'avant-poste de la Groix-Rouge, 
dans un district isole de Garibou. 

Les educatrices en nursing se reunissent 

Le second cours sur "I'integration du 
nursing de la Defense civile dans le cours 
de base" eut lieu au Gollege de la Defense 
Givile a Arnprior, auquel assisterent 64 in- 
firmieres engagees dans I'enseignement du 
nursing et venues de toutes les parties du 
Ganada. Apres une semaine de conferences 
et de demonstrations, Ton consacra une 
journee a la discussion de problemes se 
rapportant a ce sujet. Un groupe de quatre 
infirmieres traita premierement des respon- 
sabilites* et les fonctions supplementaires 
qui incomberaient a I'infirmiere dans le cas 
d'un desastre massif, les differentes manieres 
d'agir, les connaissances pratiques a acquerir 
et leur introduction dans le programme de 
base. Des discussions de groupes suivirent 
la discussion generale. 

On conclut que les principes fondamen- 
taux d'un bon service de nursing devaient 



etre aussi appliques en cas de desastre ou 
d'urgence. II est done important que toutes 
les infirmieres connaissent et comprennent 
les principes de base du nursing et puissent, 
au besoin, les appliquer et les adapter aux 
differentes situations. On fut generalement 
d'avis que I'enseignement des soins en cas 
de defense civile pourrait etre integre au 
programme d'etudes. Les quelques exem- 
ples suivants furent presentes : 

Le soin de cas de psychiatric pouvant 
survenir au cours d'un desastre massif. Get 
enseignement peut etre integre en aidant 
I'etudiante a reconnaitre, en differentes situa- 
tions, le degre de tension nerveuse de 
chaque individu et en la guidant, dans le 
domaine des relations humaines, pendant toute 
duree de son cours d'infirmiere. 

Le soin des maladies causees par radia- 
tions peut etre enseigne des le debut du 
cours de sciences en inculquant a I'etudiante 
la connaissance des matieres radio-a,ctives ; 
cet enseignement pourra ensuite etre con- 
tinue lors du soin de malades devant etre 
soumis a la radio-therapie, insistant sur les 
efifets de la radiation dans la guerre ato- 
mique. 

Les principes de la decontamination sont 
les memes que ceux que Ton applique au 
soin des contagieux et les techniques parti- 
culieres employees dans la defense civile 
peuvent etre enseignees en meme temps. 

Les lourdes responsabilites et les taches 
supplementaires qu'une infirmiere est force 
d'assumer, en temps de desastre, comme 
pourrait par exemple en causer une guerre 
atomique, furent representees a maintes re- 
prises dans les conferences et les discussions 
qui eurent lieu au cours de la semaine. II 
est important d'appuyer sur la necessite 
d'aider I'etudiante a devenir une personne 
professionnelle serieuse qui saura agir cor- 
rectement en face d'une situation urgente. 
On s'efforcera de lui faire acquerir des 
connaissances pratiques utiles, d'employer des 
methodes d'enseignement qui aideront a 
developper chez I'etudiante I'habilete et la 
dexterite requises dans les relations hu- 
maines, dans la facon de conduire, d'en- 
seigner et dans la maniere d'analyser une 
situation, agir avec discernement et de faqon 
pratique, en toute circonstance. 

Les infirmieres devraient etre au courant 
(le I'organisation de la defense civile et y 
participer activement, particulierement en ce 
qui concerne le programme hospitalier. L'on 
.souligna aussi la necessite qui s'impose de 
trouver les moyens d'ameliorer nos com- 
munications dans toute'? les relations du 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



49 



nursing. Les responsabilites de la direction 
du service de nursing en cas de desastre 
furent precisees. Elle doit etre au courant 
du programme de la defense civile a I'eche- 
lon national, provincial et local ; etre prete 
a occuper la place qui I'attend dans le plan 
general ; elle doit de plus favoriser la tenue 
de conferences a ce sujet, a I'liopital. 

Les devoirs et les responsabilites du 
personnel infirmier devront etre clairement 
definis et un programme d'enseignement et 
d'organisation maintenu. 

La Television a I'Assemblee annuelle 

Les 19 et 20 octobre 1955 ont marque 
la 39ieme assemblee annuelle de I'Associa- 
tion des Infirmieres enregistrees du Nou- 
veau-Brunswick, dont les seances eurent lieu 



a I'Hotel-Dieu de I'Assomption, a Moncton. 
Au cours d'une ceremonie imposante, le 
titre de membre honoraire fut accorde a 
Mile Alma Law, secretaire-registraire de 
I'Association des Infirmieres enregistrees du 
Nouveau-Brunswick depuis plusieurs annees ; 
c'etait la premiere fois qu'un tel titre etait 
confere. La citation fut lue par Mile Marion 
Myers, directrice des infirmiere de I'Hopital 
des Tuberculeux, Saint-Jean, et la presenta- 
tion fut faite par Mile Grace Stevens, pre- 
sidente. 

La ceremonie fut televisee et suivie, par 
la suite, avec interet par tout la population 
du Nouveau-Brunswick. Est-ce la un fait 
unique dans les annales des reunions pro- 
vinciales annuelles? Nous le croyons. Feli- 
citations au Nouveau-Brunswick pour cette 
innovation. 



Annual Meefing in Prince Edward Island 



THE 34th annual meeting of the Asso- 
ciation of Nurses of Prince Edward 
Island was held in September, 1955, in 
Charlottetown. Sister Mary Irene. C.S.M., 
president, was in the chair. There was an 
attendance of 76 nurses. 

The morning session was devoted to re- 
ception of reports from the chairmen of the 
various committees. Films on the beauties 
of the Canadian West were shown to stim- 
ulate travel to the C.N.A. biennial meeting 
in Winnipeg next summer. The general 
meeting was opened with an invocation 
by Rev. A. Frank MacLean, B.A., Minister 
of Trinity Church. Greetings from the city 
were extended by city councillor, Mr. 
Picton McCormac. The Department of 
Health and Welfare was represented by 
Health Officer, Dr. B. D. Howatt. 

The theme for the annual meeting was 
Nursing Service. This was highlighted by 
a panel discussion on "The Team Concept 
in Nursing" under the chairmanship of Mrs. 
Lois MacDonald. A film strip captioned 
"Team Relationships in Nursing Care" was 
shown to point up particular areas of the 
discussion. 

The president, in her address, reviewed 
the history of the Association which began 
in May, 1921, as the Graduate Nurses' As- 
sociation of Prince Edward Island. In the 
34 years which have elapsed, the membership 



has grown from 12 to 893. There are now 
over 160 nursing students in the three 
schools of nursing in Prince Edward Island. 

Sister Mary Irene expressed appreciation 
of the invaluable assistance given by Miss 
Jean Church, Dalhousie University, in con- 
ducting a two-day institute last summer 
dealing with curriculum con.struction. The 
president referred to the resignation of Miss 
Muriel Archibald, secretary-registrar and 
her replacement by Mrs. Helen Bolger. On 
behalf of the association, she spoke of the 
outstanding contribution Miss Archibald had 
made in helping the organization grow. 
Regret was expressed at losing such a 
valued member. A very pleasing feature of 
the meeting was the conferral of honorary 
membership in the Association of Nurses 
of Prince Edward Island on Miss Archibald. 
The only other member so honored in the 
past 34 years was Miss Anna Mair, retired 
superintendent of nurses of the Prince 
Edward Island Hospital. 

Mrs. Bolger reported on the past years' 
activities of the Association with particular 
reference to the activities of the Council. 

The guest speaker at the annual dinner 
was Dr. J. A. MacMillan, who talked on 
"Some Aspects of Health Insurance in 
Prince Edward Island." 

Helen L. Bolger 
Executive Secretary 



To be wiser than other men is to be more only courage to see and speak the truth. 
honest than they ; and strength of mind is — Hazlitt 



50 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



KNoxtJ Protein B 




New Study Shows Gelatine 
Restores Brittle Fingernails to Normal 




Brittle, fragile or laminating fingernails 
are the bane of many a woman's exist- 
ence. Now, you can help these patients 
attain substantial relief in a large 
percentage of cases. 

In a recent study • that confirmed 
previous work^ Knox Gelatine was used 
to treat 36 women with fragile, brittle, 
laminating fingernails. Except for three 
patients who discontinued the therapy, 
three diabetics, and two women who 
had congenital deformities, the splitting 
ceased and all other patients were able 
to manicure their nails to a full point by 
the time the study ended. 

Optimal dosage proved to be one en- 
velope (7 grams) of Knox Gelatine ad- 



ministered daily for three months. 
Improvement, however, was noted after 
the first month. 



1, Rosenberg, S. and Oster, K. A., "Gelatine in the 
Treatment of Brittle Nails," Conn. State Med. J. 19: 171- 
179, March 1955. 

2. Tyson, T. L., /. Invest. Dermat. 14:323, May 1950. 

f ————J 

! Knox Gelatine (Canada) Limited 
Dept. CD-13 
140 St. Paul Street, West 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada 

Please send me a reprint of the article by 
Rosenberg and Oster with illustrated color 
brochure. 

YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



51 



Seicctiapt 



Les besoins de I'ecolier en matiere de sante 



"Les exigences fondamentales de la Sante 
presentent trois aspects nettement difFerents : 
I'aspect physique, I'aspect social et I'aspect 
psychologique. C'est encore sur le plan 
psychologique (celui des relations humaines) 
que les exigences de I'individu sont le moins 
bien satisfaites." (O.M.S. Rapport du Co- 
mite d'experts dcs soins infirmiers). 

La verite de cette assertion semble prou- 
vee par I'etude faite dans une ecole secon- 
daire sur "Les besoins de I'ecolier en matiere 
de sante." Voici. en resume, I'opinion de 
chaque membre du personnel. 

Le principal de I'ecole reconnait qu'il est 
de la plus grande importance que I'eleve 
soit accepte par son groupe. L'adolescent 
a besoin d'un sentiment d'importance ; les 
succes academiques et les activites extra- 
scolaires — fetes, receptions, etc. — de- 
vraient fournir aux uns et au.x autres une 
source de satisfaction. L'apparence physique 
a aussi son importance pour les adolescents. 
Les sports et le bricolage favorisent le de- 
veloppement de la force physique et I'interet 
qui sont necessaires a la maturite. 

Lc psychologue enumere d'abord la secu- 
rite (acceptation, adhesion a un groupe) ; 
ensuite la competence (sentiment d'impor- 
tance, d'impression favorable). A ces besoins 
s'ajoute celui qui est plus particulier aux 
adolescents : la liberte d'action ou le besoin 
d'independance. Les adolescents ont besoin 
d'une personne capable d'ecouter. d'inter- 
preter et de conseiller les jeunes de faqon a 
leur faire prendre conscience de leurs pro- 
blemes et de leur montrer comment les 
resoudre et aussi comment transformer leurs 
erreurs anterieures en source de satisfaction 
pour I'avenir. 

Le psychiatrc — Ce qui caracterise I'age 
de I'adolescence, c'est I'insecurite qui accom- 
pagne I'attention portee aux sexes. II est 
important de creer chez l'adolescent une 
attitude saine a I'egard des fonctions 
sexuelles et ceci par une education adequate. 
Trois facteurs importants influencent I'atti- 
tude des jeunes : 

1. L'age de la maturite et la force de 
I'impulsion. 



Travail prepare par Mile Monique 
Ranger, ctudiante a I'Ecole d'Hygiene 
de rUniversite de Montreal. 



2. Le degre d'emprise sur soi developpee 
par I'individu lui-meme ou due a sa 
formation anterieure. 

3. L'existence de ressources personnelles 
et sociales suffisantes qui aident I'in- 
dividu a s'adapter a .ses emotions sans 
qu'elles n'evoluent en probleme. 

Les relations anterieures parents-enfants 
ont sijrement une grande importance dans 
I'etiologie des problemes de l'adolescent. 

La travaillcuse sociale — Les jeux de 
groupe sont les favoris de cet age. Les jeux 
doivent etre choisis pour procurer interet 
et satisfaction et organises en collaboration 
avec une personne comprehensive. Un bon 
programme comprend des activites mixtes 
(danses, receptions) aussi bien que des ac- 
tivites limitees a un sexe. Le programme a 
pour but de fournir a I'eleve I'occasion de 
s'exprimer, de decider, ainsi que de parti- 
ciper au succes du groupe. 

Le medecin — Les problemes de I'ado- 
lescence sont lies a la croissance et sont 
souvent exageres par I'observation adulte. 
Les jeunes doivent etre consideres comme 
des adolescents et non des adultes ; ils ont 
besoin d'etre eclaires au sujet de leurs pro- 
blemes qui nous paraissent sans importance 
mais qui sont pourtant serieux pour eux. 

Le milieu et les experiences du jeune age 
peuvent avoir aide ou nui a I'orientation 
de I'enfant vers I'independance. La compre- 
hension et la direction pourraient compenser, 
dans plusieurs cas. Les adolescents mani- 
festent de I'interet envers leur sante; il est 
bon, cependant, avec eux, de ne pas trop ap- 
puyer sur les maladies ; leur enseigner les 
principes d'une alimentation rationnelle ; la 
proprete meticuleuse necessaire a la guerison 
de I'acne, manifestation due a la croissance ; 
la part qu'ils peuvent prendre dans la pre- 
vention des accidents. Les echecs causent du 
tort a I'eleve. Ils ont diverses causes ; I'ab- 
sence prolongee due a une maladie chro- 
nique, etc. 

Les personnes qui travaillent dans le 
domaine de I'hygiene publique ont souvent 
I'occasion de venir en aide aux jeunes en 
voie de maturite. Elles peuvent le faire par 
leur comprehension de la jeunesse, par la 
sympathie manifestee au moment d'un pro- 
bleme, par la surveillance de la sante 
physique et mentale et par les conseils qui 



52 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



s'y rattachent. enfin, par I'education cles 
parents et des adultes qui s'occupent de 
jeunes au point de vue etude, jeux et loisirs 



ou d'autre facon, a I'occasion de visites a 
domicile, des cliniques. a I'industrie et a 
I'ecole. 



Hypotension 



W. SCHWEISHEIMER, M.D. 



DO YOU FEEL inexplicably tired and 
out of sorts much of the time ? Are 
you frequently depressed and gloomy 
without knowing why? If so, you may 
be one of the lucky people who is 
assured of a long life by reason of the 
fact that you are afflicted with low 
blood pressure. 

Hypotension is said to be present 
in an adult when the systolic pressure 
is around 100 millimeters of mercury. 
This may be anything from 10 to 50 
millimeters less than the average or 
norma!, depending on your age. 
Chronic low blood pressure, while not 
particularly pleasant, is a form of in- 
surance, for statistics show that 
persons so affected almost never de- 
velop high blood pressure later in life. 

Low blood pressure is found much 
less commonly than hypertension. In 
fact, many people are totally unaware 
that their blood pressure is low until 
they are examined by their physician, 
usually in the course of some routine 
health examination. These people feel 
perfectly well ; they have no com- 
plaints but the feeling of tiredness, 
occasional headaches or weakness. It is 
noted most frequently in young adults, 
the incidence decreasing steadily with 
age. It is notable that the incidence 
is higher in women of all age groups 
than in men. 

Blood pressure usually is lower in 
the morning than in the afternoon ; 
lower dttring warm weather or in a 
warm room. Cold weather or sitting in 
a cold room contracts the blood vessels 
and increases the blood pressure. Some 
persons whose blood pressure is nor- 
mal when they are lying down may 
feel weak, dizzy or they may even 
faint because of a sudden drop in the 



Dr. Schweisheimer resides in Rye, 

N.Y. 



pressure when they jump up quickly. 
This postural hypotension has no seri- 
ous significance. 

Blood pressure will be lower after 
severe bleeding due to a reduction in 
the volume of fluid in the closed system 
of the circulation. Following shock, 
surgery, heat stroke or any condition 
where the power of the heart muscle 
is diminished, lowering of the blood 
pressure is a common finding. Similar- 
ly, certain communicable diseases, 
notably influenza, may produce sensa- 
tions of weakness, depression and 
fatigue for months after recovery is 
apparently complete, because the blood 
pressure remains below normal. Heavy 
smoking may reduce the pressure also. 

The carotid sinus is a dilatation 
normally present in the front of the 
neck at the bifurcation of the common 
carotid artery. It is permeated by such 
a rich network of nerves that a blow 
or unusual pressure on the neck in the 
area of the sinus (e.g.. in a boxing 
knockout) may cause a sharp fall in 
blood pressure. Similarly, wearing a 
tight collar may produce the same 
result. A 49-year-old woman went to 
see her physician because of episodes 
of dizziness, "blackouts" and frequent 
attacks of fainting. No apparent cause 
for these symptoms could be found 
until it was learned that they always 
took place when she was sitting at her 
dressing table. Her activities at that 
time consisted of the usual routines 
that women follow of applying creams 
to her face and neck for the removal 
of make-up. This information gave her 
physician the necessary clue to a cor- 
rect diagnosis. She was massaging the 
carotid sinus with sufficient vigor to 
cause a marked drop in blood pressure 
and the resultant fainting. 

Hypotension is a characteristic of 
Addison's disease where there is 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



53 



marked adrenal cortical hypofunction. 
Since too little adrenalin is produced 
by the diseased glands, this lack results 
in abnormally low blood pressure. 
Sometimes these patients will give a 
reading of only 50 to 60 mm. mercury 
as contrasted with a normal of 120 
or even the lower figure associated 
with essential hypotension. 

What can be done about low blood 
pressure? Drugs such as ephedrine, or 
adrenal extracts by injection or by 
mouth, are not necessary in most 
cases. Stimulating beverages such as 



hot tea or cofTee, a cold bath, even an 
ample consumption of water or fruit 
juice will raise the blood pressure 
temporarily thus relieving the sensa- 
tions connected with it. If no organic 
cause can be demonstrated by the 
examining physician, the individual 
affected should stop worrying and lead 
as normal an existence as possible. 
Only occasionally will assistance from 
stimulating drugs be necessary when 
some especially heavy demand makes 
an unusual strain on physical endur- 
ance. 



S<ia4 ^e<Ke€(/t4, 



The Rotunda Textbook of Midwifery 
for Nurses, by O'Donel Browne, M.B. 
et al. 302 pages. The Macmillan Co. of 
Canada Ltd., 70 Bond St., Toronto 2, Ont. 
1952. Price $4.00. 

Rez'ieived by S. Monica Waters, Super- 
visor, Obstetrical Floor, Civic Hospital, 
Peterborough, Ont. 

This book is written primarily for stu- 
dent midwives. The concise presentation of 
anatomy and physiology of the female pelvis, 
the reproductive organs, and the develop- 
ment of the fetus should prove invaluable 
to the student in a Canadian school of 
nursing as well. It will be a useful reference 
text for the graduate nurse or instructor 
in the obstetrical department. 

Normal labor is described. The care dur- 
ing labor and the technique of delivery 
differ somewhat from the procedures in 
Canadian hospitals. The treatment of com- 
plications before, during and after labor 
is essentially similar to that prescribed in 
a modern obstetrical unit in this country. 
Diagrams are excellent. 

This is a readable book — interesting 
and helpful to the nurse in the obstetrical 
department. Student and graduate nurses 
should be aware that the obstetrical nurse 
is trained to assist the doctor. Her duties 
are as rewarding but dififer from those of 
a midwife. 

University Education for Administra- 
tion in Hospitals, A report of the 
Commission on University Education 
in Hospital Administration, by James 
A. Hamilton, Chairman et al. 199 pages. 



George Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, 

Wisconsin. 1954. 

Reviewed by Miss Eugenie Stuart, Uni- 
versity of Toronto, Toronto. 

The study of University Education for 
Administration in Hospitals was undertaken 
in Alarch 1952 by an independent commis- 
sion and staff. The purpose was to question 
the patterns of existing programs in hos- 
pital administration and the direction of 
educational efforts in these programs. 
Criteria for future planning was to be estab- 
li.shed. 

This report was presented to the rep- 
resentatives of the Association of University 
Programs in Hospital Administration in 
December 1953. It was given a divided 
reception. A number of the course represen- 
tatives, while agreeing with the basic phil- 
osophy in the introductory sections of the 
report were in strong disagreement with 
many of the conclusions and recommen- 
dations. It became apparent that there were 
two concepts of hospital administration. One 
view was that it is essentially a business 
operation (the report refers to "the hos- 
pital industry"). The other view was that 
the administrator should be concerned with 
the broad health programs of the com- 
munity and the nation, and with making 
the hospital an integral part of the health 
program. 

As a prerequisite to training, the report 
places emphasis upon accounting and other 
commerce subjects, with little attention to 
medical sciences, sociology and the welfare 
aspects of patients. The recommendations 
as stated were : "the age limits be fixed at 



54 



THE CANADIAN NURSET. 




The incidence of colds . . . was reduced among 
the meal-fed infants . . ." 



ffTHHE FACT that the infants re- 
ceiving a dietary supplement 
of meat had approximately one half 
as many colds as the control sub- 
jects, and that the duration of the 
colds was reduced suggests that the 
feeding of meats to infants helps to 
prevent and shorten the duration of 
colds."— Leverton, Clark, Bancroft & 
Copeman, Jrl. of Pediatrics, 40,761 
(1952). 



Swift's Meats for Babies and for Juniors are 
100% clinically tested. Produced under rigid 
control and ideal conditions they are "Swift's 
Most Precious Product''. Recommend them 
uith complete confidence. There are seven 
varieties . . . beef, lamb, veal, pork, heart, 
liver, liver-and-bacon . . . all 100% meat. 
Also Egg Yolks for Babies, Salmon Seafood 
for Babies and Chopped Meats for Juniors. 
Send for copies of clinical studies on the bene- 
fits of early meat feeding. 



Meats for Babies 



Swift's 

Meals'-Babie; 



SWIFTS 

mosf /?reaous product ^^ ^^^^''" 



SWIFT CANADIAN CO.. LIMITEO. 



Swift 



77 S-.^^..^ ;ri..^- Sim* 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



55 



twenty-one to twenty-seven" ; "the experi- 
ence preference of programs be given less 
emphasis" ; "as a condition of admission 
all candidates shall have completed fully 
and satisfactorily the basic pre-professional 
courses stated." The majority group in the 
Association of University Programs in Hos- 
pital Administration believed that if these 
recommendations were accepted, almost 
automatically professionally qualified appli- 
cants such as doctors and nurses would be 
largely eliminated from the course. Most 
promising, applicants . above the age of 
twenty-seven would be disqualified. It would 
seem that the adoption of this report would 
be a backward step in the training of hos- 
pital administrators. It . focuses,- too much 
attention on the limited business aspects 
and makes the administrator less qualified 
to take his rightful place in leadership of 
our overall health program development. 

The Association of University Programs 
in Hospital Administration majority vote 
disassociated itself from the publication of 
this report. 

Teaching Medical and ^i^rgical Nursing 

by Jane Sherburn Bragdon, R.N. and 
Lillian A. Sholtis. R.N. 70 pages. J. B. 
Lippincott Company, Montreal and Phila- 
delphia. 1955. Price $2.00. 
Reviewed by Joyce B. Campkin, 3107 
Douglas Road, South Burnahay, B.C. 
The experienced authors of this volume 
have carefully outlined a practical basic 
teaching plan. It stresses the modern con- 
cepts of correlated teaching. 

The broader aspects of medical and 
surgical nursing in the outpatient depart- 
ment and, in surgery are presented with 
many valuable suggestions in teaching tech- 
niques. A timely section on Disaster Nurs- 
ing is included among such other topics 
as "Patient Teaching and Care" and 
"Teaching Methods and Evaluation." Con- 
sideration is given to pharmacology and 
diet therapy. Visual aid sources and an 
excellent bibliography are also included. 

It would seem that the teacher using 
this text as a guide in her teaching program, 
would prepare students who have had good 
opportunity to learn to think of the pa- 
tient as an individual. They would know 
the importance of early rehabilitation pro- 
grams and patient as well as family teach- 
ing. They would be adept in providing good 
general nursing care under varied circum- 
stances. These students would become more 
familiar with psychosocial problems which 



accompany illness. They would be familiar 
with community agencies which are avail- 
able to help patients and their families. 

Surgical Nursing, by E. L. Eliason, M.D., 
L. K. Ferguson, M.D., and L. A. Sholtis, 
R.N. 754 pages. J. B. Lippincott Company, 
Philadelphia, Montreal. 10th Ed. 1955. 
$4.75 

Reviezved by Ruih Hallam. 
In preparing this text, the authors have 
outlined the nursing care by basing it on 
the principles involved in the underlying 
condition. This is developed to a greater 
extent than in many texts written for stu- 
dent nurses. The nursing care follows logi- 
cally when the surgical condition is uf],der- 
stood. 

A concise account is given of the disease 
and the surgery performed. Numerous dia- 
grams clearly illustrate the material in the 
book. As a text it is easy and interesting 
to read. Junior students should find no 
difficulty in learning new material. Senior 
students will find it a book of value for 
review purposes. A large bibliography has 
been included at the end of most units. 
This serves as a source of extra informa- 
tion. 

The text begins with a brief history of 
surgery and the importance of good nursing 
care. Factors relating to surgery such as an- 
tisepsis, asepsis, inflammation, pre-operative 
and post-operative care, fluid balance, spe- 
cial therapy, and cancer nursing are dealt 
with in detail. The main portion of the 
text is given over to surgery and its related 
nursing care. Each unit begins with a list 
of topics contained in that section and a 
general introduction. This gives the reader 
a preliminary view of the subject and its 
organization. More specific detail follows. 
The surgery of the various systems or areas 
is discussed individually. 

New ideas and methods have been in- 
cluded. Some of these are freezing anes- 
thesia, cardiac surgery, some aural surgery, 
and body mechanics for both patients and 
nurses. I found this up-to-date book a good 
text and recommend it for student nurses. 

Essentials of Medicine, by Charles Phil- 
lips Elmerson, Jr., A.B., M.D. and Jane 
Sherburn Bragdon, R.N., B.S. 922 pages. 
17th ed. 1955. Price $4.75. 
Reviezved by Florence M. Anderson, Head 
Nurse, Montreal General Hospital. 
This edition preserves much of the ma- 
terial pertaining to pathologic physiology, 



56 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 





Our Navy 
Needs Your 



Nursing Skill 





A Naval Nurse is an important nurse — caring for the health of 
Canada's fighting sailors. 

She leads an eventful life — v/ith opportunities to engage in special 
fields, both medical and surgical and others — to travel — to serve 
her country — to enjoy the status and privileges of on Officer in 
Canada's senior service. 

Our expanding Navy has openings now in its Nursing 
Service — for provlnciolly-registered graduate nurses who 
are Canadion citizens or British subjects, single and under 
35 years of age. 

Apply today! Upon entry you will be offered a permanent or short 
service commission with officer pay, allowance for uniforms, full 
maintenance and other benefits including 30 days annual leave with 
pay and full medical and dental care. 

As a Naval Nurse, you'll find real opportunity to advance in your 
profession! For full information apply to: 

MATRON-IN-CHIEF, 

NAVAL HEADQUARTERS, OTTAWA 

or 

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Royal Canadian Navy 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



57 




anin 

the tablet with the "V" 



because. . . 
Veganin brings 
relief from pain 

Pain upsets a woman's poise and ap- 
pearance, whatever her job. Her work 
becomes much more difficuh, adding 
tension that is unnecessary today. 
That's why rehef from pain is so im- 
portant, especially to nurses . . . not 
just at specially difficult times, but 
every time pain occurs. 
Veganin tablets are recommended by 
physicians and dentists . . . especially 
for "stronger" relief . . . since Veganin 
contains approximately 8 grains of 
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course, complications and prognosis of out- 
standing medical conditions included in pre- 
vious editions. It introduces new diagnostic 
procedures and drugs. Other sections deal 
with therapeutics and preventative medicine. 

The present trend in nursing aims to 
acquaint the student nurse with her patient 
as an individual. More emphasis is being 
placed on understanding the patient's phys- 
ical, psychological and social needs. The 
authors have attempted to illustrate the im- 
portance of the entire medical team in 
dealing with such patient needs. 

The text offers the student a substantial 
introduction to medical nursing. In some 
instances the principles underlying the out- 
lined nursing care have been neglected or 
sketchily presented. 

Chapter 29 is confined t(j tuberculosis, 
its pathology, occurrence, di;;gnosis, and 
nursing care. The material is detailed but 
explicit. Chapter 34, while short, emphasizes 
the potential role of the institutional nurse 
in the community. It deals with disaster 
nursing applicable in times of national emer- 
gency or natural disaster areas. 

The book is well written and easily read. 
Chapter summaries offer valuable informa- 
tion for both study and practice. The bibli- 
ography is mainly drawn from U.S. sources 
but is valuable to student nurses through- 
out the continent. This text is recommended 
for student and graduate nurse reading. 

Report on the Experiment in Nursing: 
Education of the Atkinson School of 
Nursing, The Toronto Western Hos- 
pital, 1950-1955, by W. Stewart Wallace. 
24 pages. University of Toronto Press, 
Toronto, Ont. Price $1.00. 
.\nother interesting and valuable piece is 
fitted into the mosaic of nursing education 
with tlie publication fif this report of another 
experiment. It will be of particular help 
to other schools that may be contemplating 
the shift from the regular three-year train- 
ing pattern to a concentrated two-year 
course in nursing education followed by one 
year of interneship. 

Several prerequisites were established be- 
fore the Atkinson School of Nursing was 
opened : The school must have complete 
control of the students' time during the 
first two years. Nursing education and 
nursing service directors were to be jointly 
responsible for planning the experience re- 
ceived and supervising the student during 
the third year of interneship. A minimum 
of senior matriculation was set as the pre- 



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THE CANADIAN NURSE 



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For your convenience in prescribing 
baby cereals for your young patients, 
Heinz offers, without charge, profes- 
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pre-cooked Baby Cereals. These 
special samples are packaged 100 
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sealed envelopes of each cereal. 

If you would like a supply of 
samples for distribution to mothers 
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JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



59 



ESPECIALLY 

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DENTISTS, 

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DETTOL 




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liminary educational requirement. There 
would be only one class a year. 

Now with the experimental period behind 
it. the most sanguine hopes of the adminis- 
trators who planned and developed the new- 
pattern have been amply justified. "There 
was no one I interviewed who was not wil- 
ling to agree that the graduate of the 
Atkinson School of Nursing today ... is 
better prepared than her predecessor prior 
to 1950." Enrolment in the school has in- 
creased by approximately 25 per cent. The 
improved standing in R.N. examinations, 
written at the end of the second year, must 
be highly gratifying. 

A section of the report is devoted to costs, 
the key problem in the development of in- 
dependent schools of nursing. 



Canadian Red Cross Society 

The following are stafY changes in the 
Quebec Division of the Canadian Red Cross 
Society : 

Appointments — Mary Jl'attsford 
(Hosp. for Sick Children, Toronto) and 
Madeleine Besner (General Hospital. A'er- 
dun) to Barachois, Gaspe Co. 

Resignations — Leone Soucy (Notre 
Dame Hospital ) from Barachois. 



Ontario 

The following are staff changes in the 
Ontario Public Health Services : 

Appointments — Mary Robbins (Kings- 
ton Gen. Hosp., B.N.Sc. Queen's Univ.) and 
Corleen Delaney (K.G.H., B.N.Sc. Queen's 
Univ.), to Kingston Dept. of Health. 
Margaret Kiintz (St. Jos. Hosp., London, 
U. of West. Ont.), to the Separate School 
Board, London. Faustina Faurnier (B.Sc, 
U. of Ottawa), Norma O'Shea (St. Jos. 
Hosp,. Kingston, U. of Ottawa), Catharina 
van Schayk (Roman Catholic Hosp., Aalster 
Weg-Eindhoven, Holland, Breda University) 
and Jean Wilson (Victoria Hosp., London, 
U. of West. Ont.) to Ottawa B.H. Anne 
Leslie (Toronto East Hosp. U. of Toronto), 
from the East York-Leaside H.U. to the 
Scarborough Tow-nship B. H. Kathleen 
Nelson (Northampton Gen. Hosp., England, 
Royal Sanitary Institute) to Stormont, 



60 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Dundas and Glengarry H.U. Arnoldina Petit 
(Binnengasthuis, Amsterdam, Public Health 
Nursing, Tilburg, Holland) to Toronto 
Dept. of P.H. 

Resignations — Joyce f Callahan) Tovey 
and Kathleen (Alexander) Dance from 
Simcoe County H.U. 



Victorian Order of Nurses 

The following are stafif changes in the 
Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada : 

Appointments — Calgary : Mrs. Evelyn 
Taylor (Univ. of Alberta). Campbellton : 
Madeleine Cormier (Hotel Dieu Hosp., 
Moncton) as nurse in charge. Darmouth : 
Jean Atkinson (Royal Vic. Hosp., Mont- 
real). Fredericton : Mrs. J. Breiver (Fred- 
ericton Victoria Hosp.). North York: 
Mrs. Jacqueline Bennett (Toronto Western 
Hosp.) Ottawa: Michelinc I^eforf (St. 
Justine's Hosp., Montreal). Owen Sound: 
Joyce Gillesby (Kitchener-Waterloo Hosp.). 
Toronto : Mrs. Elizabeth Collins ( Hosp. 
for Sick Children) ; Phyllis Erskine (Vic- 
toria Hosp., London) ; IVilla Flock 
(Women's College Hosp.) ; Betty Mickle 
(Victoria Hosp., London) ; Mrs. Cora 
Worthinaton (Public Hosp., N.Z.) Windsor, 
Ont. : Janet Clark and Mary Parkinson 
(both Grace Hosp., Windsor). Winnipeg: 
Mrs. Barbara Siedermann (W.G.H.). Wood- 
stock, N.B. : Mrs. Kay Hamilton (R.V.H., 
Montreal) as nurse in charge. Woodstock, 
Ont.: Joan Ryan (St. Mary's Hosp., 
Kitchener). 

Transfers — Mrs. Frances Coofyer from 
Gait to York Township staff. Stephanie 
Mason from Kitchener to Kingston. Eliza- 
beth MacKcnzic from Chatham, N.B. to 
Bathurst, N.B. as nurse in charge. Ada 
McEzi'cn from Orillia to Edmonton as nurse 
in charge. A^(7;;fv Waller from Windsor to 
Montreal. Donna Wallace from Hamilton 
to Medicine Hat. 



Duty : what the normal person looks 
forward to with distaste, does with reluc- 
tance, and boasts about forever after. 

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JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 



61 



Now Availahle 

Harmer and Henderson: 

TEXTBOOK OF THE 

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

OF NURSING 

Notable Features of the New 
Fifth Edition: 

1 . It is the most complete text of its 
kind. Serving as an ideal text for 
the student, it is also an A to Z 
reference and source book for the 
graduate nurse. 

2. It keeps pace with the growth of 
the nursing profession. Vigorously 
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Planning a Gabfest? 

Part of the fun of attending a convention 
is in meeting your friends and former class- 
mates. Alumnae breakfasts and class re- 
union luncheons are the order of the day. 
The Arrangements Committee for the bien- 
nial meeting hope that you are planning 
such special occasions. If so, let your hostess 
association, the M.A.R.N., know about them 
now so that the necessary' details may be 
attended to and disappointments avoided. 
Last minute reservations can not be made 
as space is too limited. 



ALBERTA 

District 3 

Calgary 

A plaque dedicated to the memory of Miss 
Kay Brandon was recently unveiled on the 
Stony Indian reserve. Miss Brandon was 
the first field nurse on the Stony reservation 
and was greatly respected by all with whom 
she worked. The ceremony included ex- 
pressions of appreciation by Dr. W. L. 
Falconer, regional superintendent of Indian 
health services, and Chief Walking Buffalo. 

A supper party in the Blue Room of the 
Calgary General Hospital preceded the 
November meeting of the Chapter. There 
was an attendance of 54 members. The 
guest speaker, Dr. A. A. Dixon chose as 
his topic "Your Skin and You," discussing 
treatment of moles, acne and hypertrichosis. 
During the business session it was reported 
that a request to have a minimum of four 
meetings a year had been approved. The 
next meeting will be held in January. 



District 4 
My-:DiciNE Hat 

A chapter meeting was held late in the 
fall with an attendance of 25 members. Mrs. 
C. R. McKay, president, was in the chair. 
Suggestions for the program of the 1956 an- 
nual meeting were received and forwarded 
to the A. A. R.N. 

Mrs. A. G. Renner has been appointed 
corresponding member. Miss Bietsch report- 
ed on the plans being made to include 
matrons of small hospitals in the surround- 
ing areas on the Committee of Nursing 
Education. Literature covering nur^e re- 
cruitment was to be made available to try 



62 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



to interest more young women in the pro- 
fession. 

Following the business session, a most 
informative film was shown on "Rheumatic 
Fever." 



District 7 



Edmonton 



Miss Ada McEwen was recently appoin- 
ted supervisor of the V.O.N, branch. She 
is a graduate of the Montreal General Hos- 
pital and studied public health nursing at 
McGill University. 



* let P*^*^ 
«*l? or P»«V 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 

Fort George 

At a recent meeting of the chapter plans 
were made for a bursary tea. The bursary 
fund is to be awarded to a high school 
graduate entering on a career in nursing. 
A successful telephone bridge has helped 
to augment the fund also. 

Mrs. I. Ford reported on the district 
meeting held at Williams Lake. Mrs. M. 
Botsford. assistant registrar R.N. A. B.C., 
was the guest speaker and outlined the 
work in provincial administration of the 
nurses' association. District officers for the 
coming year are : pres., Mrs. F. Haggert ; 
vice-pres.. Miss G. Gowans ; sec, Mrs. I. 
McColl ; treas.. Mrs. I. Ford ; councillor, 
Mrs. M. Kalleur. 

KaM LOOPS 

Looking over the activities for the past 
twelve months the highlight was the annual 
provincial meeting held in Penticton. The 
efforts of tiie local chapter were duly re- 
warded by a most successful meeting. The 
district executive was proud indeed that 
one of it's chapters acquitted itself so ad- 
mirably. 

The annual meeting for 1954 was held 
last fall in the regatta town of Kelowna. 
The spring meeting was held in Kamloops 
where a most interesting lecture on Indian 
medicme was given. The northern chapter 
of Revel stoke was the 'scene of the meeting 
in October, while Vernon is holding the 
spring meeting in 1956. 

The district now has over four hundred 
members from which the local chapters 
draw their ranks. Activities include raising 
funds for several nursing bursaries totalling 
over a thousand dollars yearly, equipping 
local hospitals and helping in the Red 
Cross blood donor clinics. In addition to 
this, members attended the travelling insti- 
tute on Rehabilitation Nursing and Body 
Mechanics which toured B.C. in September 
and October. They also heard a series of 
special interest speakers at their own chap- 
ter meetings. In this way professional 
growth is maintained. 

Members are looking forward to the an- 
nual provincial meeting at Nanaimo in May. 



y 



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RHEUMATIC 

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>trong ... in tubes of 1 2 for pocket 
>r purse, and economy sizes of 40 and 
100 for home use. 



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JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



63 




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Tr.\il 

Twenty-three members were in attendance 
at the November chapter meeting. Plans 
were completed for future activities, includ- 
ing a Christmas party and a January ball. 
Miss Eidt placed a wreath in the name 
ot the chapter on Remembrance Day. Miss 
Rivett and her committee reported a success- 
ful rummage sale. A volunteer to assist at 
the Well Baby Clinic was requested by 
Miss Whittington. Doctors' lectures, which 
form a part of the educational program 
for members, have been resumed and have 
been fairly well attended. 

The guest speaker, Mrs. Frank Jones 
from the Kootenay Society for Handicapped 
Children, gave an interesting address on the 
work and future plans of the society. 

\'aNC01'VER 

.S7. Paul's Hospital 

A highlight of one of the recent meet- 
ings of the alumnae association was a con- 
ducted tour through the new wing of the 
building. Colored slides of a European trip 
were shown by Dr. and Mrs. E. N. Mc- 
Ammond at another meeting. 

The annual home-coming was held late 
in the fall. A presentation of a bust of 
Jeanne Mance was made to the Sisters of 
Charity and Providence in appreciation of 
the work and years of service of Sister 
Columkille. Sr. Columkille, former director 
of the school of nursing, is now in North 
Battleford, Sask. Members of the classes of 
1919 and 1920 were honored guests. Mrs. 
R. Whitney assisted by Mrs. G. Topping 
and Miss H. Hull were responsible for the 
success of the event. 

NEW BRUNSWICK 

MONCTON 

Members of the local chapter of the 
N.B.A.R.N. heard several interesting reports 
at their regular meeting in November. L. 
Colwell, in her report on nursing education, 
announced that S. MacLeod, Moncton Hos- 
pital, and Y. Poirier, Hotel Dieu, had 
attended a short course in obstetrical nurs- 
ing at Dalhousie University. Over 30 senior 
high school students accompanied by their 
vocational guidance counsellor were taken 
on a tour of Moncton Hospital. Members 
of the preliminary class of the same institu- 
tion were presented with white testaments 
by the Ladies' Auxiliar\- of the Gideon 
Society. Two student nurses of the district 
attended the sessions of the annual provin- 
cial meeting. It was also reported that K. 
Russell of the Nursing Research Branch, 
University of N.B. had visited both local 
schools of nursing. 

H. Hayes, president, presented the high- 
lights of the annual meeting. A vote of 
thanks was extended to Miss Hayes and her 
committee for their part in assuring the 
success of the convention. Plans were made 



64 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



to forward Christmas packages to a rest 
home for retired nurses in Edinburgh. M. 
Connolly was delegated to place a wreath 
at the Cenotaph on Remembrance Day. The 
report of the Local Council of Women was 
given by Mrs. J. Innes. At the conclusion 
of the business session, a program of films 
was enjoyed by the members. 

Saint John 

A recommendation to the effect that indi- 
vidual nurses' fees be increased has been 
forwarded to the N.B.A.R.N. by the chap- 
ter. Miss L. Peters presided at the meeting 
in the General Hospital. 

It was decided to place a wreath in the 
chapter's name to honor veterans on 
Remembrance Day. Miss W. Hoosier was 
named delegate to the annual provincial 
meeting. 

General Hospital 

Miss C. M. Gleeson, supervisor of the 
Communicable Diseases Pavilion has retired 
after 33 years of service. She has taken an 
active interest in the work of hospital and 
alumnae associations and community wel- 
fare organizations. The many student nurses 
who trained under her guidance were instil- 
led with her keen interest in a high level 
of accomplishment. 

J. Kimball, J. Farnham, F. Stephenson, 
J. Breen have enrolled for postgraduate 
study at the University of Toronto. E. 
Corbett, D. Buchanen, A. Mahoney, and 
M. L. Blackford are taking postgraduate 
study in obstetrics at the Royal Victoria 
Montreal Maternity Hospital. 

Recent appointements to the staff have in- 
cluded : D. Greive, teaching dept. ; N. 
Wedge, S. Wright, J. Young and M. Frye, 
operating room ; B. Nelson, asst. supervisor, 
male surgery. D. McQuarrie and D. Mc- 
Tavish recently resumed their positions as 
supervisors in the neurosurgery dept. 



NOVA SCOTIA 



Halifax 



"Nursing Aspects in Rehabilitation" has 
been chosen as the topic of a three-day 
institute being held in the Arts and Ad- 
ministration Building, Studley Campus, 
Dalhousie University, March 21 - 23. The 
problem of the elderly patient will receive 
special consideration. 

Miss Elizabeth Phillips, A.M., R.N., Exec- 
utive Director, Rochester Visiting Nurse 
Service is to be the conference leader. She 
will be assisted by Mr. F. Wellard, Coor- 
dinator of Rehabilitation in Nova Scotia. 
Miss Phillips has had extensive experience 
in planning programs of care for the chron- 
ically ill and has participated in many 
projects related to rehabilitation nursing. 
"The Meaning of Rehabilitation" and 
"Nursing Principles and Practices in Re- 
habilitation" are among the subjects to be 
discussed. 



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THE CENTRAL REGISTRY 

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Jean C. Brown, Reg. N. 



October 29 was a gala day at Kitchener- 
Waterloo Hospital when the Diamond An- 
niversary of the founding of the hospital 
and school of nursing was celebrated. 
Opened in 1895, there was accommodation 
lor 25 patients ; today there are 496 beds. 
Old records show that the first public ward 
rate was 40 cents a day! The third annual 
report gives 144 patient admissions for the 
year. In comparison, 11,914 patients were 
cared for last year. 

The original by-laws of the hospital con- 
tain a number of quaint rules : No patient 
was permitted to "retire to bed without un- 
dressing," nor could "any convalescent pa- 
tient lie upon a bed in the day time without 
permission." Visitors required a permit from 
a trustee and were not allowed "to converse 
with patients concerning their disease or 
treament." 

Hundreds availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity to see all the modern features of 
the hospital. The climax of the day's ob- 
servance was the banquet at which the Hon. 
Mackinnon Phillips, M.D., Minister of 
Health for Ontario was the guest speaker. 

District 4 

Port Colborne 

General Hospital 

The appointment of Miss Helen Lauder 
as assistant director of nursing was an- 
nounced late in 1955. A graduate of Soldiers' 
Memorial Hospital, Orillia, Miss Lauder 
formerly engaged in staff and private nurs- 
ing. Later she obtained her postgraduate 
certificate in obstetrical nursing from Hague 
Maternity Hospital, Jersey City, N.J. Miss 
Lauder joined the staff of the General Hos- 
pital when the institution opened in 1951. 
Prior to accepting her present position, she 
served in the obstetrical department and 
more recently, as the medical and surgical 
supervisor. 




District 5 



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Toronto 



IJ^oiiicn's College Hospital 

The class of '55 took charge of program 
arrangements for the November meeting of 
the alumnae association. Of particular in- 
terest was the address by Dr. Serreira, 
Jamaica. Dr. Serreira has helped organize 
and establish training schools for nurses 
in his own country. He came to Canada to 
study the use of Salk vaccine. 

There have been several staff changes. 
C. E. Dixon recently retired. Mrs. Amman, 
L. Maurusaityte and Mrs. Gardiner have 
been appointed to supervisory positions. D. 



66 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




SCHOOL for GRADUATE NURSES 

McGILL UNIVERSITY 



PROGRAM LEADING TO THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF NURSING 

Two-year prograrr for graduate nurses holding McGill Senior Matriculation (or 
its equivalent) or three-year program for candidates holding McGill Junior 
Matriculation. Students may elect to do the major part of their work in one of 
the following areas: 

Teaching & Supervision in Hospitals A Schools of Nursing 
Administration in Hospitals & Schools of Nursing 
Supervision & Administration in Public Health Nursing 

Students who elect Teaching and Supervision may specialize in one of the 

following: 

Medical-Surgical Nursing, Psychiatric Nursing, 
Teaching of Sciences, Maternal & Child Health (Students 
may choose either Pediatric or Obstetric Nursing as a 
major field of interest). 

PROGRAM LEADING TO A DIPLOMA 

Candidates who possess McGill Junior or Senior Matriculation or equivalents 
may be granted a diploma at the completion of one year of study in the 
School. Candidates working for a diploma may elect to study Public Health 
Nursing or Teaching and Supervision in any one of the above clinical areas. 

For further information write to: 

Director, McGill School for Graduate Nurses, 
1266 Pine Ave. W., Montreal 25, Que. 



Mitobe, S. Good and P. Bryant have also 
joined the staff. 

Members of the class of '45 held a re- 
union earlier this j'car. E. (Speer) Patrick 
and G. (Birchard) Grice were among those 
attending. Mrs. M. Gist visited the hospital 
before her return to Singapore. V. Treacy 
is stationed at a base hospital in Germany. 



District 8 



Ottawa 



Civic Hospital 

It is of interest to graduates of her school 
of nursing to know that Mary J. Cullin has 
enrolled in the Advanced Program in Mental 
Health at Yale University School of Nurs- 
ing. This program is in its seventh year 
and aims to train leaders in the nursing 
field to assist in the fight against mental 
illness. Miss Cullin recently received her 
degree in public health nursing from the 
University of North Carolina. Prior to this 
she was enrolled with the Roll of Midwives 
in England, and later served as an attache 
to the American Embassy in Iran. Following 
the completion of her Yale studies. Miss 



Cullin hopes to work in the field of maternal 
and child health. 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 

Charlottetown 

The annual meeting of the local district 
of the Association of Nurses of Prince 
Edward Island was held in October, 1955 
at the Charlottetown Hospital. Miss Ruth 
Ross presided. 

Officers elected for the coming year are : 
Pres., Miss R. Ross ; Vice-Pres., Sister M. 
Patricia; Sec, Miss F. MacLean. Executive: 
Misses M. Maclnnis, C. Gordon, D. Mac- 
Innis, I. Dewar. 

The program featured the presentation of 
a play "Random Harvest" under the guest 
direction of Miss H. Hunter. The portrayal 
was tiiat of harsh treatment of a child and 
its effects. The cast was made up entirely 
of nurses. 

A lively discussion followed the presenta- 
tion of the play. Miss Mona Clay, Child 
Guidance Consultant with the Department 
of Health and Welfare used questionnaires 
to promote discussion and later summarized 
the results. 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 



67 




EXCLUSIVE SOURCE 
FOR 

EVEREST GREEN 

THE GREY-BLUE-GREEN 

PASTEL NOW USED 

IN SO MANY O.R.'s. 



THERE ARE MANY 
REASONS! 



QUEBEC 



Montreal 




MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY 
FOR NURSES 

By Erwin Neter and Dorotha Edge- 
worth. Tliis text emphasizes the 
medical aspects of microbiology, in- 
cluding bacteriology, virology, host 
resistance and immunity. 490 pages, 
130 illustrations, third edition, 1954, 
$5.50. 

THE ART AND SCIENCE 
OF NURSING 

By Ella L. Rothweiler, Jean M. 
White and Doris A. Geitgey. Several 
new chapters have been added to the 
completely revised edition of this 
widely used te.xtbook. More nursing 
procedures are presented than for- 
merly. 819 pages, 180 illustrations, 
fifth edition, 1954. $5.50. 

THE RYERSON PRESS 

TORONTO 



Royal Victoria Hospital 

A most successful bazaar was held by the 
alumnae association in November. Mrs. A. 
B. Hawthorne and Miss R. Ackhurst were 
the conveners. The tables were in charge of 
Mnies. R. McKay, M. Couper, E. Butler, 
D. Greer, K. Dowd, Misses K. Graham, R. 
Ereaux, I. MacMillan, H. MacCallum. C. 
Grimson was in charge of the tea room and 
M. Clark, ticket sales. The response from 
the members in Montreal and in the various 
chapters across Canada was most gratifying. 
The proceeds from the bazaar, amounting 
to over $2300, are being used to pay for a 
second edition of Dr. Edith Buchanan's 
textbook "A Study Guide in Nursing Arts." 
This is being done in recognition of the 
distinction which Dr. Buchanan has brought 
to her school of nursing. 

A meeting of the Saint John chapter was 
held in October. L. (Rising) MacDonald 
was elected president and G. (Parlee) 
Sinclair, secretary. 

P. Lawley has joined the Provincial 
Public Health Service, Dartmouth, N.S. A. 
Davies is on the staff of the Hospital for 
Sick Children, Toronto. C. Walkem, F. 
Dawson, I. Rimstead and P. Walker are 
attending the University of Western On- 
tario. L. Pepper is doing general duty in 
the obstetrical division of Wellesley Hos- 
pital, Toronto. G. Allen has joined the staff 
of the Montreal Children's Hospital. J. 
Henderson who resigned recently from the 
Moncton Hospital, has joined the staff of 
the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston. 

There was an attendance of nine members 
at a recent meeting of the Moncton chapter. 
Mary (MacLachlan) Gillis has been elected 
president. 

SlIERBROOKE 

The first fall meeting of the district was 
a joint session of English and French chap- 
ters. A social evening was spent at the St. 
Vincent de Paul Hospital and was well 
attended. 

Sherbrooke Hospital 

The monthly meetings of the alumnae 
association have shown a good attendance. 
Plans have been made for a fall dance. One 
of the projects being undertaken by the 
members is the landscaping of the grounds 
around the nurses' residence. To raise funds 
for this purpose, a rummage sale was held 
in October. 



SASKATCHEWAN 



Regina 



A meeting of th° local chapter, S.R.N. A. 
was held at the General Hospital. Discus- 
sion centered around the biennial convention 
in Winnipeg, in June, at which the S.R.N. A. 



68 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



REGISTERED HOSPITAL NURSES, 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES, 

and 

Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses 

required for 

^eden^i ^KcUcut ^eait^ ScMicc^ 

HOSPITAL POSITIONS 

Oshweken, Manitowaning, Moose Factory and Sioux Lookout, Ont. ; 
Hodgson, Pine Falls and Norway House, Man. ; Fort Qu'Appelle, North 
Battleford, Sask. ; Edmonton, Hobbema. Gleichen, Cardston, Morley 
and Brocket, Alta. ; Sardis, Prince Rupert and Nanaimo, B.C. 

PUBLIC HEALTH POSITIONS 

Outpost Nursing Stations, Health Centres and field positions in Provin- 
ces, Eastern Arctic, and North-West Territories. 

SALARIES 

(1) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $3,300 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 

(2) Hospital Staff Nurses : up to $3,120 per year depending upon quali- 
fications and location. 

(3) Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses: up to $185 per month, 
depending upon qualifications. 

• Room and board in hospitals — $30 per month. Statutory holidays. 
Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sick leave credits. Hos- 
pital-medical and superannuation plans available. Assistance may be 
provided to help cover cost of transportation. 

• Special compensatory leave for those posted to isolated areas. 

For interesting, challenging, satisfying work, appiy to: 
Indian and Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses : 

(1) 4824 Fraser St., Vancouver 10, B.C.; 

(2) Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta; 

(3) 10 Travellers Building, Regina, Sask. ; 

(4) 522 Dominion Public Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba; 

(5) Box 292, North Bay, Ontario; 

(6) 55 "B" St. Joseph Street, Quebec, P.Q. ; 

(7) Moose Factory Indian Hospital, Moosonee, Ontario. 

or 

Chief, Personnel Division, 

Department of National Health and Welfare, 

Ottawa, Ontario. 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 69 





Worthy of Your Endorsement 




ACTIVE INGREDIENTS 

Zinc Chlofide - Menthol 

aldehyde - Socchorlne 

Oil Cinnamon • Oil Cloves 

Alcohol 5"/, 



In the sick room, your patients prop- 
erly look to you for information and 
suggestions on mouth care. They will 
appreciate the cleansing, refreshing 
action of Lavoris. 




DOES A THOROUGH JOB SO PLEASANTLY 



will be a co-hostess. Delegates to the an- 
nual convention, M. Edwards, E. James, I. 
Colvin gave very informative accounts of 
the sessions. The officers for the coming 
year are : pres., M. Edwards ; first vice-pres., 
E. Bedard; sec, I. Colvin; treas., Mrs. E. 
Parker. Committees : Public health, Mrs. N. 
Kitchen ; private nursing, Mrs. C. Storey ; 
institutional nursing, V. Ryan ; registry, 
Mrs. M. McBrayne. 

Grey Nuns' Hospital 

Five members of the staff and Sr. Papi- 
neau, Sr. Drouin, Sr. Moreau, Sr. LaPorte 
and Sr. Gauthier recently attended the 
Catholic Hospital Conference in Saskatoon. 
The sisters also were present at the annual 
meeting of the Saskatchewan Hospital As- 
sociation. 

General Hospital 

Recent appointments to the nursing staff 
have included : Miss Lyons, as nursing 
service supervisor; D. Ballantine ; A. (Read) 
Stewart as clinical instructor in surgical 
nursing; E. (Kembel) Ulrich as assistant 
nursing arts instructor. 

Late in the fall of 1954 the new wing 
of the nurses' residence was opened. It con- 
tains 30 single rooms, a modern teaching 
unit, a combined auditorium and gymnasium, 
rest rooms, dressing rooms, mezzanine 
areas and storage areas. The teaching area 
is made up of a large classroom with a 



seating capacity of 150 which can be divided 
into tw'O rooms by folding doors. There is 
a nursing arts demonstration room with 
tiered seating to accommodate 50 students, 
a dietetic laboratory, a library, a conference 
room and four offices. The entire wing has 
been artistically decorated and furnished. 

Saskatoon 
City Hospital 

D. Kacsmar and L Levorson are enrolled 
in the teaching and supervision course at 
University of Saskatchewan. L. Wright is 
now .supervisor and clinical instructor on 
the children's ward, while M. King is as- 
sistant nursing arts instructor. 

S. MacFarlane has been appointed to re- 
place Mrs. S. Paine as nursing arts instruc- 
tor. Mrs. Paine has joined the staff of the 
Children's Hospital, Winnipeg. 

Recent graduates who have joined the 
staff are : S. Cherepuschak. F. Clark, B. 
Hayes, A. Hompoth, D. Kindrachuk, J. 
McCuaig, D. Morgan, L. Morland, O. Nagy, 
R. Russell, M. Smith, M. St. John, E. 
Wright. 

The September class of preclinical stu- 
dents were entertained at a tea at which 
their big sisters served. Nineteen overseas 
nurses are receiving their orientation to 
Canadian hospital practices and techniques. 

Hospital building plans are going ahead 
steadily. The latest move was to the new- 
obstetrical section. 



"Stupefiant !" annonce la jeune epouse a 
son mari. "Je viens de lire dans le journal 
que les femmes parlent a la cadence de 



10,000 mots par jour." "J'ai toujours pense," 
dit le mari, "que tu etais une femme au- 
dessus de la movenne !" 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Positions Vacant 

A^VERTisiNc Rates — $5.00 for 3 lines or less; $1.00 for each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign — $7.50 for 3 lines or less; $1.50 for each additional line. 

Closing date for copy and cancellations : 10th of the month preceding the month of 
publication. All letters should be addressed to: The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Director of Nursing & Nursing Education for 160-bed General Hospital. Postgraduate 
course in administration or equivalent experience required. Salary open. Applications 
should give details of education, qualifications & experience. Apply Administrator, 
The Victoria Public Hospital, Fredericton, N.B. 

Supervisor of Public Health Nursing for generalized program m city ol 43,000. 5-day wk., 
1 mo. vacation with extra time at Christmas or Easter. Cumulative sick leave. Pension 
plan. Blue Cross & P.S.I., Workmen's Compensation. Transportation provided or allow- 
ance. For further information please write supplying details of training & experience 
to Dr. J. P. Wells, M.O.H., Peterborough, Ont. 

Supervisor & Public Health Nurses (qualified) for Porcupine Health Unit, 5-day wk. 
4 wk. vacation. 18 days sick leave annually. Car provided. Good working conditions. 
Apply Secretary, Porcupine Health Unit, 164 Algonquin Blvd. E., Timmins, Ont. 

General Supervisors. Operating Room Nurses and General Duty Nurses for new 150-bed 
hospital. Starting salary for Registered General Duty Nurses $230 with annual increases 
to $40. IV2 days per mo. cumulative sick leave; 40-hr. wk; 28 days vacation; 10 statu- 
tory holidays. Apply: Supt. of Nurses, Trail-Tadanac Hospital, Trail, B.C. 

Operating Room Supervisor, Dietitian & Staff Nurses (2). Good salary & personnel policies. 
Apply Director of Nurses, General Hospital, Parry Sound, Ont. 

Psychiatric Nurse to assume position as Head Nurse & Clinical Supervisor of new 
38-bed Psychiatric Unit in a 500-bed General Hospital. An excellent opportunity for 
a Psychiatric Nurse who wishes to assume leadership in developing the policies, pro- 
cedures & teaching program of this new Psychiatric Unit. Patients treated only by 
psychiatrists. The most modern facilities & treatment methods. Cooperative administra- 
tion. Bachelor's Degree required plus Psychiatric experience. Salary commensurate with 
experience & abilities. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Asst. Director of Nursing for 200-bed hospital in Niagara Peninsula. Experienced, pref- 
erably with University certificate or postgraduate training. Good salary & personnel 
policies. Please furnish references stating age, qualifications <& experience. Apply 
Director of Nursing, County General Hospital, Welland, Ont. 

Obstetrical Clinical Instructor for School of Nursing with capacity 195 students attached 
to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or at 
least 3 yrs. experience 5c working towards degree. Located in "all American City" of 
120,000 in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural 
primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, 
Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Nursing Arts Instructor for School of Nursing, with capacity 195 students, attached to 
expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or ot least 
3 yrs. experience & working toward degree. Located in "All American City" of 120,000 
in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural primary 
interests. Salary com.mensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman 
Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Instructor to teach anatomy and physiology, microbiology first term, followed by sur- 
gical nursing lectures and clinical supervision on surgical wards. Starting salary: $255; 
$10 for 2 yrs. experience; $10 yearly increments; IV2 days sick leave, cumulative; 
10 statutory holidays; 40-hr. wk; 1 class per yr. in September. Apply to: Director of 
Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, B.C. 

JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 71 



GENERAL STAFF NURSES 

REQUIRED FOR ALL DEPARTMENTS 

In new 300-bed general hospital to be opened soon 
For further information apply to 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING 

SUDBURY MEMORIAL HOSPITAL 

REGENT STREET SOUTH, SUDBURY, ONTARIO. 



Head Instructor for Training School to teach Sciences. 86-bed hospital; 30 students. 
Complete maintenance provided in comfortable suite. Apply, stating qualifications & 
salary expected, A. J. Schm.iedl, Sec. Manager, General Hospital, Dauphin, Man. 

Clinical Instructor for approved School of Nursing with University affiliation for spring 
1956. Completely modern plant. Convenient Buffalo & Rochester. Starting salary: $3,900; 
other conditions liberal. Apply Supt., Wyoming County Community Hospital, Warsaw, 
New York. 

Clinical Instructor in Pediatrics. Modern 450-bed Hospital. Maximum of 90 Students — 
1 class a yr. Excellent personnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing Education, 
Kitchener-Waterloo Hospital, Kitchener, Ont. 

Clinical Instructor in Obstetrical nursing for dept. with 26-beds & Supervisor of Nurseries 

for dept. with 30 bassinettes. Duties to include teaching & supervision of student nurses. 
University postgraduate course & experience preferred for both positions. Apply Director 
of Nursing, General Hospital, Oshawa, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse Grade I. British Columbia Civil Service, Dept. of Health & Welfare. 
Starting Salary $255, $260, $266 per mo., depending on experience, rising to $298. per mo. 
Promotional opportunities available. Qualifications: Candidate must be eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia & have completed a University degree or Certificate course in 
Public Health Nursing. (Successful candidates may be required to serve in any part of 
the Province.) Cars are provided. 5-day wk. in most districts. Uniform allowance. Candi- 
dates must be British subjects; preference is given to ex-service women. Application forms 
obtainable from all Government Agencies, the Civil Service Commission, 544 Michigan 
St., Victoria, or 411 Dunsmuir St., Vancouver 3, to be completed & returned to the Chairman, 
Civil Service Commission, Victoria. Further information may be obtained from the Director, 
Public Health Nursing, Dept. of Health <& Welfare, Parliament Bldgs., Victoria, B.C. 

Public Health Nurse. Starting salary: $2,844 with annual increases over 3 yrs. to $3,228 
per yr. Previous experience qualifies for a higher starting salary. Cost of transportation 
to Port Arthur refunded after 3 mo. Car allowance or free transportation while on duty. 
Pension plan after 3 yr. service. Apply stating qualifications & experience to Arthur 
H. Evans, Secretary, Board of Health, Port Arthur, Ont. 

Public Health Nurses for generalized program. City of Ottawa, Health Dept. Salary: 
$2,760-$3,240 plus cost of living bonus. Good personnel policies. Superannuation & Blue 
Cross benefits. Apply Employment & Labor Registry Office, Room 118, Transportation 
Bldg., 48 Rideau St., Ottawa 2, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse for Health Unit in south-western Ontario. Generalized program. 
Salary according to experience. Pension plan. 5-day wk. Generous car allowance. 
Group insurance. Apply Supervisor of Nursing, Elgin, St. Thomas Health Unit, City 
Hall, St. Thomas, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse (Qualified) for generalized program, voluntary agency. Salary: 
$2,940-$3,712 depending on qualifications, annual increment. Student program, retire- 
ment plan, Social Security. 5-day wk., annual vacation & sick leave. Car furnished. 
Apply Director, Visiting Nurse Assoc, City Hall, Concord, New Hampshire. 

72 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



REGISTERED STAFF NURSES 

Required by The Provincial Government of Newfoundland 
Department of Health 

For General Duty in small 6-32-bed hospitals. Salary commences at $2,200 per annum on the 

scale $2,200-100-2,300. 

Accommodation in the hospital $40 per mo. 24 working day vacation. Sick leave with pay. 

Uniforms & laundry services free. Successful applicants have their transportation paid to the 

hospital. 

Hospitals situated in the coastal regions of the Province & act as the centre of Medical services 

for group of settlements. 

For further information & application form apply. 

Director of Nurses, Dept. of Health, St. John's, Nfld. 



StaH Nurses for 600-bed General d Tuberculosis Hospitals with School of Nursing. 

Salary: $288-$341. Shift, special service & educational differentials, $10. 40-hr. wk; 3-wk. 
vacation; 1 1 holidays; accumulative sick leave. Apply Associate Director of Nursing 
Service, County General Hospital, Fresno, California. 

Staff Nurses & Operating Room Scrub Nurses for 225-bed General Hospital, 20 mi. north 
of New York City. Salary: $240-$280. $20 extra for O.R. duty & permanent evening 
duty; $15 for permanent night duty. Apply Director of Nursing, St. John's Riverside 
Hospital, Yonkers, N.Y. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty (2) for 76-bed fully modern hospital on C.P.R. 
main line & Trans-Canada Highway to Calgary & Banff. Gross Salary: $205 per mo., 
perquisites $30, $5.00 increment every 6 mo. 1 mo. annual vacation v^-ith pay; 8-hr. day; 
44-hr. wk. Sick leave with pay. Apply Matron, Municipal Hospital, Brooks, Alta. 

Registered Staff Nurses, immediate appointments, in 511-bed newly enlarged and finely 
equipped general hospital. Duty assignments in medical, surgical, pediatrics, psychi- 
atric, obstetrics, or contagion units. Northeastern Ohio stable "All-American City" of 
120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial, and educational friendly activities. 
Living costs reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance advantages of metropolitan 
Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly, cooperative work relations 
and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel policies. Starting salary: $240 per 
mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, recognized holidays, premium 
pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, retirement. Contact: Director of 
Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or collect telephone 4-5673. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty. Initial salary: $200 per mo.; with 6 or more months 
Psychiatric experience, $210 per mo. Salary increase at end of 1 yr. 44-hr. wk.; 8 statu- 
tory holidays, annual vacation with pay. Living accommodation if desired. For further 
information apply Supt. of Nurses, Horaewood Sanitarium, Guelph, Ont. 

Registered General Duly Nurses (2) for 30-bed hospital. Salary: $170 per mo. plus full 
maintenance. Salary subject to increase after 6 mos. v/ith regular annual increase 
thereafter. 30 days vacation after 1 yr. service. Fully modern nurses' residence. Suc- 
cessful applicants reimbursed rail fare after 1 yr. New 60-bed hospital under con- 
struction. Apply, stating age & when available to the Supt.. Dist. General Hospital, 
Dryden, Ont. 

Registered Nurses for modern 60-bed General Hospital situated 40 mi. south of Montreal. 
Salary: $200 per mo. 8-hr. duty; 44-hr. wk; rotating shifts. Many attractive benefits 
provided. Board & accomm.odation available at minimum cost in completely new motel- 
style nurses' residence. Apply Supt.. Barrie Memorial Hospital, Ormstown, Que. 

Registered <S Non-Registered Nurses, X-Ray & Lab. Technician for General Hospital. 
Gross salary for nurses registered in Ont. equivalent to $233.85 per mo. Good personnel 
policies, new facilities. 8-hr. rotating shifts; 44-hr. wk.; 1-day off 1 wk. & 2 the next. 
U/a days holiday & sick leave per mo.; 8 legal holidays per year. Up to $40 travelling 
expenses & increase paid after 1 yr. service. Semi-private Blue Cross with M.O.S. 
coverage. Full maintenance is provided including room, board & laundering of uniforms. 
Apply Supt., Lady Minto Hospital, Cochrane, Ont. 

Registered Nurses (2) for 25-bed hospital. Salary: $210 per mo. Full maintenance $30. 
1 mo. vacation & 3 wks., sick leave after 1 yr. service. Located in thriving town with 
good train & mail service. Apply Sec. Manager, Porcupine-Carragana Union Hospital, 
Porcupine Plain, Sask. 

JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 73 



GRENFELL LABRADOR MEDICAL MISSION 

The Grenfell Mission operates four Hospitals & seven Nursing Stations in 
northern Newfoundland & on the Labrador. Here is a wonderful opportunity 
for valuable experience & an adventurous life. If you are making plans for 
next year, why not consider this splendid service still carried on in the name 
of a great man? 

For full information plaas* writ* 

MISS DOROTHY A. PLANT, SECRETARY, GRENFELL LABRADOR MEDICAL MISSION 
48 SPARKS ST., OHAWA 4, ONTARIO 



Registered Nurses (2). Duties to commence as soon as possible. Salary: $175 per mo. 
plus room & board. 6-day wk., 3-wk. annual vacation, statutory holidays. Situated on 
No. 1 Highway & Mainline C.P.R. Friendly sportsminded town. For further information 
apply Sec. Treas., Medical Nursing Unit, Elkhorn, Man. 

Registered Nurses for general duty in busy 60-bed hospital in Eastern Ontario. 3-wk. 
vacation after 1 yr., 2-wk. sick leave, all statutory holidays. Apply Supt., Public Hospital, 

Smiths Falls, Ontario. 



Registered Nurses (2) for new 30~bed hospital. Apply Matron, Creston Valley Hospital, 
Creston, British Columbia. 

General Duty Nurses. Salary: $230-270, $10 increment for experience. 40-hr. wk. U/z days 

sick leave per mo. cumulative; 10 statutory holidays, (1) m.o. vacation. Must be eligible 
for B.C. registration. Apply Director of Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses for 65-bed hospital. Gross salary; $185-$210. 44-hr. wk., statutory 
holidays. For further information apply Director of Nursing Services, General & Marine 
Hospital, Collingwood, Ont. 

General Duty Nurse (1) for 18-bed hospital. Duties to commence Feb. 1. Salary: $220 
per mo. with $5.00 increment every 6 mo. Board & lodging in nurses' residence $40 per 
mo., 28-days annual vacation, usual statutory holidays. Apply Administrator, Lady Minto 
Gulf Islands Hospital, Ganges, B.C. 

General Duty Nurse for well equipped 80-bed General Hospital in beautiful inland valley 

adjacent Lake Kathlyn. Boating, fishing, sv/imming, golfing, curling, skiing. Initial salary: 
$240, full maintenance, $40. 44-hr. wk. vacation with pay. Comfortable, attractive nurses' 
residence on grounds. Rail fare advanced if necessary, refunded following 1 yr. service. 
References required. Apply Bulkley Valley Dist. Hospital, Smithers, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses. O.R. Scrub Nurse, O.B. Supervisor for new 143-bed plus 32-bas- 
sinette hospital. Good salary & personnel policies. Apply Director of Nurses, Plummer 
Memorial Hospital, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. 

General Duty Nurses for large General Hospital in rapidly grov/ing industrial city. Good 
working conditions, modern equipment. Generous personnel policies include paid vaca- 
tion, sick leave & statutory holidays. Uniforms laundered. Residence facilities available at 
nominal charge. Apply Dir. of Nursing, General Hospital, Hamilton, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses for 430-bed hospital; 40-hr. wk. Statutory holidays. Salary: $235- 
268. Credit for past experience. Annual increments; cumulative sick leave; 28 days 
annual vacation; B.C. registration required. Apply Director of Nursing, Royal Columbian 
Hospital, New Westminster, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses for Medical. Surgical. Pediatrics, Obstetrics. Good salary & per- 
sonnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses for all departments. Gross salary: $210 per mo. if registered in 
Ontario $200 per mo. until registration has been established. $20 per mo. bonus for 
evening or night duty; annual increment of $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 44-hr. wk., 8 statutory 
holidays, 21 days vacation & 14 days leave for illness with pay after 1 yr. of employ- 
ment. Apply: Director of Nursing. General Hospital, Oshawa, Ont. 

General Duty Graduate Nurses for well equipped 72-bed hospital on B.C. coast. Salary: 
$222 per mo. less $25 full maintenance. Semi-annual increments. 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays after 1 yr. Transportation advanced if desired. Apply Mrs. Mark, 
Matron, St. George's Hospital, Alert Bay, B.C. 

74 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



OPERATING ROOM 


SUPERVISOR 


Applications are being received for 


Operating Room Supervisor fo 


•■ February 1956. 


Postgraduate course & expe 


rience required. 


Good personnel policies 


> & salary. 


For further information 


write 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, VICTORIA HOSPITAL, LONDON. 



General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation & postgraduate program. Full maintenance. Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after 1 yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk. 
For further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, N.S. 

Graduate Nurses for duty on Obstetrical, Medical & Surgical Wards. Personnel policies 
as recommended by the Assoc, of Nurses of the Prov. of Quebec. Please apply Director 
of Nursing, Queen Elizabeth Hospital of Montreal, 2100 Marlowe Ave., Montreal 28, QUe. 

Graduate Nurses for 100-bed West Coast General Hospital. Salary: $250 per mo. less 

$40 for board, residence, laundry. 3 annual increments; $10 per mo. night duty bonus. 
1 mo. vacation with full salary after 1 yr. service. 1^/2 days sick leave per mo. cum- 
ulative to 36 days. Transportation allowance up to $60 refunded after 1 yr. Apply Director 
of Nursing General Hospital, Prince Rupert, B.C. 

Graduate Nurses (3) for 24-bed hospital. Salary: $230 per mo. if B.C. registered; less 
$40 board, lodging, laundry. 1 mo. vacation after 1 yr. on full pay. 11/2 days sick leave 
per mo. cumulative. Apply, stating experience to Matron, Terrace & District Hospital, 
Terrace, British Columbia. 

Graduate Nurse for 20-bed hospital. Salary: $190 plus full maintenance. Usual holidays 
with pay & sick leave. Modern nurses' home. Apply Union Hospital, Vanguard, Sask. 

Baker Memorial Sanatorium, Calgary, Alberta, offers to Graduate Nurses a 6-mo. post- 
graduate course in Tuberculosis. Maintenance & salary as for general staff nurses. 
Opportunity for permanent employment if desired. Spring & Fall Classes. Further 
information on request. 

Maternity Nurses for modern 60-bed General Hospital located 40 mi. south of Montreal. 
Salary: $155 per mo. 8-hr. duty; 44-hr. wk; rotating shifts. Many attractive benefits 
provided. Board & accommodation available at minimum cost in completely new motel- 
style nurses' residence. Apply Supt., Barrie Memorial Hospital, Ormstown, Que. 

Operating Room Nurses, immediate appointments, for 511-bed newly enlarged and 
finely equipped hospital; 10 operating rooms now completed. Northeastern Ohio stable 
"All-American City" of 120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial and educa- 
tional friendly activities; living cost reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance 
advantages of metropolitan Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly 



University of Alberta Hospital 

Edmonton, Alberta. 

Requires General Duty Nurses. Salary range: $190-$215 per mo. plus 2 meals 
& laundry. 40-hr. wk. to be instituted not later than March 31st, 1956. 
Rotating shifts, 21 days vacation, statutory holidays, other benefits. 

For further information apply 

ASSOC. DIRECTOR OF NURSING (SERVICE), UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA HOSPITAL, 
EDMONTON, ALBERTA. 



JANUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 75 



See Quebec With Employment Rather Than A Tourist Visit 

GRADUATE NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY 

Where? Jeffery Hale's Hospital 

Why Unique? Only English speaking hospital & training school in 
Quebec City 

For informafion write: 
DIRECTOR OR NURSES, JEFFERY HALE'S HOSPITAL, 54 ST. CYRILLE ST. EAST, QUEBEC, P.O. 



and considerate working associates and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel 
policies. Starting salary: $240 per mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, 
recognized holidays, premium jjay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, 
retirement. Contact Director of Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or 
collect telephone 4-5673. 

Operating Room Nurses, preferably with experience, for 75-bed hospital. Operating unit 
consists of 2 theatres, emergency treatment & recovery room. Apply Supt., Carleton 
Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, N.B. 

Operating Room & General Staff Nurses for 155-bed Acute General Hospital located 
in famed San Joaquin Valley. Starting salary: $285 per mo., $10 mo. additional for O.R., 
regularly scheduled increases. 40-hr., 5-day wk. 2 wk. paid vacation after 1 yr., 3 wk. after 
5 yrs., 1 mo. after 10 yrs. Travel expenses refunded after 1 yr. employment. Apply 
Personnel Manager, Community Hospital, P.O. Box 1232, Fresno, California. 

Experienced Hospital Bookkeeper & Receptionist. Excellent on collections. Would also 
consider Housekeeper's position in a hospital. January 1956. Apply Box K, The Canadian 
Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Dietitian for 65-bed hospital. Good working conditions. Living accommodation available. 
For further information apply Administrator, General & Marine Hospital, Collingwood, Ont. 

Office Nurse with commercial training required for doctor's office January 1956. Must 
have ability to take full responsibility for running large office practice in St. Catharines. 
Apply Box J, The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

General Duty Nurses immediately for new 600-bed hospital expanding to 850-beds. 
Opportunities for promotion to Head Nurse or higher. Located on 128 acres in eastern 
suburb of Cleveland. Starting salary: $3,060 with periodic merit increases to $3,300 per 
yr. Progressive personnel policies include 40-hr. wk., straight shifts, paid vacation, holi- 
days & sick leave. Nominal cost housing available on grounds. Licensure available 
through Ohio State Nurses' Board if desired, providing nurse meets requirements. 
Hospital affiliated with Western Reserve University Medical School. Additional infor- 
mation available upon request. Apply Director, Personnel Relations, Highland View 
Hospital, Harvard Road, Cleveland 22, Ohio. 





UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 






SASKATOON, SASK. 








Requires 






General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric 
Services. Forty-four hour v/eek. Salary $210.00 to $260.00 gross per month. 
Differential for evening and night duty. 




Apply to: 








DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY 


HOSPITAL, 






SASKATOON, SASK. 







76 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



McKELLAR GENERAL HOSPITAL, FORT WILLIAM, ONT. 

Requires 

CLINICAL INSTRUCTOR IN OPERATING ROOM 

Gross salary commensurate with experience, 28 days vacation after one 
year, 8 statutory holidays, sick leave accumulative to 60 dcys; Residence 
accommodation available at reasonable rates. Hospital has recently completed 
a well equipped and stat^ed wing with extensive renovation program pro- 
gressing in the old section. 

APPLY DIRECTOR OF NURSING 



Applications are invited for the position of Director of Nursing for 30-bed General Hos- 
pital. State experience & salary required. Residence accommodation. A building pro- 
gram to replace the present hospital has been scheduled for 1956. Apply Administrator, 
General Hospital, Ladysmith, B.C. 

Graduate Registered Nurses for floor duty for 68-bed hospital, 68 m.iles from Montreal. 
Excellent bus 6, train service. Salaries are in accordance with R.N.A.P.Q. Full main- 
tenance. 8-hr. duty, rotating shift, IV2 days off per wk., 30 days annual vacation, sick 
leave allowance. Blue Cross hospitalization paid by hospital. Apply Supt., Brome- 
Missisquoi Perkins Hospital, Sweetsburg, Que. 

Matron for very active company Hospital in rapidly expanding community. Position 
requires person experienced in organization & supervision of nursing, clinical & service 
Depts. Postgraduate training in nursing administration desirable. Apply in writing to 
Personnel Dept., A luminum Co. of Canada, Ltd., Kitimat, B.C. 

General Duty Staff Nurses for 52-bed General Hospital. Evening & night shift. Beginning 
salary: $300 per mo. 40-hr. wk. Apply Director of Nursing, County General Hospital, 
1375 N. Main St., Lapeer, Michig an. 

General Duty Nurses. Jan. 15-'56 for new air-conditioned 60-bed wing. Salary: $200 per 
mo., after 6-mo. $10 increase. 3-wk. vacation, statutory holidays, sick pay. Benefits in- 
clude free life insurance, pension plan. Blue Cross, free medical & surgical care. 
Residence available. Apply Director of Nurses, Doctor's Hospital, 28 Major St., Toronto. 

General Duty Registered Nurses for modern 18-bed private hospital in iron mining town, 
180 mi. north of Sault Ste. Marie. Starting salary: $235 with annual increase, less $20 
for maintenance. Excellent accommodations & personnel policies. Transportation allow- 
ance after 3 mo. service. .Apply Supt., Lady Dunn Hospital, Jamestown, Ont. 

Registered Nurse for 12-bed hospital. Salary: $250. Duties to commence as soon as pos- 
sible. For full particulars phone or write Mrs. M. Broley, Sec, Community Hospital, 
Beechy, Sas k. 

Registered Nurses (2) for Jan. '56. (3) for June '56. for active hospital 10 mi. from Radium 
Hot Springs, B.C. New modern hospital & nurses' residence to be completed June '56. 
Salary according to R.N. A. B.C. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Bruce Memorial Hospital, 
Invermere, B.C . 

Assistant Head Nurses for children's orthopedic hospital. Good personnel policies. Pen- 
sion plan available. Apply Director, Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, 1529 
Cedar Ave., Montreal. 





UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 




Requires 




ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISORS 


to 


organize the departments of Pediatrics and Surgery in new hospital. 


Salary $240.00 to $300.00. Good personnel policies. 




Apply to: 




DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, 




SASKATOON, SASK. 



JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 1 77 



CANADIAN RED CROSS SOCIETY 

invites applications for Staff and Administrative positions in Hospital, Public Health 
Nursing Services, and Blood Transfusion Service for various ports of Canada. 

• The majority of opportunities are in Outpost Services in British Columbia, 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 

• Commensurate salaries for experience and qualifications. Transportation arrange- 
ments under certain circumstances. Bursaries are available for post-graduate 
study. 

For fuTtbei particulaTs apply: 

National Director, Nursing Services, Canadian Red Cross SoasTT, 
95 Wellesley St., Toronto 5, Ontario. 



Superintendent of Nurses for 30-bed hospital. Feb. 1 or later. Salary: $275 per mo., $40 
per mo. board & lodging. 40-hr. wk. 4-wk. vacation, 11 statutory holidays, 18 days sick 
leave. Pleasant surroundings. Apply K. Scheer, Administrator, Grand Forks, B.C. 

Public Health Nurse Grade 1, B.C. Civil Service. Child Guidance Clinic-Mental Health 
Services, Vancouver. Salary: $255 rising to $298 per mo. Must have completed degree or 
diploma course in public health nursing. For further information & application forms apply 
Personnel Officer, Civil Service Commission, Essondale, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses for 650-bed teaching hospital in central California. Salary: $288-$337 
per mo. 4G-hr. wk. Liberal vacation, holiday & sick leave plan. Apply Personnel Office, 
510 E. Market St., Stockton, California. 

Instructor in Nursing. Faculty position in medical area. Accredited integrated diploma 
program. Northern California college community. Liberal personnel policies. Excellent 
clinical 6c teaching facilities. Progressive faculty. 90 students. Immediate opening. For 
details write Personnel Office, 510 E. Market St., Stockton, California. 

General Duty Nurses for small hospital. Salary: $200 per mo. plus maintenance. 8-hr. day, 
44-hr. wk., statutory holidays as outlined by R.N.A.O. Travelling expenses refunded after 
12 mo. service. New nurses' residence under construction. Apply Lady Minto Hospital, 
Chapleau, Ontario. 

Applications are invited from Canadian trained nurses for a 6-mo. postgraduate course 
in Plastic Surgery commencing April 1. Jaw injuries & burns centre St. Lawrence Hospital 
Chepston, Mon. 109 Plastic Surgery, 50 Orthopedic Beds. Posts afford an opportunity of 
gaining experience in Plastic Surgery methods & seeing something of England. Salary 
£387 a year, less £143 for board residence. Must pay own fare to England. Write, giving 
age & references to T. A. Jones, Group Secretary, 64 Cardiff Rd., Newport, Mon. England. 



SASKATOON CITY HOSPITAL 

SASKATOON, SASK. 

Requires 

General Staff Nurses for General Hospital with a School of Nursing v/ith 200 
students. Salaries starting at $210 depending on qualifications. Increments 
of $5.00 every 6 mo. Bonus for evening & night duty. 44 hr., 5 Vi day wk. 
Good Personnel policies. 

Apply to: 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, SASKATOON CITY HOSPITAL, 

SASKATOON, SASK. 



78 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



we N££D you... 




TO NHP CMILOHH UKB THIS 

The Ontario Society for Crippled Children requires the services of a number of 

qualified Public Health Nurses to assist them in their work with crippled children in 

the Province of Ontario. 

Our requirements call for experience in Public Health Work, and a willingness to 

travel in Ontario. 

We will provide a salary commensurate with your experience, special training in 

Orthopaedic Nursing, an automobile, five day week and Pension Plan and other 

employee benefits. 

\i you are interested or require further information, yf\frite to-day to: 
MISS SARA E. OLIPHANT, REG. N. 

Supervisor of Nursing Services 

ONTARIO SOCIETY FOR CRIPPLED CHILDREN 

92 Collage Street - Toronto 2 

JANUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 1 "^9 



Official Directory 

CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 
270 Laurier Ave., W., Ottawa 

President Miss Gladys J. Sharpe, Western Hospital. Toronto 2B, Ont. 

Past President Miss Helen G. McArthur, 95 Wellesley St. E., Toronto 5, Ont. 

First Vice-President Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver. B.C. 

Second Vice-President . . . Miss Alice Glrard. Hopltal St. Luc, Lagauchetlere St., Montreal, Que. 

Third Vice-President Miss Muriel Hunter, Provincial Health Dept., Frederlcton. N.B. 

General Secretary Miss M. Pearl Stiver, 270 Laurier Ave. VV., Ottawa. 

OTHER MEMBERS OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Presidents of Provincial Associations — 

Alberta Miss Elizabeth Bietsch, General Hospital, Medicine Hat. 

British Columbia Miss Alberta Creasor. 1645 West 10th Ave., Vancouver 9. 

Manitoba Miss Mary Wilson, Ste. 18. Lenore Apts., Lenore St., Winnipeg. 

N«w nninswiclt Miss Grace Stevens, Box 970, Edmundston. 

Newfoundland Miss Elizabeth Summers, 55 Military Rd., St. John's. 

NoTa Scotia Mrs. Dorothy McKeown, 79^^ Allen St., Halifax. 

Ontario Miss Alma Reid, McMaster University, Hamilton. 

Prince Edward Island Sister Mary Irene, Charlottetown Hospital, Charlottetown. 

Quebec Mile Eve Merleau, Apt. 52. 3201 Forest Hill, Montreal 26. 

Sttskatciiewan Miss Mary MacKenzie, St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon. 

Religious Sisters (Regional Representation) — 

Marltimes Rev. Sister Helen Marie, St. Joseph's Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 

Qnebec Rev. Sister Denise Lefebvre, Institut Marguerite d'Youvllle, 

1185 St. Matthew St., Montreal 25. 

Ontario Rev. Sister M. de Sales, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto 2. 

Western Canada Rev. Sister Mary Luclta. St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria. B.C. 

Chairmen of National Committees — 

Nnrsing Service Miss Alice Glrard, Hopltal St. Luc, Lagauchetlere St., Montreal, Que. 

Nursing Education Miss Evelyn Mallory, School of Nursing, University of BrltlsJi 

Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C. 
Publicity & Public 

Relations Miss Evelyn Pepper, Rm. 726, Jackson Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Lesrisiation & By-Laws . .. Miss Helen Carpenter, 50 St. George St.. Toronto 5, Ont. 
Finance Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 

Alberta Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen, Ste. 5, 10129-102nd St., Edmonton. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Britisli Columbia, Miss Alice L. Wright, 2524 Cypress St., Van- 
couver 9. 

Manitoba Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Lillian E. Pettlgrew, 247 Balmoral St., Winnipeg. 
New Brunswicli Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Muriel Archibald, P.O. Box 846, Frederlcton. 
Ass'n of Registered Nurses of Newfoundland, Miss Pauline Laracy, Cabot Bldg., Duckworth St., 
St. John's. 

Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Nova Scotia, Miss Nancy H. Watson, 301 Barrington St., Halifax. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Ontario, Miss Florence H. Walker, 515 Jarvls St., Toronto 5. 
Ass'n of Nurses of Prince Edward Island, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 Prince St., Charlottetown. 
Association of Nurses of tlie Province of Quebec, Miss Winonah Llndsj.y, 506 Medical Arts 

Bldg., Montreal 25. 
Saskatchewan Registered Nurses' Ass'n, Miss Lola Wilson, 401 Northern Crown Bldg., Regina. 

ASSOCIATION OFFICERS 

Canadian Nurses' Association: 270 Laurier Ave. West, Ottawa. General Secretary-Treasurer. Miss 
M. Pearl Stiver. Secretary of Nursing Education, Miss Frances U. McQuarrie. Secretary of Nursing 
Service, Mlss F. Lillian Campion. Assistant Secretary, Miss Rita Maclsaac. 

International Council of Nurses: 1. Dean Trench St., Westminster, London S.W. 1, England. 
Executive Secretary, Miss Daisy C. Bridges. 

80 THE CANADIAN NURSE 







Pretention of Dressing Trauma 



Jelonet is a dressing for all wounds — its non-adherent properties 
protect the delicate epithelium and prevent dressing trauma, 
enabling healing to continue undisturbed. It is used extensively 
in the treatment of burns and as a dressing following skin-grafting 
operations. Other uses include : drainage, packing for deep 
granulating wounds, and as an adjuvant in the treatment of 
varicose ulcers by compression bandaging. 

Jelonet is obtainable in tins of 36 pieces, each piece 3^" X 3^". 

A special size tin containing a strip 8 yards long X V\' wide, 

folded zig-zag, is available for 
Hospitals and Surgeries. Sterile 
— ready for immediate use. 




JELONET 

PARAFFIN GAUZE DRESSING 

Made in England 
by Smith & Nephew Limited 



SMITH & NEPHEW LIMITED 

2285 Papineau Avenue, MONTREAL 24, Que. 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



81 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



VOLUME 52 



NUMBER 2 



FEBRUARY 1956 



86 New Products 

93 Too Few for Too Many A. Girard 

95 Mental Health for Nurses W. H. Cruickshank 

1 01 L'Evolution ue la Cardiologie 

FT SES Problemes P. Duvid 

1 OT Counterpane Land _ L. P. Bell 

1 09 What About Vacation Plans? E. A. Collins 

111 In Memoriam 

112 The Role of the Industrial Nurse 

IN Accident Prevention T. Greville 

114 Schizophrenia A. Stewart 

1 20 Cavernous Sinus 

Thrombosis C. Lawton and M. Hobin 

1 22 With Our Training We Can Help E. Groenewald 

1 26 Nursing Across the Nation 

1 27 Le Nursing a Travers le Pays 

1 32 Selection 

1 36 Book Reviews 

1 44 News Notes 

1 60 Official Directory 



Editor and Business Manager 
MARGARET E. KERR, M.A., R.N. 

Assistant Editor 
JEAN E. MacGREGOR, B.N., R.N. 



The views expressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
represent the policy 
or views of 

The Canadian Nurse 
nor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association. 



Subscription Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $L75; one vear, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 

Student nurses — one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. U.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 

In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $7.00. 

Single copies, 35 cents. 

Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian Nurse. 

Detailed Official Directory appears in June & December. 

Please give one month's notice of Change of Address. 

Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 

National Advertising Representatives: W. F. L. Edwards & Co. Ltd., 34 King St. E., Toronto 1, Ont. 

Member of Canadian Circulations Audit Board. 

1522 Sherbrooke Street, West, Montreal 25, Quebec 



82 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



The answer to the problem of 

CONTACT DERMATITIS 




BARRIERE 

B. D. H. 

PROTECTIVE SILICONE CREAM 



For any condition 
associated with 
irritation or 
sensitization 



colostomy 

Ileostomy 

intertrigo 

decubitus ulcer 

occupational dermatitis 

pruritus ani 



haemorrhoidectomy 

persistent diarrhoea 

chapped hands and face 

fissured lips 

diaper rash 

and related conditions. 



Supplied in tubes of I oz. and jars of 1 lb. 



BRITISH DRUG HOUSES 



TORONTO 



CANADA 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



83 



^etMcett Oe^ueluc^ 



Anticipating the theme for the 1956 con- 
vention. Chairman of the Nursing Service 
Committee Alice Girard, as our guest editor, 
poses some very penetrating questions. Miss 
Girard is keenly alert to the problems she 
presents for she is director of nursing at 
Hopital St. Luc in Montreal. She realizes, 
as do directors of nursing everywhere, that 
there just are not enough pairs of hands 
available to meet the demands for nursing 
service in hospitals and public health organ- 
izations alike. Seeking the answers to these 
questions is the responsibility of every mem- 
ber of the profession. The Committee on 
Nursing Service can and does give superb 
leadership in the quest but 15 or 20 com- 
mittee members or even 1500 or 2000 inter- 
ested nurses are not enough — it is up to all 
of us to give our loyal assistance. 

* * * 

One answer is being furnished by the 
women who are being trained in schools 
similar to the one described by Emily 
Groenewald. Sponsored by the Department 
of Veterans Affairs there are schools for 
nursing assistants in three centres — Tor- 
onto, Montreal and Halifax. Like the 
schools organized under the provincial health 
departments, these schools follow the pat- 
tern defined by the Canadian Nurses' Asso- 
ciation. Thus opportunity is provided for 
persons who are not able to enter our 
schools of nursing to become qualified so 
that they too may swell the numbers of 
those who can give reality to our conven- 
tion theme "Nursing Serves the Nation." 

* * * 

Last September, Dr. W. H. Cruickshank 

gave a very thoughtful address at the con- 
vention of the Canadian Public Health As- 
sociation. He took as his topic the problems 
of Mental Hygiene in Industry. The paper 
was published, as given, in the Canadian 
Journal of Public Health in December, 1955. 
Permission was given for us to reprint it 
but as we read it through, the thought 
recurred, again and again, of how applicable 
all of the points were to improving the 
mental health of nurses. If only we could 
slant the material directly to our profession ! 
Happily, as soon as Dr. Cruickshank was 
approached regarding this possibility he was 



completely willing to cooperate with us in 
this transposition of emphasis. We hope that, 
as and when your tensions may mount, you 
will turn again to Dr. Cruickshank's outline 
of desirable mental health activities to find 
guidance in relieving tension-producing situ- 
ations. 

How can usually active children be kept 
entertained and occupied when accident or 
illness makes it necessary for them to stay 
in bed for a while? Children's hospitals have 
departments of play therapy organized to 
meet this need. Even in small pediatric units 
attention is given to keeping the not-too- 
sick child busy. What happens when he goes 
home? How about the child whose disability 
has not required hospitalization? 

Louise Price Bell, out of her experience 
as a nurse and as a mother, gives some very 
practical answers to these questions in her 
"Counterpane Land." She points out how 
inexpensively the necessary materials can be 
procured. Every nurse, but particularly those 
who see the children in their homes, will 
find this article a most helpful supply cup- 
board of ideas and suggestions. 
* * * 

How are your plans maturing for attend- 
ance at the CNA convention in Winnipeg 
next June? As noted in "Nursing Across 
the Nation," the number of pre-registrations 
is mounting steadily at National Office. How 
about your post-convention plans? That trip 
to Honolulu described by Ethel Armstrong 
Collins sounds pretty alluring, doesn't it? 
Just south of the Tropic of Cancer, the 
Hawaiian Islands are never too hot yet they 
are warm enough for sea and sun bathing 
at any time of the year. 

If your heart was set on the Klondyke 
Gold Nugget tour, we are very sorry that 
you will have to be disappointed. Switch 
your plans and explore the eastern parts 
of Canada instead. Aren't you relieved to 
learn that others besides honeymooners do 
go to Niagara Falls? Be sure to visit the 
National Office when you are in Ottawa. 
The Journal office is very easy to find when 
you reach Montreal. On the south side of 
Sherbrooke Street, 1522 is just east of Guy 
Street. Come and see us ! 



"God must be fond of ordinary people" said Abraham Lincoln, "or he would not have 
made so many of them." 



84 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




ERSONAL AND 
ROFESSIONAL USE 






'mxDteme 



Ml- Purpose Creme is produced using 
iol materials and according to the exact 
a of *BEIERSDORF, makers of Europe's 
amous preparations for skin care. 

NZA CREME keeps your skin smooth, supple 
nd lovely at all times . . . gives it day-to-day 
:ion against winter winds and piercing cold 
11 as summer heat) which rob your skin of 
aral oils. 

more dry, rough, or chapped skin! Vanza 
Mature help you by actively replacing lost 
ration" when your skin has been exposed 
elements; or when you wash frequently 
ioap or detergents. Delightful, smooth- 
ing . . . such a little goes such a long way. 

!.RY USE— Vanza Creme ... a penetrative, 
ent for the care of baby's skin is a proven aid 
nursery. Protects against discomfort of dry 




FOR SKIN CARE 

:RSDORF & CO. A.-G., HAMBURG, West Germany 



"'^^H^Ln. SKIN CARE 





¥•<< 



.,Ei^- 




Tubes: 35 cents and 60 cents 



Jars: $1.10 and $2.50 



skin, roughness and chapping, so common during 
the winter months. It "lubricates" with a choles- 
terinized water-in-oil emulsion, the nearest cos- 
metic approach to the sebaceous secretion itself. 

VANZA SUPERFATTED SOAP-Those sensitive to 
ordinary toilet soap or detergents, or having dry 
thin skin, benefit through the regular use of 
Vanza Superfatted Soap. It is invaluable for the 
nursery as a companion product to Vanza Creme. 

Cake: 25 cent* 

MAIL COUPON FOR FULL-SIZE TUBE 




VonZont & Co. Limited 
357 College Street 
Toronto 2B, Ontario 

Please mail me free of charge a .35-cent tube of Vanza Creme 

and gutst size Vanza Superfatted Soap. 



CITY PROV. 



Edited by DEAN F. N. HUGHES 

Published Through Courtesy of Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal 

NEMBU-SERPIN 

Manufacturer — Abbott Laboratories, Ltd., MontreaL 

Description — Each tablet contains: Nembutal (pentobarbital) calcium 30 mg.; 
reserpine 0.25 mg. 

Indications — As a sedative and tranquilizer in mild anxiety states, tension, insomnia 
and in mild essential hypertension. 

Administration — In mild anxiety states, etc., 1 tablet at bedtime with additional 
tablets during the day as indicated. Maximum daily dose 4 tablets. In mild hyper- 
tension, 1 or 2 tablets daily. 

PLACID YL 

Manufacturer — Abbott Laboratories, Ltd., Montreal. 

Description — Each red gelatin capsule contains: Placidyl (B-chlorovinyl ethyl ethynyl 
carbinol) 500 mg., a nonbarbiturate hypnotic with low toxicity which does not produce 
initial excitation or a "hangover" effect. 

Indications — Simple insomnia resulting from tension, mild anxiety, mild excitement 
or agitation. 

Administration — Adults, 500 mg. 15 to 30 minutes before retiring. Duration of effects 
is 4 to 5 hours. Only mild side effects have been reported — mild depression, symp- 
toms of mild excitation and stomach upsets occur rarely. 

STATIMO 

Manufacturer — Charles E. Frosst & Co., Montreal. 

Description — Carbazochrome salicylate complex, tablets of 2.5 mg., and ampoules 
of 5 mg. 

Indications — Capillary hemorrhage. 

Administration — Intramuscularly, 1 cc. every 2 to 4 hours until bleeding ceases; 
orally, after bleeding has been controlled, by injection or for initial and maintenance 
therapy, 1 tablet every 4 hours. 

VALMID 

Manufacturer — Eli Lilly and Company (Canada) Limited, Toronto 13, Ontario. 

Description — A short-acting nonbarbiturate sedative having a rapid onset of effect. 

Indications — For the management of simple insomnia caused by mental unrest, 
excitement, fear, worry, apprehension or extreme fatigue. 

Administration — Adults: 1 or 2 tablets 15 to 20 minutes before retiring. May be 
administered to patients who are hypersensitive to barbiturates. 

MIGRAINE TABLETS 

Manufacturer — Organon Inc., Canadian Branch, Montreal. 

Description — Contain: Ergotamine tartrate 1.0 mg., caffeine 100.0 mg., belladonna 
alkaloids levarotatory 0.1 mg. and acetophenetidin 120.0 mg. 

Indications — For the treatment of migraine headaches. 

Administration — Early recognition of symptoms and proper dosage are of prime 
importance in vascular headache therapy. A dose of 2 tablets should be taken imme- 
diately upon noticing symptoms of migraine (prodromal stage), followed by 1 tablet 
every 20-30 minutes until the attack aborts. No more than 6 tablets should be taken 
per migraine attack. 

XYLOCAINE VISCOUS 

Manufacturer — Astra Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Contains 2% Xylocaine hydrochloride in an aqueous solution adjusted 
to suitable consistency with carboxymethylcellulose. Cherry flavored for palatability. 

Indications — Provides prompt and prolonged topical anesthesia of the proximal 
parts of the digestive tract. Controls hiccup and reflex vomiting, including severe 
vomiting of pregnancy, and relieves the discomfort of laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy 
and gastroscopy. Useful also in the symptomatic management of acute cardiospasm 
and pyloric spasm, stomatitis, pharyngitis and esophagitis. 

Administration — Administered orally. Dosage as follows: Average dose: 1 table- 
blespoonful administered orally. 

Pyloric spasm: Adults, 1 tablespoonful as necessary, followed by half a glass of 
water, maximum 3 times daily; infants, 1 teaspoonful. 

Gastroscopy and gastric intubation: 1 tablespoonful. 

Esophagoscopy, esophagitis, stomatitis: 2 teaspoonfuls to 1 tablespoonful carefully 
distributed in the mouth and slowly swallowed, not followed by water. 

The Journal presents pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses understand that only a physician may prescribe. 
86 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



THE NEW YORK POLYCLINIC 

Medical School and Hospital (Organized 1881) 



The Pioneer Postgraduate Medical Institution in America 



We announce the following Courses (Six Months' Duration) for Qualified 
Graduate Nurses: 

No. 1. Operating-Room Management and Technic. 

No. 2. Medical-Surgical Nursing — Supervision and Teaching. 

No. 3. Organization and Management of Out-Patient Department 

(Clinics in all branches of Medicine, Surgery — including Industrial 
Nursing — and Allied Specialties). 

Courses include : lectures by the Faculty of the Medical School and 
Nursing School ; principles of teaching ward management ; principles of 
supervision ; teaching and management of the specialty selected. Positions 
available to graduates of these courses. Full maintenance is provided. 

For information address: 
The Directress of Nurses, 343 West 50th Street, New^ York City 19 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS 
HOSPITAL 

SCNOOl oi NURSm 

Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16-week supplementary course in 

OPERATIVE ASEPTIC TECHNJC 

with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic, 
orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic and 
ear, nose and throat operating room 
services. Miiinti-nance and stipend are 
provided. 

For information write to : 

Director, School of Nursing 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital 

Baitimore 5, Maryland, U.S.A. 



WILLS EYE HOSPITAL 

Philadelphia, Penna. 

The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month course 
in Nursing Care of the Eye to Grad- 
uates of Accredited Nursing Schools. 
Operating Room Training is scheduled 
in the course. 

• M.A.INTENANCE AND STIPEND : $165 

per month for four months and $175 
per month for the next two months. 

• Registration Fee is $15 which 
takes care of pin and certificate. 

• Classes start March 15th and Sept. 
15th. Ophthalmic nurses are in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms, and ophthalmologists' 

offices. 

For information write to 

Director of Nurses, 

Wills Eye Hospital, 

1601 Spring Garden Street 

Philadelphia 30, Penna. 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



87 



K-C TABLET 

Manufacturer — Paul Maney Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 

Description — Each yellow scored lemon-flavour tablet contains: Ascorbic acid 500 
mg., menadione 10 mg. 

Indications — For protection against hemorrhage in tonsillectomy and other surgery. 
Also in certain hemorrhagic states coexisting with ulcerative colitis, sprue and celiac 
disease. During last month of pregnancy. 

Administration — Adults, one every 24 hours; children, one-half to one every 24 hours. 
To be used only as prescribed by physician. 

NEURO-CENTRINE TABLET 

Manufacturer — Bristol Laboratories of Canada, Limited, Montreal, P.Q. 

Description — Each sugar coated tablet contains: Reserpine 0.05 mg.; phenobarbital 
0.15 mg. (V4 gr.); and centrine 0.25 mg. Reserpine promotes tranquillity and a sense of 
well-being. Phenobarbital induces sedation. Centrine inhibits gastrointestinal spasms. 

Indications — Spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, especially those asso- 
ciated with tension, anxiety and stress. Also as an adjunct in the management of 
spastic colitis, biliary colic, pylorospasm, peptic ulcers and morning sickness. 

Administration — For oral use only. Dosage will depend on the individual patient's 
response as well as on the duration and severity of the condition. Adults: Usual dose 
is 1 or 2 tablets, 3 or 4 times daily. Children: Dosage according to age and weight. 

SEDWELL 

Manufacturer — Paul Money Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 

Description — Each teaspoonful contains: Fl. ext. belladonna 1/80 min., fl. ext. hyo- 
scyamus 1/80 min., potassium bromide 5 gr., sodium bromide 5 gr., ammonium bromide 
5 gr., zinc bromide 1/10 gr., ext. of hops 1/10 gr., fl. ext. cascara sagrada 1/10 min. 

Indications — As an anticonvulsant in epilepsy and petit mal. Also as a sedative in 
insomnia, hyperthyroidism, alcoholic excitement, hot flashes and headaches of the 
menopause, etc. 

Administration — Adults, as a single dose sedative, one to two teaspoonfuls. For 
continued use, one teaspoonful 3 times daily for 5 days, or 2 teaspoonfuls 3 times daily 
for shorter periods. 

TRAWILL CAPSULE 

Manufacturer — Charles R. Will & Co. Ltd., London, Ont. 

Description — Each capsule contains: Dry extract rauwolfia 4% total alkaloids 10 mg. 
(equivalent to 0.4 mg. total alkaloids), butabarbital 16 mg. 

Indications — Anxiety neuroses, tension states, certain neuropsychiatric conditions 
and essential hypertension. 

Administration — One capsule 3 or 4 times daily as prescribed. 

TRYPSOGEN 
Manufacturer — G. W. Carnrick Co Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Each tablet or coated tablet contains the active principles derived 
from 130 mg. of pancreas. 

Indications — For replacement therapy in pancreatic secretory deficiencies. 

FRENQUEL HYDROCHLORIDE 

Manufacturer — The Wm. S. Merrell Company, St. Thomas, Ont. 

Description — Each tablet contains 20 mg. of Frenquel (azacyclanol) hydrochloride 
(alpha-4-piperidyl benzhydrol hydrochloride), new antihallucinatory, anticonfusion drug. 

Indications — For the treatment of acute schizophrenia. It is specific in this action 
being effective in over half the patients treated. Even in large doses, Frenquel removes 
the hallucinations, delusions and confusion and produces a cooperative state. The 
mechanism of action appears to be localized in the mesodiencephalic activating system 
of the brain. Side effects and drug reaction have not been reported even in doses 
15 times those usually recommended. No ill effects have been observed as measured 
by repeated blood counts, hemoglobin determinations, liver and kidney function tests. 
Clinical reports show no adverse effect on pulse rate, blood pressure or respiration. 

Administration — In acute schizophrenia — One 20 mg. tablet 3 times daily by mouth. 
Onset of action may occur within several hours. Usually 24 or more hours must elapse 
before, clinical improvement takes place. Duration of blocking against hallucinations 
and delusions is relatively long lasting. When discontinued prodromal symptoms may 
recur in about one week. 

HEXAPHENYL 

Manufacturer — Ingram & Bell Limited, Toronto. 

Description — A cold sterilizing solution for the disinfection of metal instruments. 
Contains 1% w/w of hexachlorophene as the sodium salt in a vehicle containing 9% 
w/w isopropyl alcohol and a suitable antirust agent. 

Indications — For the destruction of common vegetative bacteria. 

The Journal presents pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses understand that only a physician may prescribe. 
88 THE CANADIAN NURSE 




Nurses often must devote much time to 
describing good nutritional practices. 

"Meal Planning for the Sick and Con- 
valescent" relieves you of the need for 
repeating over and over again essential 
dietary facts. This new Knox booklet 
presents the latest nutritional applica- 
tions of proteins, vitamins and minerals, 
suggests ways to stimulate appetite and 
describes diets from clear liquid to full 
convalescent. It offers the homemaker 
for the first time detailed daily sug- 
gested menus for each type of diet, plus 
14 pages of tested nourishing recipes. 



If you would like copies of this new 
timesaving Knox booklet, use the 
coupon below. 



Knox Gelatine (Cana <'a) Limited 
ProfessionalService Department CD-14 
140 St. Paul St. West, Montreal, Quebec 

Please send me copies of the 

new Knox "Sick and Convalescent" 
booklet. 



YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



89 



UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 

SCHOOL OF NURSING 

I. Basic Degree Course in Nursing (B.Sc): 

This course provides study in tlie 
liumanities, basic sciences and nursing, 
and prepares the graduate for com- 
munity and hospital nursing practice. 

II. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
(B.Sc): 

A two-year program designed to pre- 
pare the nurse for positions in Nursing 
Education and Public Health Nursing. 
The program includes courses in the 
humanities, basic sciences, supervision, 
teaching and public liealth nursing. 

III. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses: 

One year diploma courses are available 
to registered nurses who wish to pre- 
pare for positions in Nursing Educa- 
tion and Public Health Nursing. 

IV. Certificate Course in Advanced Practi- 
cal Obstetrics: 

.\ four and one half month course of 
study and supervised clinical ex- 
perience in the care of the mother and 
the newborn infant. 

For information apply to: 

THE DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 

UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 

EDMONTON, ALBERTA 



QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 

COURSES OFFERED 

1. Degree Course leading to B.NSc. 
Opportunity is provided for special- 
ization in final year. 

2. Diploma Courses: 

(a) Teaching, Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

(b) Public Health Nursing. 

For infornmtion apply to: 

DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 
QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



PSYCHIATRIC COURSE 

for 

GRADUATE NURSES 

The Nota Scotia Hospital offers to 
qualified Graduate Nurses a six- 
month certificate course in Ptychiatrie 
Nuning. 

• Classes in June and December. 

• Remuneration and maintenance. 

For further information apply to : 

Superintendent of Nurses 
Nova Scotia Hospital 
Drawer 35d 
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia 



NOVA SCOTIA SANATORIUM 

KENTVILLE N.S. 

Oflfers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 

1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 

2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 

3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit. 

4. Full maintenance, salary & all staff 
privileges. 

5. Classes start May 1st and Novem- 
ber 1st. 

For information apply to: 

SUPT. OF NURSES, NOVA SCOTIA 
SANATORIUM, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



90 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
MANITOBA 

COURSES 
FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

The following one-year certificate 
courses are offered : 

1 . Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

For information apply to: 

Director 

School of Nursing Education 

University of Manitoba 

Winnipeg, Man. 



THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 

Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities tor advanced preparation: 

1. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Obstetrics. 

2. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Operating Room Principles and 
Advanced Practice. 

These courses commence in January 
and September of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is given after the first month. 
Enrolment is limited to a maximum of 
six students in each course. 

For further information please write to : 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING 

GENERAL HOSPITAL 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA 



PSYCHIATRIC 

NURSING COURSE 

The Hospital for Mental Diseases, 
Brandon, Manitoba, offers a 6-month 
Diploma Course in Psychiatric Nursing 
to Registered Nurses. 

Applicants accepted in September of 
each year. Salary while taking course : 
$205 per mo. less $25 per mo. for full 
maintenance. 

Upon completion of course nurses are 
eligible for positions on Permanent 
Stafif. 

For further information apply: 

Superintendent of Nurses, 

Hospital for Mental Diseases, 

Brandon, Manitoba. 



THE MOUNTAIN 
SANATORIUM 

HAMILTON, ONTARIO 

TWO-MONTH 

POST GRADUATE COURSE 

IN THE IMMUNOLOGY. 

PREVENTION & TREATMENT 

OF TUBERCULOSIS. 

This course is especially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis Nursing. 

For further information apply to : 

Director of Nursing, 

Mountain Sanatorium, 

Hamilton, Ontario. 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



91 




When little patients balk at scary, 
disquieting examinations (before you've 
begun) . . . 

When they're frightened and tense (and 
growing more fearful by the minute) . . 
When they need prompt sedation (and 
the oral route isn't feasible) . . . try 





With short-acting Nembutal, the dosage 
required is small and the margin of safety 
is wide. And — since the drug is quickly 
and completely destroyed in the body — 
there is little tendency toward morning-after 
hangover. Keep a supply of all four sizes 
of Nembutal suppositories on hand. Be 
ready for the frightened ones r'/npn — ^ 



before their fears begin. 

Abbott Laboratories Limited Montreal 



0.2 Gtn. : 0.12 Gm 
(3 gr$.) • (2 grs.) 



60 mg. 

(1 gr.) 



30 mg. 
[Vi gr.) 



® Pentobarbital Sodium, Abbott 



92 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



m cfldfiDiflo nuRst 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL FOR THE NURSES OF CANADA 
PUBLISHED BY THE CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 

VOLUME 52 NUMBER 2 

MONTREAL, FEBRUARY, 1956 



Too Few for Too Many 



IN ONE OF THE RARE MOMENTS left for 
reading in the busy life of a director 
of nurses, I opened a recently published 
book and glanced at the first chapter 
which was entitled "Too Few for Too 
Many." This punch line, as a radio 
script writer would surely call it, caused 
me to pause and reflect at length on the 
subject, for it dealt with the vexatious 
dilemma of too few workers to care for 
too many patients. This, I thought, was 
surely one of the first problems we must 
solve in order to fulfill adequately our 
motto for the next biennium which is 
"Nursing Service for the Nation." To 
what extent can we Canadian nurses 
fulfill our obligation of nursing service 
to the people of this country? Are we 
facing this problem from the angle of 
actual service given or are we speculat- 
ing in figures, complacently thinking in 
terms of ratios that make us feel good, 
for we do have one nurse per 300 of 
population ? Do we seriously consider 
that our pledge of rendering service 
means that it must be available to the 
rich and the poor ; to the city dweller, 



the mine worker and the farmer ; in hos- 
pitals and at home ; in industries and in 
schools ? Are we fully aware that service 
means : performance of labor for the 
benefit of others or a means of supply- 
ing some general demand ? 

If we accept the fact that we have 
too few workers to care for too many 
patients what are we doing about it? 
We are asking for surveys and research 
studies but can we all truly say that 



Miss Girard, who is second vice-presi- 
dent of the CNA, is director of nursing 
at Hopital St-Luc, Montreal. 




Alice Girard 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



93 



when these are done we make great 
efforts to study, discuss and apply the 
recommendations ? To what extent have 
we used the findings of the Head Nurse 
study? This could help us to a more 
effective utilization of the "Too Few". 

Have we exploited to the fullest the 
possibilities at hand in the judicious 
utilization of our auxiliary personnel or 
are we too busy analyzing our fear of 
this group? If we cannot take upon 
ourselves the whole task of caring for 
the nation — and it seems evident that 
we cannot — then why not face the 
problem squarely and accept the fact 
that the auxiliary group is here to stay 
because we need it ? Once reconciled to 
this idea the sooner we sincerely work 
on the integration of this group into the 
nursing family through adequate train- 
ing, proper orientation and honest 
recognition of its merit, the more ef- 
fective we will be. 

Teamwork, when well organized, has 
helped us to redistribute the nurse's 
load of care and responsibilities and 
thus enhance her efficiency. Have we 
taken full advantage of this precious 
tool? There are a variety of ways by 
which we can improve the service we 
give with the resources on hand, but in 
order to do this each one of us must, in 
a way, be her own research worker. It 
is not given to everyone to be a creative 
thinker but everyone can scrutinize, 
analyze and evaluate her work with the 
object of changing or discarding the 
things that do not seem to fit in the 
complex pattern of our task as we see 
It now rather than continuing to think 
of it as it was twenty years ago. 

Since we defined service as the per- 



formance of labor for the benefit of 
others or as a means of supplying some 
general demand, it seems unwise to 
think that this can be done without the 
help of those who are to benefit from 
this service. The time has passed when 
it was improper to tell of our good deeds 
and to share our problems with the 
public. We have learned through busi- 
ness organizations that it pays to inform 
the consumer of the quality of a pro- 
duct and its proper utilization. Why 
shouldn't the public be aware of the 
problems the nursing profession faces 
in trying to staff more and more hos- 
pitals and public health nursing or- 
ganizations since these are the result of 
public demand ? It will eventually be the 
public who, as the consumer, will in- 
terpret to our various governments our 
legitimate demands as it makes known 
its needs and claims its rights. Yes, we 
do need to build good public relations 
if we want to attain our aims. Nursing 
service for all the nation is the public's 
right and it is the duty of our profession 
to be prepared with the help of the 
proper authorities to give this service 
or to admit failure. Failure is not in our 
tradition. 

When we convene in Winnipeg next 
June let us all reexamine our aims and 
methods in the light of what we wish to 
accomplish. If our goal seems ambitious 
let us remember that a poet once wrote : 
"A man's reach must be beyond his 
goal or what is heaven for ?" 

Alice Girard 

Chairman 

Committee on Nursing Service 

Canadian Nurses' Association 



Have you ever noticed? 

When the other fellow acts that way, 
he is "ugly;" when you do it, it is just 
"firmness." 

When the other fellow doesn't like your 
friends, he's "prejudiced;" when you don't 
like his you are simply showing that you 
are "a good judge of human nature." 

When the other fellow spends a lot, he 
is a "spendthrift ;" when you do, you are 
"discriminating." 

When the other fellow takes time to do 
things, he is "dead slow;" when you do it, 
you are "deHberate." 

When the other fellow holds on to his 



money too tightly, he is "tight ;" when you 
do, you are "prudent." 

When the other fellow runs great risks 
in business, he's "foolhardy ;" when you 
do, you are a "great financier." 

W^hen the other fellow says what he 
thinks, he's "spiteful ;" when you do, you 
are "frank." 

When the other fellow won't get caught 
in a new scheme, he's "backwoodsy ;" when 
you won't you are "conservative." 

When the other fellow goes in for music, 
pictures and literature, he's "effeminate ;" 
when you do, you are "artistic." 

— Continent 



94 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Mental Health for Nurses 



W. H. Cruickshank, M.D., D. Psych., D.P.H. 



WITH EACH ADVANCING YEAR it is 
realized that more and more 
symptom complexes, formerly consid- 
ered to be organic in nature, are ex- 
plainable on the basis of reaction to 
emotional tension, fear, frustration and 
insecurity. These fears and frustra- 
tions, in some instances, lead to actual 
breakdown but much more commonly 
result in translation to physical symp- 
toms that may be referable to almost 
any of the body systems and give 
rise to headaches, dizziness, stomach 
trouble, rapid heart and increased 
blood pressure, to extreme fatigue or 
even paralysis. 

Emotional responses were designed 
originally to prepare the body for fight 
or flight in the face of danger. In a 
complicated society such as we now 
have, where one can no longer respond 
to emotion by physical fight or flight, 
these responses are expressed in dif- 
ferent ways. They can be very dis- 
turbing and the basis of a great deal 
of ill-health. Thus emotional ills ap- 
pear to be disorders of an increasing 
civilization. 

The problem of emotional or mental 
ill-health within the population is no 
small one. The actual incidence of 
disorders of emotion and morale is 
not accurately known. It has been 
estimated, however, that such disor- 
ders account for as much as one-third 
of the total disability rate. About 60 
per cent of the patients who attend 
outpatient departments of general hos- 
pitals do not suffer from organic 
disease. 

In addition to its importance as a 
primary cause of lost time, the effect 
of emotion and attitude on duration 
of organic illness and on rehabilita- 
tion is not inconsiderable.. If one adds 
to this the effect of non-disabling, 
unhealthy emotional reactions on effi- 
ciency, morale and cooperation the 
importance of the subject in relation 



Dr. Cruickshank is medical director, 
The Bell Telephone Company of Can- 
ada, Montreal. 



to overall nursing efficiency is almost 
overwhelming. 

What is our definition of mental 
health? Mental health implies an abil- 
ity to live in harmony with one's en- 
vironment, to survive, to compete and 
to discharge one's responsibility in 
relation to personal capacities, to get 
along with people, to acquire skills that 
are consistent with ability, to obtain 
satisfactions, to accept and to live with 
or overcome personal limitations and 
to accept the consequences of one's 
behavior. Environment must be in- 
cluded in any definition of mental 
health. There are always the two vari- 
ables, the individual and the environ- 
ment. It may be important to point 
out that regardless of the qualities of 
the individual there are some environ- 
ments in which a high level of mental 
health cannot be achieved. 

One of my teachers would greatly 
simplify the definition of mental health 
by equating it to happiness and, in 
turn, to security. He would define 
mental ill-health as unhappiness and a 
feeling of insecurity. Under such a 
definition it can be readily seen that 
mental health is a relative state since 
no human is completely happy or com- 
pletely secure or completely self-suf- 
ficient. This is not to be interpreted 
that few are mentally healthy. Some 
insecurity, and some unhappiness must 
be regarded as a normal rather than 
abnormal state. 

What are the causes of mental or 
emotional ill-health? Those interested 
in the subject quickly come to realize 
that there is never, in a given case, 
one single causative factor, as was 
once thought. The cause never appears 
as a bolt from the blue, nor as a mys- 
terious entity destined to implant 
itself at a particular period on unpre- 
pared soil. The cause is a process — 
something that moves and shapes itself 
in the pas.sage of time. It doesn't just 
happen. The effects of heredity, child 
guidance and habit training, all the 
environmental influences and experi- 
ences in childhood and youth, of phys- 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



95 



ical health, culture, etc., all have a 
bearing on ultimate emotional stability. 
Surely this concept of etiology pro- 
vides increasing incentive in our 
urgent desire to promote mental health 
and to prevent mental ill-health. That 
we have a long way to go in mental 
hygiene is suggested by the large num- 
ber of people who achieve chronological 
maturity while still retaining emotion- 
al immaturity to a degree that inter- 
feres with their ability to live in 
harmony in the situation in which they 
find themselves. 

On the bright side, however, we 
have accumulating evidence to suggest 
that behavior can be predicted and 
that the process of personality matura- 
tion can be influenced. There is now 
good reason to believe that a child 
who is loved will almost invariably 
be capable of loving others. There 
is now ample evidence to show that 
a child who has not had love will be 
hostile and will lack trust in people ; 
that a child who has been over-pro- 
tected, never allowed the opportunity 
to develop independence appropriate 
to his age, will be neurotic and de- 
pendent ; that a child who grows up 
in association with people who have 
respect for the rights of others and 
the laws of society, will also have 
respect and consideration for the 
rights of his fellow-men ; that a child 
who has been rejected will usually 
be resentful, often delinquent and al- 
ways insecure. Much progress has 
been made in the area of child guid- 
ance. Our mental hygiene activities, 
however, must not stop with parent 
education and teacher training but 
must be extended throughout adult 
life. The maturation of personality 
does not stop with the cessation of 
physical growth. Under favorable con- 
ditions it may extend throughout the 
major period of adult life. 

Do these fundamental mental health 
observations just mentioned have any 
bearing on the mental health of 
nurses? Are nurses susceptible to the 
effects of love, recognition, rejection, 
over- and under-protection, satisfac- 
tion, rewards and discipline? We 
know that adults on the surface are 
more sophisticated. We know that 
they have been conditioned by all pre- 
vious life experience. In spite of this, 



my observations would lead me to 
believe that the fundamental responses 
to love, protection, rejection, recogni- 
tion and other forms of stimuli remain 
relatively unchanged in the nursing 
profession. That nurses like to be rec- 
ognized, like to have at least a measure 
of control over their own affairs, like 
to have the opportunity to develop 
skills appropriate to their individual 
capacity and, through the acquisition 
of skills, to enjoy a measure of in- 
dependent security, unfortunately, is a 
relatively recent discovery. 

Observation would tend to suggest 
that the mental health needs of stu- 
dents in a school of nursing are not 
fundamentally different from what 
they are in the home. Just as parents 
now recognize the importance of par- 
ticipation, responsibility, example and 
discipline in child development, so 
schools of nursing should look at the 
advantages of providing those condi- 
tions of work that foster the develop- 
ment of nurses who are mature and 
are capable of independent thought 
and action. 

Nurses like to be recognized. Nurses 
like a democratic opportunity to ad- 
vance and to acquire independent secu- 
rity consistent with their efforts. That 
work should be a method rather than 
just a means of living is a new concept 
but fundamental to mental health. 

The mental health needs of nurses 
are intimately related to the work 
situation. The acute emotional reac- 
tion which gives us windy indigestion, 
clammy hands, rapid heart and difficult 
breathing, for example, when one has 
to give a speech, does little or no 
harm to health. Chronic emotional 
response to a grievance, to frustration, 
to continued fear or to lack of job 
satisfaction, undermines health, pro- 
duces inefficiency and brings about a 
desire for a change in the order of 
things. Chronic anxiety undermines 
health. The importance to the career 
worker of a satisfactory job situation 
is such that if she achieves satisfaction 
in her job her private conflicts become 
of secondary importance. There is a 
good deal of evidence to suggest that 
the opportunity to acquire skills 
through vocation and avocation is 
probably the most important single 
factor in mental health in our com- 



96 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



petitive society. The more skills w,e 
have the more independently secure 
we are. It is more difficult to take 
away our skills than to take away any 
of our other possessions. Our skills 
are our greatest source of recognition 
and our main hope of immortality. 
People can stand great adversity and 
still be happy if acquiring skills and 
progressing toward a goal. 

Work and the work situation, there- 
fore, are important to mental health. 
As would be expected, they are also 
important as causes of mental ill- 
health. Of all the mental health prob- 
lems it is probably true that tensional 
states are by far the most common. 
Many tensional states arise in the 
work and work situation of the aver- 
age nurse. 

Tension 

"Tension" is spoken of rather glibly 
and yet it is rather difficult to define. 
Dr. D. E. Cameron defines tension as 
a state of "preparedness for action." 
This is a very practical definition. The 
physiologists have for years used the 
word "tone" to describe the state of 
a muscle which enables it to act effi- 
ciently and immediately in response 
to the will. Preparedness for action is 
a desirable state and, as would be ex- 



pected, is related to efficiency. A 
muscle that is without tone is clumsy 
and ineffective when called upon to 
undertake precise movement. Likewise 
the person who is not prepared for 
action is ineffective. We all recognize 
the nurse who has a healthy level of 
tension, who is prepared for action. 
She is referred to as a self-starter. 
The head nurse likes to have her on 
her ward. 

Some people have a low tension 
level and require continual prodding. 
They are usually inefficient. 

The accompanying figure shows 
graphically the relationship between 
the efficiency and tension level. As ten- 
sion is raised efficiency increases. As 
tension is increased beyond the op- 
timum efficiency goes down. 

The responsibility of the supervisory 
staff in our hospitals is to maintain 
the tension of nurses at an efficient 
level. Sometimes they fail to realize, 
however, that when the tension level 
is raised too high, efficiency goes 
down. Excessive tension, when pro- 
longed, not only reduces efficiency but 
undermines health. 

The effective nurse is the one who 
can maintain her tension level at or 
near peak efficiency. She will occasion- 
ally get the wheels going too fast and 
then cut back a bit as she notices that 



EFFECT OF TENSION 
ON EMPLOYEE EFFICIENCY 



OPTIMUM TENSION , 

FOR THE INDIVIOUAL] 




EXCESSIVE TENSION 

EDGY 

— SENSE OF BEING PUSHED 

— CONCENTRATION BEGINS TO SUFFER 
DIFFICULT TO RELAX - FATIGUE 
--SLEEP AND APPETITE DISTURBED 
— DIFFICULTY IN MAKING DECISIONS 
ANXIETY 

-MOOD SWINGS WIDEN 
—AGITATION 
PANIC 
—DEPRESSION 
—COMPLETELY INEFFECTIVE 



TENSION LEVEL 

FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



97 



she becomes edgy or irritable and not 
quite so effective. To some, however, 
such symptoms are merely a signal 
calling for greater effort or increased 
activity. When this occurs, a vicious 
circle is established with productivity 
going down and tension going up. 
Under these conditions typical symp- 
toms develop. Concentration begins to 
suffer. Relaxation is impossible. Fa- 
tigue develops. Adrenalin is pumped 
into the blood stream too fast. This 
is the fear reaction. Sleep and appetite 
are disturbed. The heart may start to 
pound. Decisions become increasingly 
difficult. With indecisiveness comes 
real anxiety followed by depression, 
a feeling of hopelessness. Agitation 
usually precedes panic. At this stage, 
such a person needs positive help. 
Relatively few people go through the 
entire cycle, but, many nurses do get 
over into dangerous tension levels with 
adverse effects both on their work 
and their health. 

The ability to withstand tension 
varies markedly from person to per- 
son. It is important to realize that 
everyone is susceptible to unhealthy 
tension levels under certain conditions. 
Everyone has a breaking point. In 
some, however, the tension tolerance, 
for one reason or another, is very 
low. The mere effort of living, even 
in a protected environment, may pro- 
duce disabling tension levels. At the 
other end of the scale some can ap- 
parently withstand almost endless 
tension-producing stimuli with surpris- 
ingly little in the way of impairment 
to efficiency. 

What causes the wide variation in 
the susceptibility of people to tension ? 
There may be heredity factors. These 
do not seem to be very important. 
Most of us would agree that environ- 
mental influences are more important 
in determining our personality devel- 
opment and our ability to withstand 
tension. The ability to withstand ten- 
sion depends on all of our past experi- 
ence including our habit training, our 
opportunities to accept and deal with 
responsibility, our intellectual capacity, 
our physical health and, undoubtedly, 
on our philosophy of life. 

Susceptibility to Tension 
There are certain groups of people 



who are characteristically more suscep- 
tible to tension than others : 

1. Physically handicapped persons do 
not stand tension well. Nurses with 
hearing defects, fallen arches, arthritic 
involvements, etc., compete unfavorably, 
both socially and economically, and un- 
less they possess unusual personality 
maturity tend to be tension prone. 

2. Advancing years may be a factor. 
Our society tends to discard age and 
experience in favor of youth. Older 
nurses are at a disadvantage and they 
tend, for this reason, to be tension 
prone. There are many reasons for this. 
Often older people have not achieved the 
goals they have set for themselves. 
They have become less adaptable. Often 
they have devoted a major portion of 
their lives to one position and they may 
resent new authority. The pre-retire- 
ment group are particularly susceptible 
to tension and require careful and ex- 
tremely considerate leadership. 

3. People with certain personality 
characteristics are tension prone. Those 
who lack confidence, those who are 
hostile and do not trust people, those 
who find it difficult to work with people, 
those who are easily frustrated or are 
highly sensitive are prone to excessive 
tension. 

4. The type of motivation in the in- 
dividual has a bearing on susceptibility 
to tension. Those who are over-motiv- 
ated are impatient and tension prone. 
Those who are poorly motivated are 
tension prone if prodded. Those with 
conflicting motives tend to be tension 
prone. Those who are over-motivated 
who also have limited capacity, are 
particularly susceptible to tension. 

Tension Stimuli 

So people vary in their ability to 
withstand tension. The process of liv- 
ing inevitably produces contact with 
tension-producing stimuli. These may 
be related to problems in the home, 
in the community or at work. Some 
of the factors that are tension-produc- 
ing may be listed : 

1. Responsibility factor — The amount 
and kind of responsibility have a bear- 
ing. Strangely enough, work with not 
enough responsibility will produce ex- 
cessive levels of tension in aggressive 
people just as readily as work with 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



•excessive responsibility. Any form of 
supervisory work, from the director of 
nursing down to the most junior 
assistant head nurse, carries a poten- 
tially high tension rating. It is important 
to realize that when responsibility is 
clearly defined it is much less tension- 
producing than indefinite or ill-defined 
responsibility. Responsibility accom- 
panied by authority is less tension- 
producing than responsibility that is 
devoid of authority. These are important 
considerations in the placement of stafT. 

2. Physical factors — Where the phys- 
ical demands of the work are beyond 
the physical capacity of the nurse, 
tension is prone to develop. This is 
readily observed in the older nurses 
who return to work, perhaps after years 
of separation from actual nursing care. 

3. Unpredictable flow of work — 
Surges of responsibility and patient-load 
affect the level of tension. The adverse 
effect is exaggerated if there does not 
seem to be justifiable cause for the 
change of pace. 

4. Intellectual requirement — Work 
requiring either more or less capacity 
than the individual nurse has tends to 
produce insecurity or boredom, with 
resultant unhealthy tension levels. 

5. Pressure — The feeling of being 
pushed either by the volume of work 
to be done or by time in which to do 
it effectively is typically tension-produc- 
ing. 

6. Repetitive tasks — Doing the same 
routine duties over and over again usu- 
ally demands only a limited range of 
the nurse's skills and thus may be ten- 
sion-producing. This is a major problem 
in considering the mental health of 
nurses. 

7. Creative work — There are fewer 
opportunities for creative or imaginative 
effort in nursing activities than in many 
other professions or occupations. In 
some persons, this lack of opportunity 
for recognition may produce tension. 

Working Environment 

The working environment has a 
hearing on the tension level. Some of 
the factors that are of importance 
in this connection may be listed : 
1. Supervision: The administration's 
job is to keep the tension at an effi- 
cient level. If it is too low, work suffers. 



If it is too high both work and health 
suffer. The leadership ability of the 
supervisor is important in this regard. 
When staff nurses lack confidence in 
the supervisor or the head nurse the 
tension level of the entire group is af- 
fected. If the supervisor is a poor leader, 
if she discriminates, if she fails to rec- 
ognize good work, the tension level is 
affected and poorer work results. Good 
supervision will go a long way toward 
maintaining healthy levels of tension in 
any situation. 

2. Rigid standards tend to raise ten- 
sion levels. This is particularly so if 
the need for such rigidity is neither 
understood nor considered necessary by 
the staff members. 

3. Non-Acceptance: In group activ- 
ities it is essential to be and feel a part 
of the group. A nurse who feels that 
she is not accepted by the head nurse, 
by the staff on the ward or even by the 
patients will be inefficient and tension 
prone. A supervisor who is not accepted 
by subordinates will develop unhealthy 
tension. 

We have reviewed at some length 
factors that influence tension level, in- 
cluding variations in susceptibility to 
tension. We have discussed the ad- 
verse effect of tension on physical and 
mental health and on the level of work. 
What can be done about it? How can 
we develop working conditions that 
will avoid these undesirable results? 

It is important again to state that 
an optimum level of tension is essen- 
tial. In fact the whole administrative 
stafif has an obligation to keep the 
tension of the nursing team at an ef- 
fective level. This is not only healthy 
for the work to be done but there is 
some indication that it is also healthy 
for the nurses involved. However, the 
prevention of unhealthy or inefificient 
levels of tension is one of the big chal- 
lenges in a mental hygiene program. 

Mental Health . Practices 

This brings us to a discussion of 
desirable mental health activities : 
1. Hospital Policies: The mental 
health program in any hospital starts 
with its broad policies of administration. 
Those poHcies that enhance the qualities 
of the individual nurses, both graduate 
and student, by contributing to their 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



99 



satisfactions and their recognition, those 
that encourage their participation and 
foster their growth and development 
contribute to their mental heahh. Those 
policies that degrade the status of the 
individual produce anxiety, feelings of 
tension, insecurity, and inevitably result 
in mental ill-health. 

2. Leadership: Just as the major 
share of responsibility in child guidance 
has fallen on the shoulders of parents 
and teachers, so the burden of mental 
health and morale in hospital work 
must fall on those who are in authority 
— the doctors, the administrative offi- 
cers, the instructors, the supervisors and 
head nurses. All group effort depends 
on organization which demands leader- 
ship. 

Leadership may be defined as the skill 
in developing cooperative effort. Good 
leadership is probably the most impor- 
tant single factor in any mental health 
program. It is a skill requiring great 
ability and wide experience. Leaders 
are not born. They acquire their skills 
by training and doing. The selection, 
continued training and development of 
leaders is an important challenge. The 
crucial inter-personal relationship on the 
ward takes place between the nurse 
and the first level of management. Un- 
fortunately the first level of manage- 
ment, the head nurse, is usually the least 
experienced. She may or may not have 
special aptitudes of leadership. She often 
has not had extensive experience and 
certainly is not likely to have had much 
practice in leading people. 

3. Conditions of zvork: Working con- 
ditions which provide, among other 
things, freedom from discrimination, a 
democratic opportunity to advance, work 
assignments that are meaningful and 
lead to the development of useful skills, 
a healthy degree of security, and re- 
wards that are roughly commensurate 
with effort, are fundamental to morale 
and to mental health. 

4. Placement (vocational guidance): 
Careful placement of nurses in positions 
from which they can gain satisfaction 
is a vital consideration in mental health. 
This is particularly true in the appoint- 
ment of young graduates. When they 
are placed in positions that are beyond 
their ability, they become insecure and 
unhappy through lack of accomplish- 
ment. On the other hand, a nurse 



obtains little in the way of lasting satis- 
faction from work that requires only a 
limited portion of her ability. The chal- 
lenge in placement, then, is to ascertain 
the interests, abilities and aptitudes of 
applicants and to place them at work 
for which they are physically and men- 
tally suited. 

5. In-service training: An adequate 
orientation program, including introduc- 
tion into the hospital and into new 
assignments, does a good deal to over- 
come the insecurity and tension which 
always results when people find them- 
selves in new situations. In-service 
training is extremely important in facil- 
itating the acquisition of new nursing 
skills. Management training, including 
such subjects as human relations, ob- 
servation and study of human behavior, 
conference leadership, communication, 
administration etc., offers tremendous 
opportunities for improving the leader- 
ship skills, of our potential supervisors. 

6. Medical services: 

(a) Diagnosis and placement: The 
early recognition and suitable placement 
of the tension prone is important in the 
maintenance of health and good work. 
Ready access to health counselling 
services, the preplacement examination 
and the periodic examination provide 
important opportunities for preventive 
work on an individual basis. 

(b) Treatment: Prevention and 
case-finding are important parts of the 
health job. Emotional first aid measures 
can often prevent breakdowns requiring 
prolonged therapy. In the average hos- 
pital health service, physicians and 
nurses undertake much more counselling 
in relation to mental health problems 
than in relation to organic disease. 
Their work would be relatively ineffec- 
tive unless they were students of human 
behavior. 

(c) Education: You cannot teach 
mental health. Assistance in personality 
development, through counselling, is 
constructive. Those who like people can 
readily become students of human be- 
havior and with sufficient experience 
can learn to interpret the significance 
of behavior patterns. 

(d) Rehabilitation: The early and 
safe return to work following illness, 
organic or otherwise, is an important 
consideration in the maintenance of 
health. Disabling injury or disease al- 



100 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ways produces insecurity. The mental 
health factors are usually the major 
consideration in rehabilitation programs. 
They are much more difficult to deal 
with than organic factors. Rehabilitation 
following major mental illness is a prob- 
lem requiring a highly coordinated 
effort. 

That health, morale and efficiency 
are inseparable is a well-established 



fact. That the maintenance of emotional 
health offers the greatest challenge to 
medicine, psychiatry and to public 
health, unfortunately has been recog- 
nized only within recent times. That 
a nurse's job, her relationships to her 
colleagues and to her supervisors are 
crucial factors in determining her 
mental health and morale requires 
much more attention. 



L'Evolution de la Cardiologie 

et ses Problemes 



Paul David, M.D. 



Adolescence et Age Adulte 

IL EST une maladie dc coeur qui par 
son importance et ses ravages pre- 
domine nettement dans cette periode 
de vie qui va de 5 ans a 40 ans et c'est 
la maladie cardiaque rhumatismale. Le 
rhumatisme articulaire encore appele 
inflammatoire ou maladie rhumatis- 
male est responsable d'au moins 90% 
des lesions acquises : stenose mitrale, 
insuffisance mitrale, stenose aortique, 
insuffisance aortique, maladie mitrale, 
maladie aortique. tricuspidite etc. ... II 
est quelques notions qu'il faut retenir, 
sur lesquelles j'insiste chaque fois 
que 1 'occasion m'en est donnee depuis 
8 ans, notions qui avec le temps de- 
vraient etre comprises dans notre 
milieu si jamais on organise une lutte 
efficace contre cette maladie. 

1. La maladie rhumatismale frappe 
avec predilection I'enfance (4 a 18 ans). 

2. L'agent causal ou etiologique de 
la maladie n'est pas connu. 

3. On semble avoir etabli un rapport 
etroit entre elle et le streptocoque hemo- 
lytique. Pour cette raison, elle succede 
presque toujours a des infections respi- 
ratoires de la gorge et particulierement 
des amygdales. 

4. La maladie rhumatismale cause des 
lesions endocarditiques particulierement 



Docteur David est directeur de ITnsti- 
tut de Cardiologie de I'Hopital Maison- 
neuve de Montreal. 



des valvules chez au moins 50% des 
sujets malades. 

5. Le rhumatisme articulaire aigu est 
souvent peu tapageur et donne des 
symptomes qui passent malheureusement 
inaperQus pour les parents des victimes 
et il faut le dire pour bon nombre de 
medecins qui les traitent. 

6. Un traitement precoce et bien con- 
duit en milieu bien surveille semble di- 
minuer nettement I'incidence des lesions 
cardiaques consecutives. 

7. Nous constatons avec regret 
qu'aucun effort serieux n'est fait dans 
la Province de Quebec en vue de nous 
aider a eduquer la population et nous 
permettre de mieux soigner cette ma- 
ladie. 

8. Le traitement de la fievre rhuma- 
tismale s'echelonne sur plusieurs mois 
et repose avant tout sur le repos. 

9. II faudrait un petit hopital specia- 
lise ou ce traitement pourrait etre con- 
tinue aussi longtemps que persistent 
les symptomes d'activite avec programme 
de repos, de distraction et d'etude pour 
les enfants. 

10. II faudrait que la cortisone puisse 
etre donnee a chacun des les premiers 
symptomes sans egard pour son cout 
eleve. 

n. II n'existe pour le moment aucun 
moyen certain de diagnostic, aucune 
drogue absolument specifique. 

12. II semble que la penecilline don- 
nee prophylactiquement et sur de 
longucs periodes diminue I'incidence de 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



101 



la maladie et empeche les rechutes. 

Sachant que I'incidence du rhuma- 
tisme articulaire aigu, que les lesions 
cardiaques et de leurs consequences 
sociales sont infiniment plus meur- 
trieres que celles de la polyomyelite, 
je ne puis m'empecher de supplier nos 
services de sante de nous preter leur 
concours. Peut-etre alors pourrions- 
nous, quelque part, decouvrir une 
therapeutique du type "Salk" pour 
accroitre les defenses naturelles de 
I'organisme contre cette maladie. 

Que faire vis-a-vis d'une lesion car- 
diaque constituee et ceci en general 
dans les annees qui suivent une ou 
plusieurs poussees rhuniatismales ? Sur 
la lesion elle-meme aucune drogue 
n'agit. Les therapeutiques medicales 
eloignent les complications, les adou- 
cissent, les previennent parfois, rien 
de plus ou de mieux. EUes ne peuvent 
modifier I'architecture valvulaire d'une 
stenose ou d'une insuffisance. Force 
est done de recourir a la chirurgie des 
lesions acquises qu'a mise au monde 
Bailey et son groupe en 1948. Cette 
chirurgie a fait ses preuves dans les 
lesions stenosantes, en particulier la 
stenose mitrale. Cette chirurgie se pra- 
tique aujourd'hui dans tous les ser- 
vices importants de cardiologie du 
monde entier. Notre experience porte 
sur 185 patients operes pour stenose 
mitrale; 6 patients pour stenose aor- 
tique ; 1 patient pour insuffisance 
mitrale et un patient pour stenose 
tricuspidienne. 

Notre premier malade fut opere par 
le Docteur Edouard Gagnon a I'Hopi- 
tal Notre-Dame en fevrier 1950. Avec 
cinq annees de recul, nous nous som- 
mes persuades des enormes bienfaits 
de la chirurgie cardiaque, en parti- 
culier de la stenose mitrale ou notre 
experience est la plus grande. Mais 
ici encore nous croyons tres impor- 
tant de poser des diagnostics tres 
precis et d'evitcr a tout prix des ope- 
rations inutiles. Sur les 185 malades 
que nous et nos collaborateurs avons 
presente aux chirurgiens, nous comp- 
tons deux erreurs, pourcentage extre- 
mement faible de 1.1% lorsqu'on con- 
nait les difficultes que constitue par 
exemple I'interpretation d'un souffle 
systolique de pointe. II faut realiser 
que malgre une intervention reussie 
la maladie de base persiste et que pour 



cette raison nous ne pretendons pas 
guerir ces malades. Notre experience 
et celle de nombreux centres a abon- 
damment prouve que ces operations 
prolongent la vie des malades, les 
soulage de leurs symptomes et les 
mettent a I'abri des complications 
habituelles de la maladie pour une 
periode de temps que seul I'avenir 
precisera. 

Age mur et vieillesse 

Je laisse a chacun de determiner a 
quelle decade de vie commence la 
vieillesse. Admettons, toujours pour 
les fins pratiques de ce travail, que 
I'age mur a ses debuts a la quaran- 
tieme annee. On peut encore excep- 
tionnellement trouver des lesions 
congenitales, assez souvent des lesions 
rhuniatismales mais la pathologie car- 
diaque est franchement dominee par 
les maladies degeneratives : maladie 
hypertensive d'une part, coronarienne 
c'est-a-dire angine de poitrine et 
thrombose coronarienne d'autre part. 
Cela ne signifie pas que ces deux pa- 
thologies ne puissent etre rencontrees 
avant. J'insiste meme sur I'impression 
que nous avons de diagnostiquer des 
angines et des thromboses chez des 
individus plus jeunes que I'age habi- 
tuellement cite dans les livres et les 
articles anciens. II n'en demeure pas 
moins qu'apres quarante ans la ma jo- 
rite de nos cardiaques rentrent dans 
le cadre de ces deux pathologies. 

Hypertension arterielle 

Sauf exception, c'est une maladie 
au long cours qui s'echelonne sur une 
vingtaine d'annees environ avant de 
donner ses complications cardiaques, 
vasculaires ou renales habituelles. La 
gravite de I'hypertension se juge par 
le chiffre de la pression diastolique 
et par ses repercussions sur le coeur 
et les reins. L'examen du fond de I'oeil 
permet une evaluation de I'atteinte ar- 
terielle reelle. 

La cause de cette maladie, en ad- 
mettant qu'elle fut unique, est in- 
connue. II serait trop long et en dehors 
du cadre de ce texte d'enumerer meme 
brievement les nombreuses theories 
edifices sur ses tres nombreuses com- 
posantes. 



102 



the CANADIAN NURSE 



Depuis quelques annees, cinq au 
maximum, le traitement medical donne 
des resultats qui depassent les espoirs 
des medecins les plus sceptiques. De 
mois en mois s'allonge la liste des 
hypotenseurs efficaces. Cependant le 
traitement medical exige des connais- 
sances approfondies car il n'est pas 
sans danger. Des doses trop petites 
ne donnent aucun resultat et des doses 
fortes sont facilement toxiques. De 
plus, ces medicaments sont tres cou- 
teux et les visites medicales doivent 
etre rapprochees. Obstacle serieux 
pour ceux dont les moyens financiers 
sont limites. Ici encore devant la 
masse des hypertendus, maladie ex- 
tremement repandue, on s'etonne de 
I'apathie d'action de nos groupements 
en quete de nouveaux territoires de 
philanthropic. Evidemment, I'hyperten- 
sion n'est pas contagieuse mais on sait 
qu'un facteur hereditaire joue un role 
non negligeable si bien que les hyper- 
tendus de demain le seront en large 
partie a cause des hypertendus d'au- 
jourd'hui. Un traitement chirurgical 
a sa place dans le traitement de cer- 
tains cas d'hypertension. 

Maladie cardiaque coronarienne 

Le drame coronarien pent se jouer 
en quelques secondes. II pent durer 
plusieurs annees. Maladie courante qui 
frappe partout autour de nous, tue 
subitement les uns, en reduit d'autres 
a une invalidite physique absolue, ra- 
lentit, demoralise toute une masse 
d'homme et cela particulierement entre 
40 et 65 ans. Maladie degenerative, 
pas necessairement de vieillissement, 
dont I'arteriosclerose selective sur 
I'arbre coronarien, diminue le debit 
du sang qui nourrit le muscle car- 
diaque. Maladie traitresse que rien ne 
pent prevenir et que peu de chose peut 
efficacement arreter. Ennemi no 1 du 
male mur car jusqu'a I'age de 60 ans 
trois hommes pour une femme en sont 
atteints. Nos bureaux regorgent de 
coronariens et c'est pitie de realiser 
comme nous pouvons peu pour eux. 
Cela ne veut pas dire que nous ne 
pouvons rien. Ici plus qu'ailleurs doit 
etre applique le principe celebre et vrai 
du "primo non nocere". L'etude de 
la erase sanguine, des phenomenes de 
coagulite et la therapeutique anticoa- 



gulante sont des apports recents de 
grande valeur et qui solutionnent en 
petite partie cet immense probleme. 
J'aimerais ici encore voir nos services 
de sante s'interesser, comme nous, a 
ce probleme dont I'interet pratique est 
evident. J'ai un parent, et ce cas est 
loin d'etre unique, qui est mort subite- 
ment de thrombose coronarienne a 35 
ans en se rendant a son travail. Pere 
de famille comme bien d'autres, il a 
laisse sa femme et trois gar^ons. Avez- 
vous deja songe a ce que la societe 
faisait pour aider, si besoin est, dans 
de pareilles circonstances ? La pension 
est-elle le seul apanage des femmes 
et des enfants de soldats morts au 
champ d'honneur? Chaque homme de 
ce pays ne concourt-il pas, en temps 
de paix, a son epanouissement et sa 
prosperite? On s'occupe des tres 
pauvres et c'est bien mais il faut 
songer a I'immensite des fortunes mo- 
yennes qui se refusent en peinant 
comme des derates a dechoir physique- 
ment, moralement et materiellement. 
La chirurgie tente depuis vingt ans de 
trouver une solution optimiste a ce 
probleme. Elle est prometteuse mais 
encore experimental. Je mentionne, 
parce que canadiens, les travaux re- 
marquables de Mercier-Fauteux et 
ceux que poursuit actuellement Arthur 
Vineberg dans ce domaine. 

Importance Sociales des Maladies 
DU Coeur 

1. Les maladies de coeur tuent a elles 
seules pratiquement autant d'individus 
que toutes les autres maladies reunies. 
Quelques chiffres pour confirmer cette 
assertion : Etats-Unis 52.3% ; Canada 
43.57^; Montreal 112%. 

Devant ces chiffres pourtant eloquents, 
il est curieux de constater I'esprit de 
fatalisme qui empreint les responsables 
de nos services de sante, comme s'il 
etait normal de mourir de son coeur, 
comme si rien ne pouvait etre fait. 

2. Les maladies de coeur, nous 
I'avons vu, ne sont pas I'apanage des 
vieillards, ni d'un sexe plutot que I'autre. 
A preuve les statistiques que nous avons 
compilees sur les malades hospitalises a 
rinstitut en 1954. 

a) Nombre total de malades 

hospitalises 725 

Nombre de femmes 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



103 



hospitalises 351 

Nombre d'hommes 

hospitalises 374 

b) Tableau des ages respectifs dans 

les deux groupes : 
Nous constatons que les malades hos- 
pitalises pour leur coeur I'ont ete avec 
la plus grande frequence — entre 30 et 
50 pour la femme — entre 50 et 60 
pour rhomme. Reflechissons un instant 
sur I'importance economique de ces 
hommes et femmes, rendus plus ou 
moins invalides a des ages particuliere- 
ment utiles a la societe. Ces chifFres 
demontrent, a mon point de vue, que 
les cardiopathies sont tres loin d'etre 
I'apanage du vieillard. 

3. Les maladies du coeur imposent, 
quelle que soit leur etiologie, une reduc- 
tion de I'activite physique par I'appari- 
tion de deux symptomes dominant : la 
dyspnee d'effort et la douleur thoracique 
d'eflFort. 

Imagine-t-on I'importance de ce fait 
quand la plus grande partie d'une popu- 
lation vit essentiellement sur sa capacite 
d'effort physique? Pensons a la gros- 
sesse, aux soins des enfants, a I'entretien 
du foyer ! Pensons aux consequences 
sociales de I'ouvrier immobilise, du tra- 
vailleur manuel qui n'a pas eu la prepa- 
ration ou n'a pas les aptitudes pour 
devenir du jour au lendemain un collet 
blanc ! 

4. Les maladies du coeur sont essen- 
tiellement chroniques et elles s'etagent 
sur des annees d'evolution. Par leur 
chronicite, elles supposent des soins 
piedicaux. constants, la prise quotidienne 
de medicaments, le besoin d'hospitalisa- 
tions repetees, des arrets de travail 
souvent prolonges, des depenses medi- 
cales constantes. Situations qui cree le 
cortege de tous les drames materiels, 
psychologiques et sociaux de n'importe 
quelle maladie chronique. 

5. Le cardiaque bien compense est un 
"handicape". 

Meme lorsqu'il ne ressent aucun 
symptome, le cardiaque, avant meme 
de souflfrir physiquement subit les 
ennuis de sa maladie. 

L'assurance dont les operations 
financieres n'ont aucune visee philan- 
thropique refuse systematiquement tout 
individu hypertendu, coronarien ou 
porteur d'une lesion congenitale ou 
acquise. Bon nombre d'assurances- 
maladies exigent au depart une excel- 



lente sante. De plus en plus la grande 
industrie par le truchement des unions 
ont cree des fonds de retraite, de pen- 
sion de maladie etc. Mais, et j'insiste, 
a I'embauchage le candidat est examine 
et seul I'individu sain est admis. 

Cependant le cardiaque peut tra- 
vailler lorsqu'on n'exige pas de lui un 
effort physique trop considerable. Ne 
pourrait-on pas lui confier ces multi- 
tudes de positions sedentaires qui sont 
souvent occupees par des hommes 
vigoureux et sains. Un immense effort 
est fait dans ce sens par nos amis 
americains. Les lois les plus elemen- 
taires de la charite chretienne pour- 
raient jouer dans la plus catholique 
des Provinces du Canada ! Qui mettra 
sur pied une societe ou une association 
d'aide et d'entre-aide aux cardiaques? 
Qui s'interessera au sort de nos ma- 
lades ? 

Parce que nous sommes convaincus 
que notre seul devoir n'est pas de 
traiter la maladie seulement, nous 
avons mis sur pied un modeste service 
social a I'lnstitut. Mademoiselle Hen- 
riette Tenaille, en charge de ce service, 
essaie d'ameliorer les situations les 
plus desesperees. Notre eft'ort est une 
goutte d'eau mais il est un temoin 
de notre preoccupation et de nos pen- 
sees. 

La Medecine Moderne 
CouTE Cher 

Ne pas I'avouer c'est vouloir in- 
tentionnellement cacher une verite. 
L'avouer c'est donner raison aux mil- 
liers de personnes dont tout acte 
medical ou hospitalier est juge sur son 
prix. Dans les salons, on discute les 
prix du medecin, du chirurgien, de 
I'hopital, d'un test de laboratoire, d'un 
examen radiologique avec la meme 
passion que les cours a la bourse, les 
nouvelles creations de la haute couture, 
le chauffage, le loyer ou les taxes. 
"J'ai enrichi le docteur Untel de 500 
dollars pour me faire faire la grande 
operation et I'Hopital de 2,000 dollars. 
C'est revoltant, le cafe etait froid, j'ai 
attendu 18 minutes une nuit pour la 
bassine, j'ai paye pour des tas d'exa- 
mens inutiles, on m'a fait voir par 
tout un groupe de specialistes pour 
rien." Elle est pourtant bien cette 
femme aujourd'hui, elle ne souffre plus 



104 



THE CAN.^DIAN NURSE 



et elle ignore peut-etre que ces 2,500 
dollars I'ont guerie d'un cancer au 
debut. Pour ce prix, elle vivra dix ans 
de plus, 250 dollars par annee, moins 
que le prix de deux paquets de ciga- 
rettes par jour! Le medecin n'est pas 
un etre humain. II a perdu aux yeux 
du monde le droit d'avoir une vie de 
famille, de se reposer, de prendre des 
vacances et surtout de charger des 
honoraires. Les hopitaux sont des 
asiles de charite qui emploient un per- 
sonnel formidable et qui devraient 
bonder leur budget avec les prieres des 
honnetes gens. 

Malgre les exagerations, les jalou- 
sies mesquines, les interpretations mal- 
veillantes, les connaissances inade- 
quates des saboteurs du medecin et de 
I'Hopital un fait surnage, indeniable : 
la medecine, surtout hospitaliere, coute 
cher. 

Nous Savons qu'un sejour hospita- 
lier pour operation cardiaque coute au 
malade qui pent payer un minimum 
de 2,500 dollars. Mais nous savons 
egalement que la meme operation ne 
coute obsolument rien au patient d'as- 
sistance publique qui en plus de ne pas 
payer le chirurgien, le medecin, I'anes- 
thesie, le radiologiste, I'homme de 
laboratoire, les gardes-malades des 
soins post-operatoires contribuera pour 
un deficit d'au moins 1,000 dollars 
dans le budget de I'institution. Le 
calcul est simple. Admettant que ce 
malade est hospitalise 30 jours, nous 
recevons tres exactement 30 x $7.50 
de I'assistance publique — $225.00. 

Evidemment, il y a dix ans, on 
n'operait pas sur le coeur et pour cette 
raison, moins de depense. II fut un 
temps ou les rayons X n'existaient 
pas, oil I'electrocardiographie n'avait 
pas ete inventee. II fut un temps ou 
il n'y avait ni medecin, ni hopitaux. 
II fut un temps ou la medecine ne 
coutait rien et ou on mourrait en mo- 
yenne a 30 ans ! Ce ne sont pas les 
hopitaux, ce ne sont pas les medecins 
qui coutent cher, c'est la medecine avec 
ses progres, ses raffinements, ses exi- 
gences, son desir de poser des dia- 
gnostic certains aboutissant a des 
therapeutiques sures. Et la medecine 
c'est I'etude de Tetre humain si com- 
plexe qu'il n'a et ne pourra jamais 
etre reproduit sans des cellules males 
et femelles. L'etre humain si complexe 

FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



que malgre des siecles de recherche 
il demeure "I'homme cet inconnu" de 
Carrel. Et pour le guerir des innom- 
brables maladies dont il peut etre 
atteint, on critique ces minutieux 
examens que le medecin, a savoir li- 
mite, doit utiliser dans le seul but 
d'aider un autre etre vivant comme 
lui. La medecine coute cher. Et I'auto- 
mobile, le confort de la vie moderne, 
un avion a reaction, une pile atomique, 
une seule experience de destruction 
dans les deserts du Nevada! Mais 
j'admets qu'avec les taxes, avec la 
vie, avec les loyers, le chaufifage, les 
enfants et tout le reste, la medecine 
coute cher au gagne petit et a I'indi- 
vidu de classe moyenne, d'autant plus 
que la maladie est une malediction 
jamais meritee et rarement prevue. 

Nous nous orientons inexorable- 
ment vers une medecine sociale, 
souhaitable d'ailleurs pour les petits 
et pour les institutions. Des expe- 
riences ont ete faites ailleurs, en 
Angleterre, dans les pays scandinaves, 
en France pour ne citer que celles 
que je connais. II faut admcttre qu'en 
France, en particulier, les securites 
sociales ont grandement aide le malade 
sans nuire au medecin. Nous n'avons 
personnellement aucune objection a 
une medecine socialisee en autant que 
soit respectee la liberte du medecin, 
du malade et de I'institution hospi- 
taliere. Nous croyons meme que le 
peuple dont le principal souci est I'in- 
securite y trouvera reconfort, joie et 
paix. J'admets volontiers le principe 
de l'etre bien portant payant en taxes 
pour son frere malade. Je suis de ceux 
qui croient que la sante est la richesse 
la plus enviable de chaque etre humain. 
Mais, ne nous faisons aucune illusion, 
la medecine sociale continuera a couter 
cher, peut-etre davantage meme parce 
qu'elle necessitera une armee de 
fonctionnaires. Elle coiitera moins a 
chacun et davantage a tout le monde. 
L'homme continuera a se plaindre 
mais moins des medecins et des ho- 
pitaux et davantage des taxes. Mais 
pendant ce temps, le malade lui, sera 
traite sans avoir un oeil sur la mede- 
cine et I'autre sur la portefeuille. 

Role de l'Institut 
En m'ecoutant vous avez deja com- 

105 



pris nos buts et saisi quelques-unes 
de nos realisations. Nous essayons de 
faire mieux sans pretendre faire plus 
qu'ailleurs. Nous n'esperons pas tout 
decouvrir et rayer les maladies du 
coeur du tableau des maux dont 
rhomme aura toujours a souffrir. 

Nous essayons avec le plus de com- 
petence, le plus de lucidite, d'honne- 
tete et de devouement possibles d'aider 
la cause des maladies du coeur. Notre 
programme comprend : 

Le diagnostic et le traitement des 
maladies du coeur. 

L'enseignement de notre specialite aux 
medecins praticiens. 

Le desir de prouver I'importance mo- 
rale et materielle des maladies du coeur. 

Le developpement de moyens d'aide 
et de rehabilitation aux cardiaques. 

Le souci de donner a notre population 
du Quebec le profit immediat des de- 
couvertes qui concernent la cardiologie. 

Le besoin de posseder toute I'instru- 
mentation necessaire a la meilleure pra- 
tique possible de la cardiologie. 

L'obligation de faire de la recherche 
pratique et basale. 



L'essai d'interesser les services de 
sante de la Ville, de la Province et du 
Canada a collaborer avec nous et a nous 
aider materiellement. Je dois malheureu- 
sement souligner un echec complet vis- 
a-vis des autorites Municipales et 
Provinciales. Nous pensons un jour 
reussir en prouvant davantage nos be- 
soins et en expliquant mieux nos buts 
veritablement, sincerement et uniquement 
humanitaires. 

Puis-je, mesdemoiselles infirmieres, 
compter sur votre appui moral dans 
I'edification d'une oeuvre imparfaite 
mais dont le seul but est d'aider, de 
soulager les miseres de notre frere, 
le malade du coeur. Compris ainsi, 
vous realisez que nous osons depasser 
et de beaucoup le seul cadre d'une 
cardiologie scientifique oti seule a de 
I'importance la maladie. Nous croyons 
au contraire que le malade et chaque 
malade seul est important. 

J'aurai moins de remords d'avoir 
abuse de votre tres bienveillante atten- 
tion si ce trop long travail pent avoir 
contribue a vous mieux faire compren- 
dre quelques-uns des problemes de la 
cardiologie moderne. 



In the Good Old Days 

{The Canadian Nurse — February, 1916) 



Breast feeding for the first six months 
is desirable because : (a) The mother's milk- 
furnishes some little known substances 
which act in a protective -way against in- 
fections of various kinds; (b) because after 
a child is six months old artificial feeding 
is much easier. It has been found that rickets 
is fairly common among infants that are 
taken ofif the breast feedings too soon. 
Scurvy is also seen though less frequently. 

* * * 

Quinton, in 1910, advocated the use of sea 
water plasma to offset dehydration in acutely 
ill patients. McKenzie, in 1912, went further 
and used normal saline solution made with 
sterile distilled water. In thus raising the 
quantity of fluid in the tissues there is an 
increased secretion of urine and a resultant 
increase in the elimination of toxins. 

* * * 

The training school for nurses represents 
one of the most important departments of a 
hospital both because of its function in nursing 
the patients and because of the public de- 



mand for trained nurses. It is an interesting 
fact that those who organized some of the 
early schools had a much better conception 
of the need of nurse training schools as 
educational institutions than those who are 
rfesponsible for the majority of the schools 
today. 

Practically every hospital has its training 
school. In most instances the hospital has 
established the school, not with any deep- 
rooted desire to train nurses for the purpose 
of serving the public generally or because 
of any particular interest in education along 
this or any other line, but with one idea 
paramount — to get the nursing work of 
the hospital done in the simplest and cheap- 
est possible manner. 

* * * 

In connection with every large hospital 
there should be a convalescent home, under 
public or private auspices, where patients 
may receive necessary care while conva- 
lescing thus relieving the hospital and mini- 
mizing expense. 



106 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Counterpane Land 



Louise Price Bell 



ILLNESSES OF ALL KINDS are as in- 
evitable as taxes when there are 
youngsters in the family. Parents of 
today are usually pretty intelligent 
about the care of their children, make 
sure that they have proper foods to 
give them well-balanced diets, that 
they get a maximum of rest and fresh 
air. But even with advanced medical 
knowledge, "sniffles" will occur, the 
"children's diseases" descend upon the 
family, and in most families some 
Tarzan-minded lad is sure to fracture 
an arm or leg! All these things mean 
that the child, or children, will be 
forced to spend some time in bed. For 
an active smallster this can be a bor- 
ing, tedious, unhappy period. Or it 
can make the "Land of Counterpane" 
a delightful place. The difference rests 
with the parents, most of all with the 
mothers. 

It is more difficult to keep tiny 
children happy than it is their older 
brothers and sisters. Tiny tots can 
look at pictures, and the dime stores 
are full of interesting — and at the 
same time instructive — picture books. 
Little children always enjoy juvenile 
records and a new one will often keep 
them quiet for a long time. These are 
now inexpensive, and will fit on any 
record player. In our family — where 
the number of juvenile illnesses has 
been lengthy and numerous — we 
have always felt that the little (or 
middle-sized) invalid had a priority 
on both radio and record player if 
there wasn't one already in the room. 
When one of our children faced a six- 
months' period in bed, her grand- 
parents presented her with a record 
player and one or two records. As 
time went on and others knew about 
the gift, a record appeared in the mail 
from time to time. I mention this as 
a suggestion that is well worth con- 
sidering, for when a little sick-a-bed 
is uneasy a quiet musical number — 
such as Brahms Lullaby — will often 
turn a neat trick at eliminating tension. 



Mrs. Bell resides in Tucson, Ariz. 



For spry young children, a canary, 
parakeet, or bowl of goldfish will be 
eye and ear catching, help to make 
the sickroom cheery, and keep the 
child happy. In homes where a bird 
is a part of the domestic scene, it is 
an easy matter to move it to the child's 
room. Goldfish and globes are inex- 
pensive and when placed on a table 
at eye-level for the flat-on-his-back 
child will keep him alert to the golden 
flashings through the clear water. Even 
fish-feeding time will be a diversion ! 
The triangular glass prisms that make 
up the old-fashioned candelabra that 
most of our grandmothers had, are 
fascinating to a child. Carefully remove 
one from its hook and hang it by a 
stout thread in the window that gets 
the most sunshine. As the prism gently 
sways back and forth in the sunlight, 
the colorful and elusive "light-birds" 
will dart here and there on the wall, 
across the bed, sometimes on the 
child's eager hands. 

Quite small children can handle the 
wooden beads used in kindergartens 
and made in the seven standard colors. 
One of our children learned his colors 
very quickly through these beads while 
having the fun of stringing them for 
his sister to wear. There are colorful 
design-blocks, too, which also teach 
color while the child is creating his 
own designs. And every mother knows 
how much little children like to "make 
things" from plasticine. For this task, 
be sure to cover the bed-table with a 
piece of plastic or oilcloth to avoid 
soiling the counterpane, for children 
can have just as much fun being neat 
while doing interesting things as they 
can making more work for mother ! 

No matter what the age of the child 
who is ill, some sort of bed table is 
necessary and if you don't have a 
bo7i<i fide one, substitute a card table. 
Stand two of the table legs on the 
floor close to the bed, leave the other 
two folded under the table and rest 
the opposite side on a firm pillow or 
blanket. If the table is a Formica-top- 
ped one you won't need to cover it; 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No, 2 



107 



if not, buy a square of sunny-yellow 
oilcloth and thumb-tack it on the under 
side to protect the table. Tt wipes oflf 
easily. 

Slightly older girls will adore paper 
doll cutting and dressing, again ma- 
terials that are obtainable at the dime 
store. Boys will have as much fun with 
the books that involve cutting out and 
assembling planes, jets, motors and 
the like. Scraps may be dropped into 
a waste basket beside the bed or into a 
laundry or large paper-bag pinned to 
the side. Tinker-toys are simple build- 
ing pieces that both boys and girls 
enjoy, and scrapbooks are always 
popular. For the latter it is wise to 
give the little sick-a-bed an objective. 
Every town has a hospital or orphan- 
age to which the finished book can go. 
Making a scrapbook as pretty and neat 
as possible, to be given one who is ill, 
has a sound psychological efifect. The 
child thinks of someone else and ceases 
to be sorry for himself, if that has been 
his attitude. 

Simple jigsaw puzzles are fun for all 
children. For the younger ones, the 
pieces should be large and the puzzle 
easy, to avoid frustration. Older chil- 
dren will enjoy the challenge of fitting 
map puzzles together, placing the 
countries, states, and provinces in the 
correct spots. A pleasant way to study 
geography ! 

"Picture stories'" are fun to make. 
Give the child a pile of magazines of 
the type that are filled with colored 
advertisements and pictures of all 
kinds. By looking through them he will 
soon get ideas for making stories from 
the pictures, filling in a word here and 
there to make complete sentences. For 
example, many milk ads have a cow 
included, so : "A cozv gives milk and 
eats grass. Children drink milk." (The 
italicized words indicate easily found 
pictures.) 

Older children enjoy making decor- 
ative stationery by cutting out flowers, 
fruit, a plane, a girl-or boy-head, then 
carefully pasting them to the top of 
dime-store note paper. This might 
serve as a future birthday gift for an 
older brother or sister. Then he can 
make some for himself upon which 
to write the important "thank you 
notes" to friends and relatives who 
have been nice to him while ill. 



If the child has never had a diary, 
this is a good time to give him one 
for he will enjoy making entries each 
day, or night, and doing so will make 
him realize how fortunate he is to have 
a home, family and friends who are 
so kind to him. If he is at all good at 
making verses, suggest the entries be 
made in rhyme ; this will take extra 
time since he will want to practice 
on paper before entering the verses 
in the "brand-new" diary. 

Carving figures from pure white 
soap is a good idea if the invalid can 
actually do carving and won't simply 
"mess up" the bed, thus making extra 
work. By the trial and error system 
T know that children can do many 
things to keep them happy without 
causing mother extra work — a thing 
that shouldn't be allowed since illness 
itself causes extra work. In fact, many 
children will take pride in trying to 
save mother from extra steps by using 
a whistle, or mouth organ, to call her 
when she is needed. One blow, or toot, 
can mean "Come when you can," two 
"Please come now." 

Growing things add to the attrac- 
tiveness of a child's sickroom and the 
little sick-a-bed can plant a carrot, or 
sweet potato, in a vase, then watch 
it grow. One child I know planted 
six sweet potatoes in cheap vases and 
when they were at a pretty, green- 
leafed stage, asked her older brother 
to deliver them to six people she knew 
who would enjoy them. Two were 
other children who happened to be in 
bed with the mumps and a bad cold, 
three were older people on the same 
street, and one was her beloved grand- 
mother. 

Mothers should remember that long 
illnesses can bring out selfishness in a 
child. For that reason the more things 
that can be done to divert the interest 
to others the better the therapy. Other 
familv members will naturally play 
Scrabble. Old Maid, Canasta, Par- 
chesi. or whatever the age-level and 
interest of the child is. But he must 
not be allowed to feel that he should 
always accept their offers or he may 
get to expect too much attention. This 
is sometimes difficult for a parent to 
do. but the child will be thankful for 
this treatment later — you may be 
sure of that ! 



108 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



what about Vacation Plans? 



Ethel Armstrong Collins 



WHEN THE CONVENTION IS OVER, give 
yourself a holiday! Post-conven- 
tion trips are becoming increasingly 
popular, and deservedly so. Nurses, of 
all persons, realize that a vacation is 
not an expense but an investment, 
paying dividends in health, happiness, 
new friendships and memories. Go 
East or West, north to the rim of the 
Arctic Circle, to the land beyond the 
sunset, or down to the South Pacific. 
See the majestic Canadian Rockies, 
Banff" Springs ; incomparable Lake 
Louise ; Jasper Park ; Mount Edith 
Cavell ; the Pacific Coast. Sail across 
the Straits of Georgia to Victoria, stop 
at the lovely, old, ivy-covered Empress 
Hotel. See the famous Butchart 
Gardens and go over the Malahat 
Drive. Cruise to Alaska or fly to the 
southern paradise of Hawaii. Or visit 
the big cities of the East — Ottawa, 
the Nation's capital : Toronto. Niagara 



Mrs. Collins is Convention Coordinator 
of the Canadian Nurses' Association. 
Ottawa, Ontario. 



Falls. (Juebec and Montreal. Take 
an inland cruise down the mighty St. 
Lawrence and up the Saguenay River. 
The choice is your own. Make it a 
happy one and have a never-to-be-for- 
gotten holiday. This is not just wish- 
ful thinking — all of these trips have 
been planned and worked out for your 
pleasure and comfort and at reasonable 
cost ! They can all be done within the 
thirty day return limit on your conven- 
tion fare to Winnipeg. 

Fairly complete information about 
these trips was published in the Oc- 
tober issue of The Canadian A'urse, 
but it has been necessary to make some 
changes. The Canadian Pacific Air- 
lines have advised us with regret that 
they will not be operating the Klon- 
dyke Gold Nugget Tour in 1956. The 
Canadian National Railways have 
made some changes in the Alaska 
Cruise. It is now proposed that the 
T.S.S. Prince George will leave \'an- 
couver Wednesday, July 4 at 9 :00 p.m., 
sail up the Inside Passage, make the 
usual calls at Prince Rupert, Ketch- 




(C.P.R. Photo) 



Administration Building, Iniversity of Manitoba. 

FEBRUARY. 1956 • VoL ."52. No. 2 



ikan and Juneau, and arrive in Skag- 
way Sunday morning at eight o'clock. 
Instead of remaining in port for 36 
hours, as formerly, it will stay only 12, 
therefore both the West Taku Arm 
and the Whitehorse Trips must be 
cancelled. A scenic tour will leave 
Skagway at 8 :30 a.m. for Carcross, 
over the historic Trail of '98. There 
will be a stopover at Bennett, and 
return to the ship at 4:15 p.m. in time 
for the 7:00 p.m. sailing. Arrive back 
in Vancouver July 13 at 9:00 a.m. 

Those taking the Hawaiian Tour 
may leave Winnipeg Saturday after- 
noon, June 30, on a T.C.A. tourist 
flight, arriving at Vancouver that same 
evening. The Canadian Pacific Em- 
press Airliner takes ofif at two o'clock 
Sunday afternoon for Honolulu, where 
it arrives at 11 :30 p.m. Instead of the 
Moana Hotel as previously planned, 
our party will stay at the Halekulani 
(meaning "House befitting Heaven"). 
Located in a four-acre cocoanut grove 
on the beach at Waikiki, it is one of 
the beauty spots of the Island, where 
one may enjoy all the comforts of a 
modern hotel in a delightful setting, 
typical of old Hawaii. Guests are 
welcomed with the traditional leis of 
orchids, ginger flowers or frangipani, 
and a friendly holiday atmosphere pre- 
vails. There is Hawaiian entertainment 
— dances, music and native feasts — 
once a week there is a special festival 
of ancient and modern hula at a color- 
ful buffet luncheon on the Ocean Ter- 
race. The swimming is unsurpassed 
anywhere in the world. Average water 
temperature in July is 81°; average 
air temperature 76°. Step right off the 
terrace on to the Beach, to sun or 
swim — to try the thrill of surfing 
(with an expert instructor), or the 
excitement of riding the waves in a 
catamaran or outrigger canoe. 



Four sightseeing tours are included 
in the cost of your trip to Hawaii. 
Limousines are used and the drivers 
are friendly hosts as well as informed 
guides. The City Tour takes you into 
the palace of former kings, with the 
Throne Room still intact, also to the 
residence of the late Queen Lilioukal- 
ani and to Moanalau Park. The Circle 
Island Tour, through pineapple planta- 
tions, sugar cane fields and acres of 
orchids, includes visits to a Buddhist 
Temple, a Mormon Temple, the Oahu 
Country Club, Upside Down Falls, 
and a poi factory, to mention a few 
points of interest. The Koko Head 
Tour follows a winding drive along 
the sea coast, past the Amelia Earhart 
Memorial, Diamond Head, Koko 
crater, an extinct volcano, and the 
Blow Hole. The Mount Tantalus Tour 
gives a breath-taking panoramic view 
of Honolulu. Pearl Harbor and miles 
of surrounding countryside. This trip 
includes tea at the old Waiola Tea- 
room and a visit to Robert Louis 
Stevenson's Grass Shack. There are 
many other sightseeing trips that can 
be taken if one desires, also there 
are daily flights across to other islands. 

Certainly it provides a wonderful 
holiday with never a dull moment. As 
one member of our party expressed it 
in 1954, "No matter what happens 
now, I have been in Paradise." Wear- 
ing many leis, we will say a sad 
"Aloha" to the Friendly Islands, and 
board our plane on Thursday evening 
July 12, arriving back in Vancouver 
Friday morning. 

Because these tours come at the 
height of the busy summer season, may 
we urge you to please get your reserv- 
ations in early. Also, from recent ex- 
perience we are reminded that PRICES 
AND TIMES ARE SUBJECT TO 
CHANGE. 



People whose way of living has not 
changed for many centuries are free of 
certain diseases that take many Uves in 
modern countries. For example, of 80,000 
Jews who emigrated from the ancient land 
of Yemen to Israel, researchers found that 
not one had diabetes, or other degenerative 
diseases. The scientists were struck by the 
fact that there was no hardening of the 
arteries even among those over 45 — the 
age when other peoples begin to suffer 



heavily from this disease. 

A special study was made of 300 im- 
migrants, all over 45. Their bodies were 
free of cholesterol, a chemical regarded as 
the primary cause of hardening of the ar- 
teries. After two years in Israel, the choles- 
terol levels in their bodies rose but remained 
lower than those found in western peoples. 
And there was still no sign of degeneration 
of their arteries or other organs. 

— (ISPS) 



110 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Jn liemoriam 



Elizabeth Jane Bowie, a graduate of 
Lady Stanley Institute, Ottawa, died sud- 
denly October 26, 1955. Miss Bowie served 
with the C.A.M.C. during World War 1. 
Following her release from the service she 
worked in Kingston, and later was on the 
staff of Ste. Anne's Military Hospital, Ste. 
Anne de Bellevue, Que. 

Editli Grace (Bishop) Clark who grad- 
uated from Prince Edward Island Hospital, 
Charlottetown, in 1926, died at her home in 
Tarryburn, N.B., on October 28, 1955, after 
a lengthy illness. For many years she 
worked at the New Rochelle and Wick- 
ersham Hospitals, N.Y., before engaging in 
private nursing at the Saint John General 

Hospital, N.B. 

* * * 

Jean Cormie, a graduate of Oshawa 
General Hospital, passed away at her home 
in Fergus, Ont., on October 12, 1955. 

* * * 

Patricia (Bazanet) Farrell who gradu- 
ated in 1946 from St. Alichael's Hospital, 
Toronto, died there on June 24, 1955. 

* * * 

Ella Forbes, formerly a resident of Nova 
Scotia, died in October, 1955, at Gimli, 

Manitoba. 

* * * 

Evelyn Elizabeth (Gouldie) Hawke 

who graduated from Women's College Hos- 
pital, Toronto in 1939, died in November, 
1955. Mrs. Hawke was with the Sangamo 
Co. Ltd. as plant nurse for ten years. 

Cynthia Pauline Horsnell, a graduate 
of Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, died 
at Berwick, N.S. in November, 1955. Miss 
Horsnell served on the staffs of Fraser 
Memorial Hospital, Kentville and Highland 
View Hospital, Amherst. Later she was 
supervisor of the nursery at Grace Hospital, 
Ottawa. Prior to her illness Miss Horsnell 
was on the staff of Stratford Hospital, Ont. 

* * * 

Lucille Laura (Ross) Stanley- Jones, 

formerly of Seaforth, Delaware, died in Van- 
couver, November 16, 1955. During World 
War 1, Mrs. Stanley-Jones served as a 
nursing sister with the French Red Cross 
Society. 



Jemina Leckie, a graduate of Mount 
Clair General Hospital, New Jersey, died 
at London, Ont., on October 29, 1955. She 
worked a number of years at the Delaware 
Water Gap Sanitarium and later nursed in 
Detroit, Toronto, Goderich and London. At 
the time of her retirement she was matron 
of the Belleville nurses' home in New Jersey. 
She was 90 years of age. 

* * * 

Daisy (Grant) Macintosh, a graduate 
of an American Hospital died suddenly at 
Stellarton, N.S. on November 13, 1955. 

* * * 

Margaret McDermid died on October 
31, 1955, at London, Ont. Miss McDermid 
helped to organize the first public health 
nursing course at the University of Western 
Ontario. 

Bernadette (Walsh) McDermott, who 

graduated from St. Michael's Hospital, To- 
ronto, in 1919, died there on October 4, 
1955. For some time she engaged in public 
health work and private nursing. 

* * * 

Rose (Kemmet) McDonald, who gradu- 
ated from St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto 
in 1905, died in that city on July 28, 1955. 
Prior to her marriage she was engaged in 
public health nursing. 

* * * 

Marg^aret Elizabeth (Hunter) Pedlow, 

who graduated from the Royal Victoria 
Hospital, Montreal, in 1947, died in Van- 
couver on November 9, 1955. She was 32 
years old. 

H: * ^ 

Kathleen H. Walker, who graduated 
from St. Joseph's Hospital, Toronto in 1930, 
died suddenly at her home in Islington, Ont., 
on November 1, 1955. Miss Walker had 
done staff nursing for 10 years before as- 
suming the position of supervisor of public 
health nurses in York Township. 

* * * 

Caroline (Kennedy) Watts, who grad- 
uated from a Winnipeg hospital in 1897, 
died in Nelson, B.C., at the age of 94. At 
one time she served as matron of Kootenay 
Lake General Hospital and performed out- 
standing nursing work during the influenza 
epidemic of 1918. 



L'education consiste dans la croissance, le parfait d'homme comme tel, qui est I'etat de 
developpement de I'ctre humain jusqu'a I'etat vertu. — St. Thom.as d'Aquin 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



111 



URS 



SfRVICf 



The Role of the Industrial Nurse in 

Accident Prevention 



Theresa Greville 

JjS URsiNG, IN general, tends to be 
11 associated in the minds of most 
people with a smiling patient in a nice, 
neat bed with an attractive nurse 
(preferably red-haired) standing by . . . 
or, the more dramatic shots of men 
and women in white, gowned and 
masked, cheating death in an operating 
room. 

The industrial age and the tempo 
of our times, combined with increased 
knowledge of disease prevention, have 
brought medical and nursing teams 
into every aspect of living and work- 
ing. In addition to all of the work 
done in hospitals we have public health 
nurses, nurses in every branch of the 
Armed Services, nurses in the sky and 
more recently parachute rescue teams 
with Para Nurses. 

Occupational nursing, a branch of 
public health nursing, "is the applica- 
tion of nursing skill to groups of men 
and women at their place of work for 
the purpose of helping them build and 
maintain their best health and to 
render prompt, efficient nursing as- 
sistance when they are ill or injured 
at work." (McGrath) 

The ideal nurse for this work is one 
who has a willingness to continue her 
education throughout her working life. 
She should have a mature personality 
with a knowledge of psychology and a 
liking for working people. She should 
know or learn something about com- 
pensation laws, union agreements, 
hospitalization and medical plans as 

Miss Greville is chief of nursing staff, 
Canada Packers Ltd., Winnipeg, Mani- 
toba. 



they affect the place where she works. 
She should be aware of community 
resources available in matters of health 
and welfare. She needs to be prepared 
to render first aid and have special 
ability, judgment and knowledge so 
that she will route patients to the hos- 
pital, clinic or doctor, when necessary. 
She needs to know her role in disease 
prevention and the correct mainte- 
nance of records. 

The first known literature on oc- 
cupational diseases was published 
about 1703 by an Italian doctor, Ber- 
nardine Romanizi. Since that time and 
particularly since about 1890, occupa- 
tional health has been of prime concern 
to governments, medical men, nurses, 
employers and employees. Nurses in 
industry have ferreted out the needs 
and with the assistance of the groups 
concerned, the "sanitation of the en- 
vironment" has been improved. 

The Safe;ty Program 

Accident prevention has become in- 
creasingly important to the nurse. In 
the Journal of Chartered Insurance 
Institute, published in England, there 
is a report by T. A. M. Pirrie in which 
he says : 

There are two main reasons why 
accidents should be prevented : They 
cause suffering; they cause material 
waste. 

The amount paid to the injured person 
is only part of the financial loss. The 
services of the man have been lost 
which often means that a new man has 
to be engaged and trained. If the injured 
man was skilled, it may be difficult to 



112 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



replace him. It may be necessary to 
shut down machinery so that an inves- 
tigation may be held. Men in other 
parts of the plant lose time discussing 
the accident. Employees who saw it 
may be shocked and their work suffers 
accordingly. In short, the effects of an 
accident on production can go on being 
felt for a long time after it happens. 
Management is not hard to convince 
of the importance of accident preven- 
tion. It is often the foreman and charge 
hand who have come up through the 
ranks who fail to grasp the importance 
of safety work. Those in charge of 
departiuents must be made to reaHze 
the responsibihty that rests on them, 
and clearly understand that they are 
judged not only on the output of work 
but also on freedom from accidents. 
The foreman in turn need the coopera- 
tion of all the employees in working 
safely and pointing up danger areas. 
An operator can become so familiar 
with his machine that he sees no 
danger in its working parts. Yet there 
are avoidable accidents that have re- 
sulted in heavy financial loss to the 
firm and worse than financial loss to 
the victims, for who can put a price 
on human life and limb? No one has 
yet discovered how to grow a new arm 
or hand and plastic surgery cannot 
completely cover up the scars. Surely 
it is up to us to protect industry's 
most valuable asset — the man on the 
job. 

How does the nurse assist in the 
accident prevention program? 

By an awareness of the goals of safety 
committees, and by cooperating with 
them to bring hazards and job com- 
plaints, as they relate to safety, to their 
attention. 

By the day by day instruction of pa- 
tients reporting to her, teaching each 
one the importance of preventing infec- 
tion and disablility by prompt attention 
to and follow-up care of minor injuries 
and illnesses. Other forms of instruction 
include reaching people through the 
plant magazine, bulletin boards and 
health literature racks. 

By allaying apprehension. Rehabilita- 
tion starts with the first treatment. The 
nurse's attitude, while being realistic, 
must allay all fears as far as possible. 
By recognizing emotional or physical 
disabilities that may lead to accidents 



unless corrected ; by realizing that cer- 
tain conditions and diseases, such as 
those caused by alcohol, poisons, virus 
or bacterial infection, dietary deficiency. 
Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, 
are fairly common. People suffering 
from them do not have proper physical 
control of themselves and are liable to 
more accidents than physically normal 
people. The employee suffering from 
such disorders should be referred for 
medical care and, with as little mental 
disturbance as possible, be made to 
realize that because of his handicap he 
must exercise more caution. 

By realizing the effects of fatigue, 
whether caused by sleeplessness — T.V., 
broadcasts of games, the noise of planes 
or diesel engines — by the second job, 
skylarking, or the emotional strain due 
to sickness, discord or financial difficul- 
ties in the home. 

She should work towards good per- 
sonnel relationships. Dr. P. J. Moorad, 
U.S. Consultant in Psychiatry, writing 
in Industrial Health, about Human 
Factors in Accident Liability, states that 
"A new employee is often introduced 
to his job and department by unfavor- 
able comments and fearful stories about 
his work. He is, therefore, psycholog- 
ically predisposed to accidents. There is 
too much fooling around in industry, 
too much picking on the weak. There 
are more practical jokesters than super- 
visors and management realize. These 
are not healthy situations. The sen- 
sitive are constantly ill at ease, tense 
and anxious as to what will be done 
to them next. With a man's mind so 
taken up with irritation and annoyance 
by men around him, he cannot be a safe 
worker." The doctor recommends that 
practical jokesters, bullies and wise guys 
be exposed and dealt with as a plant 
responsibility in the interest of health 
and safety. 

The nurse should probably not head 
up the Safety Cominittee because par- 
ticipation in safety work brings educa- 
tion to a greater number of workers 
either at the supervisory or unskilled 
level, but, she should participate in all 
ways possible to further the work of 
such committees and so create a happy 
and healthy work situation for all 
workers from the executive of the 
company to every member of the work 
team. 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



113. 



Schizophrenia 



Ann Stewart 



Introduction of Problem 

JUDY ARRIVED at the Allan Memorial 
Institute one Sunday evening, es- 
corted by two policemen. She was an 
attractive fifteen-year old, neatly dres- 
sed in slacks and a raincoat. She had 
applied her make-up with a generous 
if slightly unskilled hand. She showed 
no outward sign of her recent bizarre 
behavior. 

When she was shown to her room 
on the ward, she quickly lay down on 
the bed assigned to her. Her eyes were 
wide and staring, her face devoid of 
expression. Although she appeared 
mute, she seemed to be well aware 
of her immediate surroundings. She 
lay with her head extended in an 
awkward, seemingly painful position 
and soon became irritable and moder- 
ately negativistic to the doctor's insist- 
ent questioning. That evening, she 
appeared ill at ease in the company 
of the other patients in the room and 
remained unresponsive to their friend- 
ly approaches. 

It is of interest to note that, al- 
though she had seemed, to her parents, 
to be behaving in a very peculiar man- 
ner for the previous week, they had 
left her in the company of an older 
sister for the week-end. It was while 
they were absent that she was found 
wandering about the streets by the 
police. 

Physical Condition 

My patient, the seventh youngest of 
eight siblings, had been a premature 
baby. Her mother, a plump, middle- 
aged woman did not have a difficult 
delivery. Before the age of one, the 
patient had struggled through four 

Miss Stewart, who graduated in 1955 
from Royal Victoria Hospital, Mont- 
real, prepared this study while on 
affiliation at the Allan Memorial In- 
stitute. 



consecutive bouts of pneuinonia, but 
she seemed to progress fairly well after 
her first year and measles was her 
only other childhood disease. Excepting 
for removal of tonsils she had never 
had any operation, accidents or pecul- 
iar habits. 

Judy was a slight but wiry adoles- 
cent who weighed 90 pounds on ad- 
mission and stood five feet, three 
inches tall. She had been known to 
complain of her flat-chested condition 
to her mother and sisters, and was 
quite indignant that her clothes did 
not fit so well as other girls. She 
frequently complained of headache 
during the year prior to coming to 
hospital. Although there was no def- 
inite evidence of hallucinations or 
delusions, she was quite openly apath- 
etic, listless and displayed indifference 
that passed into mute catatonic states 
fairly readily. As previously mentioned 
she was often irritable and negativistic. 

About a week following her admis- 
sion, she complained of pain just below 
her right ear and was seen by the 
doctor who assured her that there 
was nothing there to worry about. 
During visiting hours, she was very 
deinanding of attention from her par- 
ents and later while sitting at the 
supper table suddenly began to cry 
*'Oh my head !" and to extend her 
head in an awkward, crooked position. 

She rushed to her room, insisted on 
seeing her doctor again and attempted 
to leave the building when he didn't 
arrive immediately. When he came she 
appeared mute and hostile, but seemed 
slightly reassured. Eventually she was 
persuaded to eat her supper and to 
participate in the ward's evening ac- 
tivities to a small degree. Although 
no further mention was made of this 
particular discomfort, there have been 
other episodes when the complaints 
have been headache, constipation, ear- 
ache or abdominal cramps. Each time 
she was carefully examined by the 
doctor, but nothing was discovered. 



114 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Social History 

Judy recently entered high school. 
Bilingual and generally first in her 
class, she had not been allowed as a 
small child to play with her friends 
anywhere excepting on the balcony 
of her own home. When these restric- 
tions were relaxed my patient formed 
many new friendships. Her mother 
described Judy as enjoying the com- 
pany of her many schoolmates and 
she seemed to socialize easily. 

Her father was a slightly-built man 
of medium height. Superficially he 
seemed meek and timid, acting sheep- 
ishly in the company of strangers. 
When he was visiting his daughter he 
never spoke while the nurse was in 
the room. This unfortunate man has 
an intense fear of dying or even suf- 
fering the slightest physical injury. 

In contrast her mother was an anx- 
ious, concerned, middle-aged woman. 
Due to her unhappy, impoverished 
home life, she has suffered several 
mild depressions, but she constantly 
tried to bring about peace in the dis- 
traught household. One brother, 18 
years old, has recently come under 
psychiatric treatment. 

Her mother described Judy's be- 
havior, particularly in the past year, 
as erratic, irritable and highlighted 
by frequent outbursts of temper. She 
would suddenly demand something — 
very frequently new clothes — and 
would fly into a fit of anger if her 
whim was not indulged immediately. 
Intensely jealous of her now happily 
married older sister, throughout the 
sister's courtship, Judy would become 
violent and throw articles about the 
room. She insisted she wanted the 
living room to herself whenever her 
sister was visited by her fiance. Ac- 
tually, Judy was quite shy and ill at 
ease with boys and said she has an 
aversion towards them. 

Judy had always shown a fanatical 
desire for new clothes and was jealous 
of her older, working sister who was 
able to have a larger wardrobe. She 
spent considerable time getting dressed 
and applying make-up, gazing all the 
while at her reflection in the mirror. 
She felt she was built more like her 
father, would have liked to appear older 
than her age and wondered why she 



did not look like her young friends 
who were better proportioned than 
she. This feeling of awkwardness and 
self-consciousness might easily be due 
to her age. Fifteen is a time for per- 
sonal misgivings on the part of any 
youth. 

This family was Roman Catholic 
but my patient did not seem partic- 
ularly devout. There were no medals 
or prayer books in her belongings 
at the hospital and she never, to my 
knowledge, asked to see her priest on 
her own initiative. 

It became evident that Judy was 
having difficulty in school, where pre- 
viously she had done well. Feeling 
that her teacher and the students were 
laughing at her, she tended to isolate 
and seclude herself. Finally she ab- 
solutely refused to attend school, stat- 
ing she wanted to punish her parents. 
Until the time of her admission, her 
behavior went steadily downhill. There 
was open withdrawal of interest in her 
schoolmates, loss of ambition in her 
school work and indication of obvious 
feeling, thinking and behavior disor- 
ders. Frequently she would insult her 
mother and sisters with coarse, vulgar 
expressions then suddenly turn and 
kiss them, begging their pardon. These 
outbursts were most apparent pre- 
ceding and during her menstrual 
periods which had been fairly regular 
since their onset several years before. 
Inconsistently, she would refuse what 
was given to her, although she had 
previously asked for it. She would 
take what was not hers, threatening 
suicide if her wishes were not granted. 

The Thursday prior to her admis- 
sion, Judy stayed in bed, refusing to 
eat. At four o'clock in the morning 
she attempted to leave the house, cry- 
ing "Nobody loves me, nobody wants 
me." She hit and kicked her mother, 
who tried to calm her. Eventually she 
returned to bed where she slept all 
through the next day. 



Supportive Care 

Nutrition: This was a major prob- 
lem with Judy, particularly when she 
was put on coma insulin and it was 
imperative that she have a well-bal- 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



115 



anced diet. Constant encouragement 
and persuasion were required to bring 
her to the dining room, where she 
would sit and stare disdainfully at her 
food. She enjoyed fluids, particularly 
tea,, but her appetite after her treat- 
ment was exceptionally poor. The 
family, with obviously good intentions, 
brought her fruit, candy and cookies, 
but these were put aside and soon 
forgotten. 

How We Attempted 

to Overcome This Problem: 

a. Throughout the earUer part of the 
day, after the coma insulin therapy, we 
offered frequent small meals. This was 
the schedule : 

10:30 a.m. — (or at the time of com- 
pletion of treatment) fruit juice, toast 
and jam, tea. 

12 :00 a.m. — a meat sandwich and 
milk. 

2:30 p.m. — ice cream, fruit juice. 

5 :00 p.m. — supper with the other 
[)atients. 

8 :30 p.m. — milk and sandwiches. 

b. The confections brought by her 
mother were kept in Judy's refrigerator 
and offered to her after a meal so that 
they would not spoil her appetite. 

c. We tried to avoid hurrying Jud} 
either to come to meals or to eat, in an 
attempt to overcome the tension which 
inhibits the appetite and delays diges- 
tion. To do this, I would approach her 
about 15 minutes before the meal was 
to be served, giving her ample time to 
apply make-up and care for her hair, 
then walk in a leisurely manner to the 
dining room. 

d. Frequently the nurse on duty would 
use power of suggestion — for example, 
the sight and odor of food; leaving 
the food in an accessible place without 
comment after placing a spoon in her 
hand. 

e. If possible, we placed Judy at a 
table where her companions ate at a 
leisurely pace and it was unnecessary 
for her to compete with faster-eating 
people. 

f. We tried not to fuss over her too 
much, at the same time we did not 
allow her to dawdle over her meals long 
after everyone else had finished. 

Sleep: The difficulty here was 



Judy's desire to withdraw from the 
environment. She would remain in bed 
all day if left to herself. We encour- 
aged her to be about during the day 
so that she would sleep well at night. 
She seldotn required evening sedation. 

How We Went About 
This Problem: 

a. We tried to keep her out of her 
room as much as possible. As soon as 
she had finished her meal, we asked 
her to join us while we watched T.V. 
or participated in some ward activity. 
The suggestion of occupational therapy 
sometimes was effective. She sometimes 
spent the afternoon sewing. 

b. A walk out of doors proved to be 
refreshing and invigorating. 

c. It was essential that the nurses 
worked as a team, encouraging her and 
preventing her from slipping away from 
being with others. 

Personal Hygiene: My patient, 
unable to always sense her physical 
needs due to her slowed-down mental 
state, depended in part on the nurse 
for personal cleanliness and appear- 
ance. Such particulars had to be cared 
for without making her feel conspicu- 
ous. If the results drew some ex- 
pression of approval from the other 
patients and nurses, it was a good 
tonic for her. 

How We Attempted 

to Approach This Matter: 

a. After her treatment in the mor- 
ning, we prepared a bath or shower to 
freshen and brighten her. Brisk rubbing 
with coarse bath towels aided in stim- 
ulating circulation. Having been gen- 
erously supplied with bath powder and 
deodorant by her family, these articles 
were laid out for her and she applied 
them daily. 

b. Laying out her tooth paste and 
brush generally was sufficient reminder 
to care for her teeth ; if not, putting 
the tooth paste on her brush served to 
guide her. I usually left a plastic glass 
by the sink and offered a glass of water 
to her whenever I was in the room. A 
glass of mouthwash, offered before her 
meal, relieved any sour taste present 
in her mouth. 



116 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



c. We tried to encourage her to go to 
the bathroom at regular intervals. She 
generally had a bowel movement about 
every second day^ but was inclined to be 
negligent about her regularity. Offering 
fruits throughout the day, as well as 
some sort of daily exercise, helped her 
overcome this problem. 

d. As an adolescent, she had the usual 
troubles with her complexion. Her skin 
was quite oily so it was important to 
remind her to wash her face with soap 
and water frequently. Applying cold 
cream to her lips, which were often 
cracked or chapped, softened them con- 
siderably. Reminding her at bedtime to 
remove her cosmetics and wash her face 
was helpful. Although she loved to look 
at herself in the mirror, she frequently 
forgot to care for herself. 

e. We tried to encourage her to keep 
her comb and brush clean. Since she 
washed her hair every weekend while 
she was at home, it was a simple matter 
to care for it during the week. She 
arranged the short, naturally curly hair 
very attractively with some assistance. 

f. Laying out her emory board and 
nail file on her dresser after her mor- 
ning bath taught her to care for her 
nails. 

g. We noted the duration and flow of 
her menses. We offered her the sanitary 
pads on the w-ard and assisted her in 
local cleanliness and sanitation if she 
required help. 

h. Since she loved clothes, particular- 
ly new ones, we guided her in the care 
of her personal articles. It was impor- 
tant for the nurses to cooperate with 
each other in developing Judy's interest 
in her personal hygiene and teaching 
her hygienic procedures whenever the 
opportunity aro.se. We helped raise her 
self-respect by a well-placed compli- 
ment, our ow'n personal example and 
expressing admiration of the good 
hygiene carried out by other patients 
or nurses. 

Protective Cark 

Suicide: Although I rt*ahze that 
anyone emotionally upset is potentially 
.suicidal and that my patient had 
threatened on several occasions before 
she came to hospital to end her life, 
I believe that it was done to attract 
attention and to punish her parents. 



During her hospital stay it w^as more 
of a problem to prevent her leaving 
without permission. She did not 
threaten or attempt suicide, to my 
knowledge, while here. The precau- 
tions that we took to avoid injury 
to the patient were the same as for 
prevention of suicide. 

It is to be noted that the physical 
environment of the hospital offers the 
security that is one of the patient's 
greatest needs. Security that can be 
depended upon, a routine that is 
reasonably the same from day to day, 
contact with a limited number of per- 
sons, removal froin significant persons 
who have been the cause of some of 
their difficulties, relieve patients of the 
necessity of making df^cisions and of 
the many demands of usual existence. 

Injury to Herself and to Others: 

Several days after admission. Judy 
while taking a shower turned on the 
hot water faucet too swiftly and as a 
result received a bad scare. Luckily 
she was not burned. It was a blunt 
reminder to the staff that this little girl 
needed keener surveillance. 

Precautionary Methods 
to Prevent Injury: 

a. On admission we routinely check 
through all the patient's belongings. Any 
sharp things are kept in the office, to be 
given to the patient if required for a 
short period of time and then returned 
to the ofiice. Matches are kept only by 
the nurses and the patients are not al- 
lowed to smoke in their rooms. It is 
helpful to remind the relatives that the 
patients are not allowed to retain these 
articles while in hospital. 

b. After coma insulin treatment. Judy 
was unsteady on her feet, requiring staff 
assistance to prevent her from bumping 
into furniture or tripping over objects. 
W^e ran her bath or shower for her and 
were nearby in case she required help. 

c. Hazards such as waxed or wet 
floors can be treacherous to a preoc- 
cupied patient, so we guided her around 
those obstacles. 

d. Laundry chutes, kitchens, bath- 
rooms except in the morning were kept 
locked as well as the utility room, linen 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



117 



room and nurses' office with all the 
medical supplies. .The doors at either 
end of the ward were kept locked at 
night. No cutlery or glassware was al- 
lowed in the rooms. The windows open 
only a few inches from the bottom. 

e. If Judy was too strongly antago- 
nized by some well-meaning, but 
thoughtless patient, she might easily 
have acted impulsively and hurt this 
person. She also needed protection, both 
physically and psychologically, from 
other more aggressive patients. It was 
wise for the nurse to anticipate such 
occurrence and to be on the alert for 
any impulsive and un-self -disciplined 
act. 

Leaving Without Permission: 

Judy made several attempts to run 
away. When her hostile, negativistic 
manner was more emphasized than 
usual it was a danger signal to the 
staff. 

How We Prevented These 
Incidents from Occurring: 

a. By being alert to recognize her 
increased hostility, thus anticipating her 
desire to leave. 

b. Judy was both insecure and un- 
certain so that one of the most eflfective 
measures to promote a sense of security 

' was consistency in the nurse's attitude. 
A routine was offered that gave her 
something to depend upon. Thus we 
avoided making promises to her that 
we knew could not be carried out — 
e.g. a promised visit home that did not 
materialize. 

c. On her admission to hospital, the 
various privileges and limitations were 
explained to her. At the patients' group 
meetings the head nurse frequently gave 
a reminder of the precautionary rules 
of the hospital — e.g. boundaries of the 
hospital grounds. 

d. Reporting accurately and promptly 
to the head nurse or interne, both orally 
and on the chart, any unwarranted 
change in the patient's conduct. 

Social 

Socialization: The tendency of pa- 
tients to withdraw into a world of 
phantasy from situations where they 
must socialize is very persistent. Per- 



haps Judy felt that her contacts with 
other people had been fruitless, her 
family and friends had let her down 
or just did not understand her. Ob- 
viously she was so preoccupied at 
times, we knew she was not giving 
us her attention. When we spoke to 
her she might or might not respond. 

How to Counteract This Problem: 

a. The nurse must be consistent in her 
attitude — friendly, but firm, realizing 
that it is her responsibility to bring her 
patient into contact with everyday 
living. 

b. Since in her preoccupation, Judy 
might respond to our approach with 
irritation, we must realize that we have 
probably diverted her attention from 
something that was pleasant to some- 
thing that was annoying. I tried to cir- 
cumvent Judy's irritation by appealing 
to her suggestibility. For example, lay- 
ing her clothes out on her bed so she 
would dress and be prepared for the day 
at the same time as the other patients. 
We also avoided her antagonism by 
seldom touching and never pushing her 
about. 

c. Since most people like to be warned 
about what to expect in a new situation, 
it was important to explain new pro- 
cedures to her as well as to introduce 
her to a new roommate. 

d. My seeking out of this patient at 
every opportunity conveyed my interest 
to her. Just sitting quietly beside her 
for brief, but consistent periods con- 
veyed this message. There were many 
one-sided conversations, generalizations 
that did not require answers. Eventually 
one could feel her warming to sympathy 
and she would offer a comment of her 
own. 

e. Due to the coma insulin therapy 
she received, she was only able to be at 
occupational therapy in the afternoon. 
After strong persuasion from the staff 
and friendly patients she started and 
took obvious delight in making a pink 
felt elephant. Later the staff was unable 
to encourage her to attempt something 
else. 

Judy seldom conversed with other 
patients. Her uneasiness on the night 
of her admission had been reduced to 
a mere apathetic interest. Generally it 



118 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



was only after a weekend at home that 
we might see her coming to watch 
television on her own initiative, or 
perhaps share a few words with some- 
one. 

Observation: The extent of the 
patient's progress is often shown by 
the nurse's observations, carried out 
in a manner that will cause the pa- 
tient no discomfort or concern. 

Direct Observation: 

a. Notice the patient's facial expres- 
sion, this may often correspond to her 
emotions. 

b. Note whether her mood is appro- 
priate to the situation or is consistent 
with her behavior. 

c. Observe her movements and choice 
of activity. 

d. Note how she adapts to the en- 
vironment — is her manner indifferent? 
Does she identify others accurately and 
indicate that she knows what day, time 
and place it is? 

e. Describe her daily habits — per- 
sonal hygiene, care of personal property, 
appearance, industry. Note any bizarre, 
unusual behavior. If she has been mute 
for a long period, then relate the cir- 
cumstances that lead up to her breaking 
her silence. 

f. Describe her speech, the expression 
of feeling, any memory defect. 

g. Note her choice of companions. 
Does she frequently demand to see the 
doctor, refusing the nurse's assistance ? 

Observation by Participation: 

Frequently I dropped by the oc- 
cupational therapy department and 
chatted with the patients and ther- 
apists, at the same time, observing my 
patient for : 

a. Extent of pleasure and enthusiasm 
in work. 

b. Expression on her face — did she 
seem engrossed in her work? Did she 
seem contented or bored? 

c. Her ability to do the work — did 
she seem to take pride in her handiwork ? 

d. Did she concentrate well ? 

e. Was she there of her own accord? 
Did she soon show signs of fatigue? 

f. Had her ability improved since her 
last visit to occupational therapy? 



g. In order to observe my patient's 
appetite, I could assist in the dining 
room without making the patients feel 
uncomfortable — helping to seat them, 
pouring milk and tea, passing cream and 
sugar and anticipating special requests. I 
noted my patient's manners and her 
consideration for others at the same 
table. Did she eat her food in the 
regular order? Did she socialize at all 
or concentrate all her efforts on eating? 

h. By playing a card game or work- 
ing a jigsaw puzzle with my patient, I 
would note : her ability to play fair — 
was she a good sport or a poor loser? 
What of her ability to learn new games 
— her confidence in herself? 

i. How did she behave when her 
family visited her? What were her feel- 
ings before and after their visit ? Did . 
she seem to enjoy their company? 

j. Her behavior throughout any treat- 
ments. 

Rehabilitation : 

It is rather unusual to note that ac- 
cording to her parent's description, 
when Judy was allowed to go home 
she socialized quite readily and en- 
tered with enthusiasm into the home 
duties such as baking or sewing. While 
she was at hospital her seclusiveness 
and negativism continued to be quite 
evident. It appeared that her condition 
improved considerably when she was 
in the home atmosphere. 

As a nurse, I tried to adopt a teach- 
ing pattern for helping my patient 
prepare for her eventual return home. 
I carried out this plan by : 

a. Offering a stimulating environment 
for the learning of new skills. Associa- 
tion of the patient with her roommates 
who were on the same treatment as 
herself, offering new recipes for cooking 
which she enjoyed doing at home, and 
reading fashion magazines, were ways 
to interest her. 

b. By my example my patient might 
learn a great deal. I had to keep in mind 
that my appearance, manner and attitude 
might be beneficial or harmful. 

c. Repetition of new ideas and skills 
until they were firmly fixed in her mind. 

d. Above all the reassurance of an 
understanding nurse, interest in her as 
a person, attention to matters that are 
important to her helped her attain her 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



119 



goal. Attention was focussed on the 
value of day-to-day experience, acquire- 
ment of good health habits, including 
a balanced program of work and play. 
It must be remembered that she was a 
young girl who became ill during her 
adolescence, never a very easy time for 
anyone. She will require the guidance 
and counsel of her parents, doctors, 
nurses and teachers to prepare her to 
lead a normal life. 

Prognosis and Future Plans 

Although Judy's improvement was 
not very startling, her parents felt 
that while she was at home she was 
perfectly normal and quite able to 
resume her normal activities without 
hesitation. They believed that our doc- 



tors were being fooled by her attitude 
in hospital. In the doctor's words, 
"she was suffering from a very serious 
illness, coming on at a critical time in 
her life and that unless she had the 
full course of therapy, it was unlikely 
she would remain out of hospital for 
prolonged periods of her life." 

What I Have Gained 

Through this study of Judy and by 
the nursing care I gave her, I have 
gained insight into psychiatric nurs- 
ing. Now I realize what the words 
"persuasion" and "patience" mean in 
relation to a preoccupied and hostile 
adolescent. Perhaps it has helped me 
understand myself a little better, my 
limitations, and my way of solving 
conflicts. 



Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis 



C. Lawton and M. Hobin 



The patient was 20 years of age, 
and had been a normal, healthy girl 
until one day she developed a sore, 
infected spot in her nose. Nothing 
was done about this as it appeared 
only a mild ailment. 

The following day the girl com- 
plained of dizziness, nausea and gen- 
eral malaise. She was found to have 
a temperature of 102°F. She went to 
bed and was given an injection of 




penicillin by a relative who was a 
graduate nurse. Her condition gradu- 
ally became worse so the following 
day a doctor was called and she was 
admitted to hospital. 

On admission the patient was vague 
and drowsy, but extremely restless and 
showed definite signs of profound 
toxemia. Her face was discolored with 
proptosis in both eyes. 

A complete blood count revealed : 

White blood cells 30,800 

Hemoglobin 72% 

Red blood cells 3,800,000 

A spinal tap showed : 

White blood cells 912 

Red blood cells 22 

Pandy's positive 

Cultures sterile. 
A nose culture showed : 

Gram positive cocci, moderate growth 

Staphylococcus aureus 

Coagulase positive. 
She was sensitive to Chloromycetin, 
less sensitive to Penicillin. 

By 8 :00 p.m. the patient was semi- 
conscious — temperature 105°, pulse 



Cross-section of the base of the skull 
showing sinuses 



This material was presented by the 
authors, as a clinic at the Sarnia Gen- 
eral Hospital. 



120 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



100, respirations 20. A cold water 
enema was given and cold packs ap- 
plied continuously. These succeeded 
only in reducing the temperature tem- 
porarily, and were discontinued two 
hours later when the patient's tempera- 
ture returned to 105° and she com- 
menced to have chills. 

10:30 p.m.: She was very cyanosed 
and was placed in an oxygen tent. The 
pulse was rapid and of weak volume, 
respirations shallow, and her face now 
appeared more swollen and red. She 
did not respond to stimuli. An airway 
was inserted and suctioned as neces- 
sary. 

6 :30 a.m. : The patient was com- 
pletely unconscious. 

9 :30 a.m. : A tracheotomy was per- 
formed as a precautionary measure 
against tracheal edema, respirations 
appeared a little easier on return to 
her room. Very little change was noted 
during the next few hours, although 
the temperature dropped to 100°, pulse 
112, respirations 28. 

6 :00 p.m. : The patient's pulse be- 
came much weaker, color extremely 
poor and respirations shallow. 

Despite a rigorous course of anti- 
biotics, which we will now outline for 
you, the patient died at 7 :35 p.m. 
three days after the infection first ap- 
peared in her nose. 

Medications and Treatments 

Immediately on admission an intra- 
venous of glucose 5% was commenced 
and kept running continuously. The 
following were given by means of the 
intravenous : 

Sulphadiazine gm.4.0 stat. and gm.2.0 
q. 6 h. 

Aureomjcin 500 mgm. q. 4 h. 

Chloromycetin gm. 0.5 for 2 doses 

Ilotycin gm. 1. 



Heparin was also given and doses 

adjusted according to the clotting time 

which was taken q. 3 h. 

Three spinal taps were performed 
and each time one million units of 
penicillin and streptomycin 900 mgm. 
were injected intrathecally. 

Penicillin 1 million units was given 
q. 2 h. intramuscularly and strepto- 
mycin 500 mgm. q. 6 h. 

It was suggested that Cortone might 
help to relieve cerebral edema and so 
100 mgm. was given intramuscularly 
into each hip. 

When the condition of the patient 
worsened coramine 5 cc. was injected 
intravenously every 15 minutes, with 
only temporary response. 

Summary of Autopsy 

The findings are those of infection 
of the nose, and edema of the nose, 
eyelids, and upper lids, with throm- 
bosis of the left cavernous sinus, in- 
volving the circular sinus and the 
right cavernous sinus, with extension 
to the middle cerebral veins, superior 
petrosal veins, and the pterygoid veins, 
with infection, compression, and 
edema of the upper part of the mid- 
brain, and the extension of the infec- 
tion into the basi-sphenoid and the 
embolic spread down to the jugular 
veins to the lungs where there were 
numerous abscesses. 

The cultures taken prior to death, 
and the areas examined after death 
have all grown coagulase positive 
staphylococci in pure culture. 

Cause of Death 

Brain stem damage, due to throm- 
bosis of both cavernous sinuses fol- 
lowing an infection of the nose with 
subsequent pyemia to the lungs. 



Check Points for Canned Food Buyers 



Government supervised grade marks on 
all canned goods are the first thing to watch 
for when making a selection. Buy nationally 
advertised brands unless you are familiar 
with particular smaller companies. Other 
check points are : 

1. Avoid containers that show dampness, 
drippings, rust and bulging ends. 

2. Listen for sizzling sounds of escaping 



air when first puncturing the can. 

3. Take a deep smell for characteristic 
aroma immediately on opening container. 

4. Drain contents and observe inside of 
container for color. Darkened can indicates 
long storage. 

5. Taste for characteristic flavor and 
added ingredients. 

— Canadian Hotel Review and Restaurant 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



121 



OUfiSlOG {DUCflllO 



With our Training We can Help 



Emily Groenewald 

THE PATIENTS ON WaRD X, all of 
them ambulatory, were neglecting 
their customary morning activities. 
Usually one or two would be ponder- 
ing over an unfinished jigsaw puzzle. 
Another might be putting the fin- 
ishing touches on a leather wallet, 
inwardly glowing at the thought of the 
pleased surprise of the occupational 
therapist when she saw his neat and 
even stitching. One could almost al- 
ways guess with accuracy that the 
patient reading with apparent absorp- 
tion or concentrating on the writing 
of a letter was a recent admission 
to the ward. Conversation among the 
patients, as a rule, included the cur- 
rent athletic sport, their experiences 
on active service, or their ear, nose or 
throat ailments. 

This morning they were unusually 
silent but most observant and alert. 
There was a new centre of interest on 
the ward. Finally, courage overcame 
mere curiosity. Addressing one of the 
'three girls, who were making their beds 
and tidying their bedside lockers, one 
of the patients said : "That outfit you 
are wearing is a new one on me. Now 
just who and what are you?" 

"I am Miss White," was the timid 
answer, "and we are the first class to 
take the nursing course now being 
given at this hospital. This is our first 
day on the wards and," gaining more 
confidence as she sensed the friendly 
interest of the patient, "I feel — sort 
of funny inside." 

"Now, never you mind, Miss White, 
before you know it you'll be through 

Miss Groenewald is director of the 
Montreal Central School for Nursing 
Assistants, Queen Mary Veterans Hos- 
pital, Montreal. 



122 



your training and become a head nurse 
or a top-shot of some kind." 

"Oh, no Mr ? Jones? Mr. Jones 

— you have to be a graduate nurse 
to become a head nurse." 

"But did'nt you say you are taking 
a nursing course?" 

"Yes," replied Miss White, "But we 
are training to be nursing assistants." 

At this stage two of the other pa- 
tients had drawn closer and the 
trainee, finding it difificult to cope with 
her audience and to concentrate on her 
work as well, released the tension she 
was applying to a drawsheet and de- 
voted her attention entirely to the con- 
versation. "We do not learn nearly 
all that a graduate nurse learns and 
our course is not as long either, but 
with our training we can help on the 
wards. We can do some of the treat- 
ments for some of the patients under 
the supervision of the registered nurse 
or, under the direction of the doctor, 
give nursing care to some patients in 
their homes." 

It was on a mor;iing in October, 
1952 that the above conversation took 
place on one of our wards selected 
for preliminary ward experience for 
our trainees. The first class was en- 
rolled in the Department of Veterans 
Afl:"airs' School for Nursing Assistants 
at the Queen Mary Veterans Hospital 
in Montreal, in late September of that 
year. Two other such schools are lo- 
cated at the Sunnybrook Hospital, 
Toronto and at the Camp Hill Hos- 
pital, Halifax. The D.V.A. Schools 
for Nursing Assistants were organized 
by Miss A. J. Macleod. director of 
Nursing Services, D.V.A. and Miss 
Marjorie Russell, nursing consultant 
to the D.V.A. Each school has a full- 
time teaching staff of three graduate 

THE CANADIAN NURSE 



nurses with special preparation in 
teaching and supervision. Part-time 
instructors, who are specialists in their 
field, give instruction in the care of 
children and in elementary nutrition. 

Our original teaching unit, here at 
the Queen Mary Veterans Hospital, 
was in a temporary building known 
as "Hut 10." With regret, almost, 
we must explain that the walls of our 
hut were not of clay, nor did it have 
a thatched roof. 

On December 15, 1954 we moved 
into our spacious and elegant quarters 
in the new wing of the hospital. 
Reader, have you ever moved? If so, 
you will be smiling sympathetically. 
Not only do all those packing cases 
and boxes so carefully marked and 
labelled lose their distinguishing fea- 
tures en route but there seem to be 
twice as many of them when they 
are finally unloaded at their destina- 
tion. While striving to appear cheerful- 
and briskly competent in the midst 
of aforementioned unfamiliar packing 
cases, dismantled beds, unassembled 
bookshelves, etc., two snow-covered 
trees were dragged in ! But of course, 
the school always has a gala Christ- 
mas party complete with a tree under 



which are placed the gifts, brought 
in under "the-draw-a-name-buy a- 
seventy-five-cent-gift" system, which 
Santa Claus jovially gives out to the 
surprised recipients. 

We are proud of our well equip- 
ped teaching unit consisting of a lec- 
ture room, library, demonstration 
room, diet laboratory, sitting room, 
locker room, and offices. Visitors as- 
sure us that our color scheme is most 
attractive. Against the backgrounds 
of various pastel shades the trainee in 
her distinctive short-sleeved yellow 
uniform, (with the D.V.A. insignia 
on the arm band) worn with a white 
bib and apron, organdy tie-back cap, 
and brown shoes and stocking makes 
a pleasing picture. Patients often refer 
to them as buttercups, daffodils or 
canaries. 

Classes are enrolled twice a year. 
Trainees range in age from 18 to 40 
and must have completed at least one 
year of high school. Creed, race, color 
or marital status does not bar an ap- 
plicant though we emphasize the fact 
that home or other responsibilities 
must not interfere with attendance 
during the ten months of the course. 
Language difficulties? Yes, indeed — 




Qualified to Help. 



FEJ3RUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



123 



but in coping with these difficulties 
both instructor and trainee become 
quite resourceful. During the early 
weeks of the course one might have 
to demonstrate a hiccough to explain 
the meaning of the word. When one 
is informed that the cocc3^x is in the 
"downstairs region of the spine" one 
is definitely not disheartened ! 

The curriculum is based on the 
recommendation of the special com- 
mittee of the Canadian Nurses' Asso- 
ciation, and meets the requirements 
for certification in Ontario. Subjects 
taught in the school are elementary 
nursing, hygienic housekeeping, ele- 
mentary biology, personal and com- 
munity health and hygiene, elementary 
nutrition, adjustments and interper- 
sonal relationships, care of mother and 
baby, care of children, first aid and 
bandaging, civil defence. In accordance 
with a resolution passed by the Com- 
mittee on Educational Policy of the 
Canadian Nurses' Association, the 
basic course has recently been 
strengthened by emphasizing psychi- 
atric aspects of nursing within the 
present outline. 

The first four months of the course 
consist of theory, demonstration and 
practice in the classroom, and orienta- 
tion to clinical areas and special de- 
partments in the hospital. As soon as 
a new procedure has been satisfactor- 
ily performed by the trainee in the 
demonstration room she is taken to a 
ward where she carries out this pro- 
cedure under the supervision of an 
instructor from the school. Wards are 
selected and the trainees are given 
additional assignments as they pro- 
gress. By the fourth month of their 
training they spend about three hours 
on the wards daily. 

At the beginning of the fifth month 
the trainee starts her full-time ward 
experience. In addition to the Queen 
Mary Veterans Hospital the following 
hospitals participate in our training 
program: The Montreal General, 
Royal Victoria, St. Mary's, Queen 
Elizabeth and Jewish General. Each 
trainee spends four weeks at the Mont- 
real Children's Hospital, two weeks in 
a nursery, two weeks on a maternity 
ward and approximately twelve weeks 
on medical and surgical wards in one 
of the above-mentioned hospitals. The 
trainee is under the supervision of a 



member of the teaching staff of the 
hospital involved and of the head nurse 
of the ward to which she is assigned. 
An instructor from the school acts 
in the capacity of visiting clinical co- 
ordinator. Evening and/or night duty 
is limited to three weeks as super- 
vision, individual and group clinical 
instruction and proper evaluation of 
trainees present problems, in most 
cases, during these hours of duty. 
Trainees are required to do "observa- 
tion" studies on two or more patients 
during their term of full-time ward 
experience. 

Directors of nursing in the partici- 
pating hospitals act m an advisory 
capacity to the director of the school. 
Their interest and support is deeply 
appreciated and is most encouraging. 
Graduation, which follows on the 
heels of final examinations, is for us 
the great day just as it is everywhere 
for anyone in any way involved with 
students. Sixty-two nursing assistants 
have successfully completed the course 
at the Queen Mary Veterans Hospital. 
With pride, though, we speak of 210 
graduate nursing assistants. In April 
1954, the Montreal School for Nursing 
Assistants, established in 1948 under 
the direction of Mrs. F. Fisher, amal- 
gamated with our school and thus 
came into existence "The Montreal 
Central School for Nursing Assist- 
ants" as we are now officially known. 
And after graduation ? Excerpts 
from letters received from, and from 
conversations with, graduate nursing 
assistants tell their own story : 

"This is a 20-bed hospital in a 500- 
peopled town. Most of the people are of 
Ukrainian origin and I have already 
learned seven words in that language. 
The work is rewarding and interesting. 
We have so many opportunities to do 
the things we were trained to do." 

"When Mrs. S. goes to hospital I am 
going to look after Mr. S. and the two 
small children and I shall be staying 
on for one week longer when Mrs. S. 
comes home with the new baby." 

"There are four graduate nurses and 
the three of us at this Camp for Crip- 
pled Children. Under the direction of the 
nurses we take care of the more severely 
handicapped children and also take part 
in the recreational activities of the camp. 
We are having an interesting and en- 
joyable summer." 



124 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



"I am learning so much about the 
care of the patient with tuberculosis and 
have gone up the coast by plane on 
"escort duty'." 

"My patient's husband seemed so help- 
less and lost when I first came here. 
He is 74 and she is 70 — the cancer 
is quite advanced. I let him help me 
with the housekeeping duties and even 
with some of the nursing duties, and 
now he does not seem quite so sad." 
In the home, in small hospitals, in 
otitlying communities, and in our hos- 
pitals in the city, the trained nursing 



assistant is taking her place on the 
nursing team and is proving her value. 
With a feeling of the worthiness of 
work well done in her own field, she 
shares in and relieves the professional 
nurse of some of the duties required 
of the ntirsing profession as a whole. 
In the words of Miss White "With 
our training we can help . . ." Under 
the direction of doctors and nurses 
they are helping to assure total nursing 
care of the patient and helping to 
maintain and promote the standards 
of the nursing profession. 



New Autoclave Tape 



A Toronto nurse is credited with assisting 
greatly in the commercial development of 
a new autoclave tape that provides im- 
mediate identification of sterilized bundles 
and items in hospitals. The tape is employed 
for closing and sealing bundles prior to 
placing them in the autoclave or steam 
oven for sterilization. It is now in use in 
major Toronto and Montreal hospitals as 
well as in a number of hospitals across 
Canada. 

A query by Phyllis Norton, supervisor 
of the Central Supply Room in the Toronto 
Hospital for Sick Children started months 
of research. She was looking for a new 
method of sealing wrapped items and a 
simple means of identifying them after pro- 
cessing. The product had to meet the quali- 
fications of hospital sterilizing. The tape 
used had to withstand prolonged exposure 
to steam without losing its body and com- 
ing loose. It had to peel off readily without 
leaving a sticky residue. It had to adhere 
to all types of dry, clean surfaces such as 
linen, muslin, plastic, glass and metal. It had 
to have a backing that would take and hold 
markings through prolonged heat exposure. 

After months of developing tapes that 
were passed on for testing, a product was 
devised which not only stood up under the 
steam and heat exposure, but adhered firmly 
long after processing. It could be stamped, 
written on \^ith ink, pencil or crayon. The 
identification neither ran into the tape or 
material nor showed any sign of fading. 
The problem of indicating whether or not 




Phyllis Norton 

a bundle had been sterilized still remained. 
The final result is a marking that will be- 
come visible only after processing under 
the proper combination of heat and steam. 
Neither heat nor steam alone nor direct 
exposure to sunlight will register. 

The autoclave tape is economical to use, 
because only short strips are needed to seal 
sizeable bundles. One 60-yard roll will seal 
approximately 720 bundles at an average 
sealing cost of six bundles for one cent. 
Because the packages are neater and more 
compact, they require less shelf space. A 
hazard of handling bundles is eliminated 
because there is less danger of accidental 
opening. 



He listens to good purpose who takes The most unhappy of all men is he who 

notes. — Dante believes himself to be so. 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



125 




^^^m 



prepored by your notionol office Conadian Nurses' Association, Ottowo 



Nursing Education 

SHOULD THE CNA BE GIVING morC 
direction in regard to curriculum 
development ? Are the various exper- 
imental programs under way in dif- 
ferent parts of Canada really meeting 
the needs of nursing? These are some 
of the questions being asked by nurs- 
ing educators. At its meeting in Janu- 
ary, 1955, the CNA Committee on 
Nursing Education began a discussion 
on curriculum, but it was soon evident 
that constructive, far-sighted work 
could not be attempted until certain 
information was available. For, to ad- 
vise on such matters, one must have 
a knowledge of the kind of worker 
which it is proposed will result from 
the educational program. Objectives 
must be clarified before curricula can 
be planned. 

With this in mind, each provincial 
nursing education committee was 
asked to prepare a statement of its 
beliefs in regard to the "Philosophy, 
Aims and Objectives of the Basic 
Nursing Education Program." This 
was not an easy assignment. We think 
we know the goal towards which our 
teaching is directed, but when we 
attempt to put these thoughts into 
words they become very elusive. 

The provincial committees have 
worked long and hard to prepare their 
statements. One province arranged a 
full day's conference for this purpose 
and produced a most comprehensive 
summary. Their approach was first to 
consider the general philosophy of cur- 
riculum development and, then, through 
small groups to consider the philoso- 
phy, aims and objectives of cur- 
riculum as it relates particularly to 
nursing education. Although at the 
time of writing, the CNA Nursing 
Education Committee has not studied 
the statements, it is possible to say 
that the theme which runs throughout 
them all is the importance of the 



human element — to the stud'.nt her- 
self, to her patients, to the community, 
to her co-workers. We seem to be 
unanimous in realizing that, in order 
to meet her responsibilities, the nurse 
must have an opportunity for personal 
as well as professional growth. 

Ninth WHO Assembly 

The Ninth World Health Assembly 
which will be held in 1956 has selected 
as the topic of the technical discussions 
"Nurses: Their Education and Their 
Role in Health Programs." 

The International Council of Nurses 
and the International Committee of 
Catholic Nurses and Medico-Social 
Workers have been invited to attend 
these sessions as international non- 
governmental organizations in official 
relationship with the World Health 
Organization. 

The I.C.N, has invited the affiliated 
national nurses' associations to pro- 
mote discussion of the topic and to 
forward a summary of statement based 
on three broad questions : 

I. What is the present role of nurses 
in meeting the health needs of 
people ? 
II. What do nurses see as their future 
role in (or contribution to) the 
total health program? 
III. What conditions, attitudes or edu- 
cational facilities should be changed 
or developed so that nurses may 
successfully play the role envisaged ? 
It is our hope that the summary 
statement prepared by the CNA will 
appear within the pages of The Cana- 
dian Nurse at a later date. 

Pre-registration for 28th Biennial 

Almost daily now pre-registrations 
are being received in National Office. 
Student forms are arriving minus 
names. The lucky girls who will be 
coming aren't named vet, but none- 



126 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



theless everyone is entering into the 
spirit of the Convention. The regis- 
trants from Quebec seem to be in the 
majority. Remember, early registrants 
will naturally have a better choice of 
accommodation and the opportunity to 
choose the post-convention tour of 
their liking. 

The Executive Meeting 

February is a busy month at your 
National Office. With its arrival come 
the numerous committee meetings 
which are a prelude to a Biennial Con- 
vention. 

Februarv 2, 3. and 4 find the Exec- 
utive Committee meeting at the 
Chateau Laurier in Ottawa. Some 35 
members of the Executive will be in 
attendance. These members are your 
elected representatives from all parts 
of Canada. 

Here the reports of the five national 
committees will be presented and im- 
portant developments discussed and 
voted upon. As an example, the Pub- 
licity and Public Relations Committee 
Report will ask the Executive to vote 
upon the recommendation that the 
Public Relations Guide prepared dur- 
ing this biennium be printed in both 
French and English. If this is agreed 
upon, the Guide will be ready for dis- 
tribution during the Biennial Meeting 
in Winnipeg. This Guide is designed 
to give each nurse helpful suggestions 
in communicating with other profes- 
sional personnel and with the public 
in general. The development of good 
chapter meetings is discussed within 



its pages for it is here that the nurse 
develops her understanding of the pro- 
fession and what it is trying to accom- 
plish in terms of improved nursing 
service. 

The Program Committee will have 
much to report as plans are finalized 
for the 28th Biennial Meeting. Details 
will be outlined concerning the various 
sessions, speakers announced and en- 
tertainment activities finalized by the 
x\rrangements Committee which is 
composed of representatives from our 
hostess provinces, Manitoba and Sas- 
katchewan. 

Hospitalization 

Have any of you w^ho are reading 
this been hospitalized lately ? Have you 
been the patient instead of the nurse? 
We know of a nurse who recently 
became a patient for a few days. 
Amazed by the number of people who 
came popping in and out of her room, 
she began to keep count. 

Within the first twenty hours of her 
stay in hospital no less than 14 rep- 
resentatives of the nursing team ap- 
proached her bedside — the supervisor, 
seven registered nurses, three nursing 
assistants, three ward aides. Add to 
this the patient's doctor, two internes, 
a cleaning woman and a handy man 
who came in to do a few repairs, it 
was rather confusing even to a nurse, 
to say nothing of a person unfamiliar 
to hospital ways. Do you know that 
not one of these members of the nurs- 
ing personnel offered to introduce her- 
self f Better communications are defi- 
nitely needed within our profession. 



^e ^Tfccuut^ a tn^UAC^u ic fracf^^ 



L'education en Nursing 

L'Association des Infirmieres Canadiennes 
devrait-elle donner plus de directives con- 
cernant le programme d'etude? Les pro- 
grammes actuellement a I'essai dans diverses 
parties du Canada repondent-ils vraiment 
aux besoins de la profession? Voila des 
questions que se posent les educatrices en 
nursing. Lors de la reunion de Janvier 1955, 
les membres du Comite de TEducation en 



Nursing amorcerent une discussion sur le 
programme d'enseignement mais on se rendit 
bientot compte qu'il etait impossible de tra- 
vailler d'une maniere constructive et pre- 
voyante a moins de posseder certains ren- 
seignements. Avant de pouvoir donner des 
conseils sur la preparation d'un programme 
d'enseignement, il faut savoir d'abord quelle 
formation Ton vise a donner et quels sont 
les objectifs a atteindre. Tenant compte de 
ce fait, Ton a prie chaque comite provincial 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



127 



d'education en nursing de rediger un expose 
de la philosophie, des buts et objectifs du 
cours de base en nursing. La tache assignee 
n'etait pas facile. Nous croyons connaitre 
le but vers lequel nous dirigeons notre en- 
seignement mais lorsqu'il s'agit de concre- 
tiser notre pensee par des mots, c'est bien 
moins simple. 

Les comites provinciaux ont travaille fer- 
me et longuement a la preparation de cet 
expose. Dans une province, Ton a organise, 
a cet effet, une journee d'etude et on a 
presente un resume tres au point. On a 
d'abord considere la philosophie generale de 
Felaboration d'un programme d'enseigne- 
ment apres quoi, des petits groupes se sont 
formes pour etudier la philosophie, les buts 
et objectifs d'un programme d'etude relati- 
vement a la formation de I'infirmiere. Bien 
que le Comite national de I'Education en 
Nursing n'aie pas encore etudie tous les 
rapports presentes par les provinces, Ton 
peut deja deduire que le facteur humain en 
est I'element fondamental considere par 
rapport a I'etudiante d'abord, puis a ses 
malades, a la societe et aux personnes qui 
travaillent avec elles. Toutes semblent una- 
nimes a realiser que pour pouvoir assumer 
des responsabilites, I'infirmiere devrait avoir 
autant I'occasion de developper sa personna- 
lite que d'acquerir des connaissances pro- 
fessionnelles. 

La 9ieme Assemblee de I'OMS 

La neuvieme assemblee de I'OMS, qui aura 
lieu en 1956, a choisi comme sujet de dis- 
cussion : "Les infirmieres, leur formation et 
leur role dans les programmes de sante." 

-Le Conseil International des Infirmieres 
et le Comite catholique international des 
infirmieres et des assistantes sociales ont 
ete invites a cette reunion, a titre d'organi- 
sations officielles non-gouvernementales. 

Le Conseil International des Infirmieres a 
invite toutes les associations nationales a 
faire connaitre leur point de vue en les 
priant de repondre a ces trois questions : 

I. Quel est le role actuel des infirmieres 
en ce qui concerne les besoins de la collec- 
tivite, en matiere de sante ? 

II. Quelle sera la contribution des infir- 
mieres de I'avenir dans Ic ])rogramme sani- 
taire? 

III. Quelles conditions, attitudes ou formes 
d'enseignement devront etre modifiees ou 
developpees pour permettre a I'infirmiere de 
remplir avantageusement le role que Ton 
attend d'elle? 

Nous esperons que le resume prepare par 



I'A.I.C. paraitra prochainement dans I'in- 
firmiere Canadienne. 

Assemblee du Comite Executif de 

I' Association des Infirmieres Canadiennes 

Fevrier est un mois bien rempli au secre- 
tariat national ; des les premiers jours, se 
tiendront les reunions des divers comites, en 
vue de la preparation du congres biennal. 

Les 2, 3 et 4 fevrier aura lieu au Chateau 
Laurier, a Ottawa, I'assemblee du Comite 
Executif qui reunira 35 membres venant des 
diverses provinces et etant les representantes 
que vous avez elues. 

Les rapports que presenteront alors les 
cinq comites nationaux feront I'objet de 
discussions et les membres seront appeles 
a voter pour ou contre la recommandation 
qui sera faite par le Comite des Relations 
exterieures a savoir : que le guide prepare 
par ce comite soit public en anglais et en 
frangais. Si cette recommandation est accep- 
tee, le guide pourra etre distribue lors du 
congres de Winnipeg. Ce guide servira a 
apporter a I'infirmiere des suggestions qui 
lui seront utiles dans ses relations avec les 
autres membres de la profession et le public. 
Un chapitre est consacre aux assemblees de 
districts car c'est la que I'infirmiere apprend 
a connaitre la profession et la valeur de ses 
services pour le plus grand bien de tous. 

Le Comite du programme presentera un 
rapport interessant sur I'organisation de la 
28ieme assemblee biennale. Des details seront 
donnes sur les diverses seances, les confe- 
renciers et les reunions sociales, par le 
comite d'organisation comprenant des repre- 
sentantes des provinces hotesses, la Saskat- 
chewan et le Manitoba. 

Inscription preliminaire 
28ieme Congres Biennal 

Presque tous les jours recevons-nous au 
secretariat national des inscriptions pour le 
Congres ; les formules des etudiantes-infir- 
mieres ne portent pas de noms ; celles qui 
auront la chance d'assister au congres ne 
sont pas encore nommees ; toutes ont I'espoir 
d'etre choisies et ont deja I'esprit du congres. 
Les inscriptions reques du Quebec sont les 
plus nombreuses. Rappelez-vous que les pre- 
mieres inscrites auront un meilleur choix de 
logement et de participation aux voyages et 
excursions organisees apres le congres. 

Hospitalisation 

Y en a-t-il, parmi nos lectrices, qui ont 



128 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



.^. 




"tJCi /' 



For the well-being 
of your patients 



intravaglnal protection 
during menstruation. 
Three obsorbencies. 



CANADIAN TAMPAX 
CORPORATION LIMITED 

Brampton, Ontario 




FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



129 



ete hospitalisees, dernierement ? Vous est-il 
arrive d'etre la patiente au lieu de I'infir- 
miere? Nous connaissons une infirmiere qui 
a, recemment, ete hospitalisee pendant 
quelques jours. Etonnee par le nombre de 
personnes qui entraient et sortaient de sa 
chambre, elle se mit a les compter. Durant 
Ics premieres 24 heures, pas moins de 14 
personnes du personnel hospitalier sont 
venues dans sa chambre — la surveillantc, 
sept infirmieres, trois auxiliaires et trois filles 
de salles. En plus, son medecin, deux inter- 
nes, une femme de menage et un ouvrier qui 
vint faire quelque reparation. Si c'etait un 
pen cmbrouillant meme pour une infirmiere 



que dire d'une personne qui n'est pas familie- 
re avec ce milieu ? Savez-vous qu'aucune de 
ces personnes ne s'est presentee I II n'y a pas 
a dire, nos relations professionnelles ont 
besoin d'etre ameliorees. 

Chez les notres 

La redactrice de I'lnfirmiere Canadienne 
et sa collaboratrice Mile S. Giroux offrent 
a tous nos lecteurs leurs meilleurs voeux 
de Bonne et Heureuse Annee. Elles remer- 
cient tres sincerement tous ceux et celles qui 
ont collabore aux pages frangaises de cette 
revue. 



Annual Meeting in New Brunswick 



THE MEMBERS OF THE New Brunswick As- 
sociation of Registered Nurses were guests 
of the Moncton Chapter at their 39th annual 
meeting on October 19 and 20. The two-day 
meeting, held in the auditorium of the Hotel- 
Dieu de I'Assomption, was attended by 165. 

The first day's meeting opened with the 
president. Miss Grace Stevens, in the chair. 
The second day's meetings were chaired by 
the first vice-president, Miss Lois Smith. The 
highlight of the morning was the presentation 
of the first association life membership to 
Miss Alma F. Law, past secretary-registrar, 
who on her retirement had held office for 13 
years. The citation was given by Miss Marion 
Myers. 

In her presidential address. Miss Stevens 
spoke of the progress made in nursing educa- 
tion in New Brunswick through the appoint- 
ment of Miss E. Kathleen Russell to study 
ways and means of organizing nursing educa- 
tion to give more adequate nursing service. 

Following the report of the Committee on 
Finance, a motion that the annual active 
membership fee be increased from $10.00 to 
$12.00 was passed unanimously. The Nursing 
Service Committee presented some changes 
in Recommended Personnel Policies which 
were accepted. 

The educational program of the meeting 
centred on public relations and following the 
report of the Committee on Publicity and 
Public Relations, a role-playing presentation 
of various situations met with in hospitals 
was given under the direction of Miss H. 
Jean Lynds. 

We were fortunate in having as our guest 
from National Office, Miss Rita Maclsaac 
who spoke on internal communications. Her 



topic "It's Up to Us" served to round out the 
program on public relations and gave a wealth 
of information on the relationship of the in- 
dividual nurse to her provincial, national and 
international nursing organizations, with 
guidance for successful public relations. 

The report of the Committee on Nursing 
Education noted that some projects which 
need to be studied will remain pending until 
the results of the nursing survey are made 
public in the fall of 1956. A recommendation 
that the New Brunswick Association of 
Registered Nurses set aside the sum of 
$2,000 for the purpose of student loans was 
accepted. 

Miss E. Kathleen Russell was introduced 
to the members and spoke of the research 
being conducted as a cooperative effort. She 
said that there was need for a firmer recog- 
nition of the depth and breadth of nursing 
services demanded today ; that the aim of the 
research was to find recommendations in 
order to produce more nursing service, more 
adequate nursing service, and nursing service 
to meet all the demands of nursing. 

The Committee on Legislation and By- 
Laws recommended that legislation for the 
auxiliary nurse be delayed until after the re- 
search project on nursing education is com- 
pleted. Provincial office was authorized to 
charge $1.00 for an endorsement and $2.00 for 
a complete transcript in completing registra- 
tion credentials. 

Other committee reports of provincial in- 
terest were given. Reports from the eight 
chapters showed a range of activities and 
interests, with many vital topics and active 
participation in educational programs by the 
members themselves. 



130 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




'^^Meat....inay be fed at any age'' 



JEAN AND Marriott's statement in 
1947 in their book "Infant Nutri- 
tion" that "Meat appropriately pre- 
pared may be fed at any age" has been 
reinterpreted many times since in the 
light of clinical evidence. 

Liverton & Clark (J.A.M.A. i34,1215 
(1947) show that infants of six weeks 
readily accept and benefit in terms of 
hemoglobin concentration and 
erythrocyte count, from a formula 
which increases their protein intake 
by 25% by the addition of Swift's 
Meats for Babies. 



Swift's Meats for Babies are prepared 
from fine lean meats, specially pre- 
cooked to retain their high nutritional 
values^ and strained to a custard-like 
consistency. There are seven varieties, 
beef veal, heart, liver, liver and bacon, 
pork and lamb. Swift also prepares Egg 
Yolks for Babies, Salmon Seafood for 
Babies, and Chopped Meats for Juniors. 



Meats for Babies 

SWIFTS 

mosi precious produc/ 



Swifts 

McatsBabif! 



SWIFT CANADIAN CO.. LIMITEDl 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



131 



At the annual dinner held at the Brunswick 
Hotel, John Fisher was guest speaker and 
delighted his audience with his wit and 
general Canadiana philosophy. 

Prominence was given to the coming CNA 
biennial at Winnipeg through the showing of 
a film, and a pep talk by Miss Maclsaac. 



The officers of the Association remain 
unchanged, and are : President, Miss Grace 
Stevens ; first vice-president, Miss Lois 
Smith ; second vice-president, Mother 
Bujold ; honorary secretary. Sister Mac- 
kenzie. Muriel Archibald 
Secretary-Registrar 



SeCecU^H 



L'enjant a I'hopital 



Observons I'enfant a Fhopital, dans cet 
entourage etrange pour lui, calme, propre. 
blanc, tout en ordre ; dans cette ambiance 
tellement opposee a son caractere d'enfant, 
lui qui a besoin de mouvement, de vie, 
de bruit, d'un peu et parfois de beaucoup de 
desordre. II subira des traitements divers, 
piqures, lavements, soins de plaies operatoires, 
sans parler de I'intervention elle-meme. II 
risquera d'etre seul pendant de longues 
heures. II aura mal parfois, et personne ne 
sera pres de lui pour I'aider a mieux sup- 
porter ce mal. Oui, assurement, I'hospitali- 
sation est une epreuve reelle pour I'enfant. 
Et surtout pour le petit de moins de 5 ans, 
alors que souvent, malgre les explications 
fournies, il ne realise pas pourquoi on I'a 
abandonne en ce lieu inconnu et apparem- 
ment hostile. 

II en est ainsi surtout pour la raison 
suivante : I'enfant — et surtout le petit d'age 
prescolaire — vit essentiellement dans le 
present. II est incapable d'anticiper et d'en- 
'visager ce sejour en clinique comme un 
evenement passager. Et son desespoir en est 
d'autant plus grand. Ainsi, lorsque sa mere 
I'a quitte, pour lui, c'est comme si elle 
n'existait plus. L'enfant de 6 ans et plus 
acquiert progressivement la notion du futur ; 
I'epreuve lui en est facilitee. II sait qu'il 
rentrera chez lui. Toutefois, pour les grands 
enfants aussi, I'epreuve est reelle et il faut 
les aider a la supporter. 

L'intervention, si elle a lieu, est evidem- 
ment le point crucial du sejour a la clinique. 
II est souhaitable que les parents restent 
pres de I'enfant avant et apres I'operation. 
II se sentira ainsi un peu plus en securite. 
Cette journee-la est pour I'enfant, comme 
pour les parents, une epreuve. L'enfant a 



Extrait de la revue L'Enfant editee 
par L'Oeuvre Nationale de I'Enfance de 
Belgique. 



besoin de la presence d'un de ses parents, 
de sa simple presence. II ne demande pas a 
jouer. II ne demande pas de bruit. Mais il 
n'aime pas ctre seul. La proximite d'un 
etre familier — calme et qui le reconforte 
— lui est une aide considerable. 

Les VI sites 

Faut-il rendre visite a l'enfant ? Non, nous 
a dit une mere de famille, "cela ne sert a 
rien et ca I'enerve. Quand nous ne sommes 
pas la, il est calme, et des que nous arrivons, 
ce sont des hurlements . . ." En fait, la mere 
disait cela parce que les hurlements en 
question I'indisposaient tres fort, et qu'elle 
ne reflechissait pas au vrai motif de ces 
pleurs. "Non" vous diront egalement cer- 
taines infirmieres, en employant les memes 
arguments. "Des que les parents arrivent, 
ma salle d'habitude calme, s'cmplit de pleurs 
et de cris. C'est aflfreux !" 

Eh ! oui, c'est aflfreux . . . Souvent les en- 
fants pleurent ! Mais pourquoi ? lis pleurent 
pour se liberer de toute I'angoisse accumulee 
pendant les heures de solitude. Et s'ils de- 
mandent encore et tou jours a leurs parents 
de les emmener, c'est parce qu'ils n'aiment 
pas vivre dans cette salle d'hopital. // semble 
certain, au contraire, qu'il faut rendre visite 
a l'enfant hospitalise, et aussi souvent que 
possible. Que faire s'il pleure? II faut laisser 
passer le flot de larmes, et quand l'enfant 
se calme peu a peu, jouer avec lui, lui 
donner un petit cadeau qui lui dira que 
Ton a pense a lui, meme en son absence. 
Que les parents lui parlent de la maison, 
de I'ecole, qu'ils lui disent qu'on pense a 
lui, qu'on sera heureux de le retrouver 
au foyer . . . Ainsi l'enfant sentira que les 
liens avec sa vie habituelle ne sont pas 
rompus, qu'on I'aime et qu'on ne I'oublie pas. 

II faudra evidemment observer les regle- 
ments en vigueur a la clinique. Si les visites 



132 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 






L 




A picture of satisfaction — and why not? This 
baby loves its Farmer's Wife, and mother 
knows that the formula milk recommended 
for her baby was prepared especially for infant 
feeding and infant feeding alone. 

Evaporated Whole Milk 

Concentrated Partly Skimmed Milk 

Concentrated Skimmed Milk 

Farmer's W/Vife 

FORMULA MILKS 

COW AND GATE (CANADA) LIMITED, Brockville, Ontario 

"Specialists in the processing of milk foods for infant feeding" 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



133 



sont autorisees pendant toute la journee, il 
est possible d'organiser des visites repetees 
par difFerents membres, bien choisis, de la 
famille : parents, grands-parents, f reres et 
soeurs ... II est tres important de ne pas 
tromper I'enfant quant a la frequence des 
visites, de ne pas le faire attendre en vain. 
Son sentiment de securite serait encore 
ebranle. Quelle est la duree optimum des 
visites a un enfant malade ? Eh ! bien, ici 
cela depend de nombreux facteurs : age de 



I'enfant, personnalite des parents, gravite de 
I'affection, occupations menageres ou autres, 
de la mere ... II semble cependant que la 
presence de sa mere ou de quelqu'un de bien 
connu soit pour I'enfant un element fa- 
vorable. 

N.B. Nous regrettons ne pouvoir citer que 
ces quelques lignes de cet interessant article 
ecrit par le Docteur E. Alfred Sand de 
rUniversite de Bruxelles. 



Portrait Unveiled 



At a ceremony on November 15, 1955, a 
posthumous portrait of Miss Mary S. 






Posthumous portrait of Mary S. JVu./.l.. 
son, BSc, by Robin Watt, M.C., A.R.C.A., 
unveiled in Livingston Hall, The Montreal 
General Hospital. 



Mathewson, assistant director, School for 
Graduate Nurses, McGill University, 1936-46 
and director of nursing of The Montreal 
General Hospital, 1946-53, was unveiled by 
Miss Norena S. Mackenzie, president of the 
Alumnae Association of the School of Nurs- 
ing. Miss Mackenzie, who was a close friend 
and professional associate of Miss Mathewson, 
paid tribute to the unique qualities which re- 
sulted in her outstanding contribution to the 
fields of nursing education and public health. 
Miss Ann Peverley, who acted as chairman, 
stated that the portrait was undertaken in 
response to requests from friends and col- 
leagues in many parts of the world, and has 
been made possible by their contributions. 
Mr. W. S. M. MacTier, president of the hos- 
pital, in accepting the portrait, expressed his 
appreciation on behalf of the Board of Man- 
agement. 

At a reception following the unveiling 
ceremony, the coffee table was presided over 
by Miss Rae Chittick, director. School for 
Graduate Nurses, McGill University, and 
Miss Mary Ritchie, Assistant Chief Nurse 
Department of Health, City of Montreal. 



New Spectacles Aid the Deaf 



Spectacles with built-in hearing aids have 
been developed as the result of recent ad- 
vances in the making of miniature electronic 
components. The battery for the new aid is 
the size of a dime. Known as the "Specta- 
phone," the new hearing aid uses a transis- 
tor. It marks 30 years progress in the search 
for an efficient and unobtrusive hearing 
aid. To solve the problem of coordinating 
the production of the aid with the older 



craft of spectacle-making and fitting, selec- 
ted agents will carry stocks of partially 
completed frames in a range of sizes, and 
assemble them when the eye prescription 
is filled. Many styles will be available to 
suit wearers in different regions, and the 
range will be adjusted to meet average sizes 
and shapes of heads. The Spectaphone is 
manufactured by Fortiphone Ltd., 247 
Regent Street, London, W.I., England. 



134 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Nev\^ studies^ 
affirm clinical reports^'^^of 

effective 
safe relief 




'^WWW^SP'****^ 



in teething distress . • • 
constipation, gastro- 
intestinal discomfort 



Baby's Own Tablets 



RECENT CLINICAL STUDIES^ 
in infants corroborate extensive use 
in everyday practice regarding the 
notable safety and efficiency of 
Baby's Own Tablets. 

SATISFACTORY RELIEF FROM 
CONSTIPATION and TEETHING 
SYMPTOMS — amelioration of ma- 
laise, crankiness, fretfulness, colic 
and moderate fever — in 47 of 48 
babies. 

THE UTMOST IN SAFETY — 
"no evidence of side reactions," no 
cutaneous eruptions, petechiae, rise 
in temperature, change in cardiac or 
respiratory function; no oliguria or 



albuminuria . , . after several months 
of giving Baby's Own Tablets. 

Pleasant, convenient Baby's Own 
Tablets provide Phenolphthalein 
3/16 gr., mildly buffered with Pre- 
cipitated Calcium Carbonate Yi gr., 
and Powdered Sugar q.s. 

SO SAFE have millions upon mil- 
lions of doses of phenolphthalein 
proven^-'^ — with even 130 grains 
causing no untoward effects — that 
should a child swallow all the tablets 
in a package of Baby's Own (contain- 
ing hy% grains of the drug) there 
would be no cause for alarm. 

Send for a sample supply and litera- 
ture citing references'-'^. 



G. T. FULFORD CO., LIMITED, Brockv///e, Onfario 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 



135 



&iw4 1Reo^ce€</L^ 



Textbook of Physiology, by Caroline E. 
Stackpole, A.M., and Lutie Clemson Lea- 
veil, M.S. 418 pages. The Macmillan Co. 
of Canada Ltd., 70 Bond St., Toronto 2. 
1953. Price $5.00. 

Reviewed by Irene Feely, Science Instruc- 
tor, General Hospital, Brantford, Ont. 
This book has evolved from the authors' 
appreciation of "certain fundamental prob- 
lems that confront students of physiology, 
regardless of their primary interests." 

The eight problems, which provide the 
titles for the sections that comprise the 
book, are: 1. Maintaining a balance between 
rest and exercise, work and play. 2. Main- 
taining an awareness to the environment. 
3. Maintaining circulation. 4. Maintaining a 
constant oxygen supply. 5. Maintaining the 
protective mechanisms of the body. 6. Main- 
taining the nutrition of the body. 7. Main- 
taining the fluid and electrolyte balance of 
the body. 8. Perpetuating the human race. 
These sections are subdivided into con- 
venient lengths for teaching purposes. 

The information is laid down in a direct 
manner. It is aided frequently by compre- 
hensive tables as well as diagrams, some 
of which should encourage students to de- 
velop this useful way of retaining or ex- 
pressing knowledge. The terms used are 
familiar to students using anatomy and 
physiology texts of which these writers 
were co-authors. 

Consciousness of the "problem-solving ap- 
proach" was noted in the preface, and in 
the questions following some chapters. The 
customary introduction of "examples" lends 
reality to the subject. To appreciate this 
book of physiology the student nurse needs 
a basic core of anatomy. There is sufficient 
anatomy provided for recall to make it an 
interesting and worthwhile study or refer- 
ence source for nurses, and, in topics of 
general interest, to orient a reader with 
a particular interest. 

A Manual of Psychiatry, by K. R. Stall- 
worth, M.B., Ch.B. 314 pages. N. M. 
Peryer Ltd., Christchurch, New Zealand. 
2nd Ed. 1953. 

Reviewed by Miss Pearl Graham, Super- 
intendent of Nurses, Ontario Hospital, 
New Toronto, Ont. 

This manual has three definite objectives : 
(1) To provide valuable information for 
the general practitioner regarding psychiat- 



ric patients; (2) as a guide to students of 
psychiatry; (3) to disprove the belief that 
psychiatry is a specialty rather than a neces- 
sary part of medicine. All objectives are 
accomplished fairly well. Since technical 
terminology is at a minimum, the book is 
of value to laymen also. 

It is divided into 28 chapters. Eight of 
the earlier chapters deal with etiology, rou- 
tines, classifications and mental hygiene. 
Chapters 9-16 cover types of illnesses, 
neuroses, deficiency, epilepsy, psychopaths 
and psychosomatic medicine. The last three 
chapters deal with treatment and nursing 
measures. Definitions are simple but excel- 
lent. "Intelligence is the ability to profit by 
experience, to grasp essential meanings of 
past experience and apply them to the 
future." 

The author stresses the fact of "contagion" 
in dealing with heredity and environment. 
The chapter on mental hygiene has valu- 
able suggestions for the preventive side of 
psychiatry. Treatment data is clear although 
methods vary in different centres. However, 
the explanations given will allay the fears 
of the general public. 

This text would be a worthwhile addition 
to a nursing library, particularly as an in- 
troduction to psychiatry. Alore detail would 
seem desirable for those who wish advanced 
study. 

Smoking and Cancer, a Doctor's Report, 
by Alton Ochsner, M.D. 86 pages. The 
Copp Clark Co. Ltd., Toronto. 1954. 
Price $2.25. 

Reviewed by Margaret Nesbitt, Cancer 
Clinic, Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, 
N.S. 

Dr. Ochsner is well qualified for the task 
of pointing out the hazards of smoking, 
which he has undertaken in this book. By 
the use of ample references to authoritative 
research studies and his own findings, he 
leaves little doubt of these dangers. 

Smokers in particular should read this 
simple, straightforward account of what 
happens in their systems in relation to their 
nicotine intake. The statement that "heavy 
cigarette smoking more than doubles the 
death rate from cancer and nearly doubles 
the death rate from coronary disease" 
should not be taken lightly. 

Dr. Ochsner digresses from the problem 
of "Smoking and Cancer" enough to show 



1.36 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Dependable Pain Relief 




[}D 



®®{^mm 



Formula: Each Instantine-Plus Tablet Contains 

Acetylsalicylic Acid, AVi grains. Pl>enacetin, Wi grains. 
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Availability : Tins of 12, bottles of 48 and 12fl. 
THE BAYER COMPANY, LIMITED, WINDSOR, ONTARIO 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



137 



other serious conditions that threaten the 
smoker in much greater proportion than the 
non-smokers. He also criticizes the tobacco 
companies for their advertising methods and 
their lack of responsibility for the health 
of their customers. 

The author, realizing that the use of to- 
bacco will continue with the years, has given 
a suggested program for breaking the habit. 
For those who will not give it up completely 
he outlines the methods by which the health 
risks may be minimized. 

Physiology and Anatomy by Esther M. 

Greisheimer. Ph.D., M.D. 808 pages. J. 

B. Lippincott Company, 2083 Guy Street, 

Montreal. 7th. ed. 1955. Price $5.00. 

Previous editions of this text are well- 
known to instructors and students of nurs- 
ing. The present edition has undergone 
re-evaluation of content and certain changes 
in manner of presentation. The author's 
objective was to increase the value of the 
text as an aid in teaching and learning. 

The book is divided into five main units. 
The various systems of the body are al- 
located and discussed under the appropriate 
headings. Each chapter contains a very 
concise summary of its contents. Study 
questions of the multiple choice variety 
are included at the end of each chapter 
as well. These are interesting and valuable 
but in some instances seem too advanced 
for the preclinical student. A new section — 
"Practical Considerations" — has been in- 
troduced. This developed as the result of 
questions asked by students. It constitutes 
a brief discussion of some of the common 
pathologic conditions associated with specific 
body systems. For examples, arteriosclerosis, 
aneurysm, and varicose veins are dealt with 
under the anatomy and physiology of the 
circulatory system. There are a large num- 
ber of illustrations — a considerable pro- 
portion of them in color. They are clear- 
ly labelled and understandable. A glossary 
has been prepared to aid in familiarizing 
the reader with anatomical and medical 
terminology. 

One section deserves special mention. 
Most students find the study of the nervous 
system difficult. This may be the result 
of the tendency to separate the system into 
its component parts instead of regarding 
it as an integrated unit. The author has 
approached the subject with the emphasis on 
integration. The use of a familiar situa- 
tion — an aching tooth — as an analogy 



in the introductory remarks attracts one's 
attention immediately. The section is well 
illustrated with tables and diagrams. The 
discussion is detailed but pertinent. There 
has been greater emphasis placed upon re- 
lating the role of the nervous system to 
familiar bodily activities. 

This is a very readable and useful book. 
The instructor in anatomy and physiology 
should find it a valuable aid. Some may 
consider that there is too much detail. The 
author anticipated this but included addi- 
tional information for the student who 
might be lacking in a supporting basis of 
scientific knowledge. Considerable thought 
has been given to the sequence of subject 
matter based on the needs of the student 
nurse. For the less experienced instructor, 
the use of the text Teaching Physiology 
and Anatomy in Nursing by H. H. Flitter 
and H. R. Rowe in conjunction with this 
book would be very helpful. 

Teaching Physiology and Anatomy in 
Nursing by Hessel H. Flitter, R.N., 
B.S., M.A., and Harold R. Rowe, R.N., 
B.S., M.S. 56 pages. J. B. Lippincott 
Company. 2083 Guy Street, Montreal. 
1955. Price $2.00. 

The new instructor often has di*?iculty in 
deciding upon the best method to use in 
presenting her subject. In the words of the 
authors "this book is intended to oflfer help 
to the beginning instructor in physiology 
and anatomy." To make the text more 
meaningful, it was developed with specific 
reference to Physiology and Anatomy, 7th 
edition, by Esther M. Greisheimer. 

In introduction there is a general dis- 
cussion and definition of the usual ap- 
proaches to teaching. Such terms as "cor- 
relation," "integration," and "content-cen- 
tered approach" are clarified. Succeeding 
units are related to corresponding units of 
Dr. Greisheimer's book. No attempt is made 
to organize subject material for teaching 
purposes. Suggestions and ideas are offered 
for the use of the instructor in choosing 
the best method of presentation. The im- 
portance of teaching this subject in integra- 
tion with the rest of the curriculum is 
emphasized. Using the student's past ex- 
periences as a basis for imparting new 
information is also stressed. 

A plan of time distribution of content 
is given. This is of limited value. The num- 
ber of hours allotted to each subject varies 
from one school to another depending on the 
organization of the curriculum. A course 



138 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Vitamin deficiency? 

Vitules 

MULTIVITAMIN CAPSULE 

WITH CAROTENE 

Optimum protection independent 
of diet 

FORMULA: 

Ekich capsule contains: 

Vitamin A Activity 5000 I.U. 

(from Carotene 1000 units; from fish liver oils 4000 units) 

Vitamin D 500 I.U. 

Thiamine 1 mg. 

Riboflavin 2 mg. 

Niacinamide 10 mg. 

*d-Calcium Pantothenate 10 mg. 

Pyridoxine 1 mg- 

Ascorbic Acid 30 rag. 

Mixed Tocopherols (antioxidant) 4 mg. 

Liver Concentrate 

(derived from 2.5 gm. whole liver) 125 mg. 

Brewer's Yeast 125 mg. 

*The significance of this vitamin in human nutrition is 
not yet established. 

SUGGESTED DOSAGE: 

SUPPLIED: MAINTENACE: 

VITULES are supplied in one Vitule daily 

bottles of 30, 100 and THERAPEUTIC- 

1000 capsules ^^^ ^.j^,^ ^,,^^^ ^; j^„^ 

times daily. 



Mk'^ 



WAlKEIVUli. ONTAtIO 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 139 



outline is included in conclusion. Senior 
instructors may have mixed feelings in 
regard to this. The new instructor will 
undoubtedly be grateful for it. 

It would appear that the authors have 
accomplished their purpose. While designed 
primarily for the less experienced instruc- 
tor, the senior instructor may conceivably 
find a fresh approach to a familiar subject. 
This text should prove very useful. 

Supervision of Nursing Service Per- 
sonnel, by Cecilia M. Perrodin, R.N., 
M.S.N. Ed. 622 pages. The Macmillan 
Company of Canada, 70 Bond Street, 
Toronto 2, Ont. 1954. Price $6.00. 
Revieived by Miss Jeanie S. Clark, 
Director of Nursing, University Hospital, 
Edmonton, Alia. 

The author of this textbook was formerly 
assistant professor, Nursing Education, De 
Paul University, Chicago, Illinois. In the 
preface, she states her three purposes in 
writing this book as follows : 

1. In an effort to demonstrate the role 
of the nursing supervisor as a harmonizer 
and a key figure in the achievement of a 
desirable balance between the legitimate as- 
pirations of those directly or indirectly 
affected by supervision : patients, community. 



DALHOUSiE 
UNIVERSITY 

SCHOOL OF NURSING 

is presenting a five-day institute 
APRIL 23-27, 1956 

IN 

Administration and Supervision in 
Nursing Education designed for 
supervisors and directors of nursing 
education with at least one year's 
university experience. 

Dr. Genevieve Bixler, consultant 
in Nursing education is to be the 
conference leader. 

REGISTRATION LIMITED TO 25 MEMBERS. 
TUITION FEE — $25.00 

Detailed Program will be sent to each 
Registrant. 



nursing personnel and hospital and nursing 
administration. 

2. From a belief "that this is the age of 
supervision, that supervision is the answer 
to many of the problems of nursing service 
in all hospitals, large and small, and that 
a guide to supervision will be welcomed 
by administrator, supervisors, and teachers." 

3. To satisfy students, who, when pursu- 
ing courses in nursing education frequently 
and legitimately complain that they receive 
the same content in nursing administration 
courses that they receive in nursing super- 
vision. 

It would appear that Miss Perrodin writes 
on the subject of supervision of personnel 
assuredly. She has had extensive experience 
and contacts in the nursing service field and 
also contacts in the fields of industry and 
business. She handled her subject under 
eight units : 
Unit One: The Nature and Meaning of 

Supervision. 
Unit Two : Basic Concepts of Importance in 

Supervision. 
Unit Three : Principles of Supervision and 
their Relation to Supervisory Practices. 
Unit Four : Analysis and Organization of 
Supervisory Activities, Requirements 
and Qualifications. 
Unit Five : Tools of Supervision. 
Unit Six : Contributions of Education, Busi- 
ness and Industry to Supervision. 
Unit Seven : The Supervisory Program. 
Unit Eight: The Fruits of Supervision. 

At the end of each unit there appears 
an extensive bibliography for the use of 
readers who wish to pursue further refer- 
ences on the subject. 

The material is well organized and set 
out frequently in a tabular or illustrative 
way. There is a discriminating use of a large 
and small type which aids in rapid com- 
prehension. For the student and for the 
nursing service supervisor, this textbook 
should fill a very real need. I feel that the 
author has successfully achieved her three 
purposes. 



The following list sums up all . . . of 
the qualities that anyone working in accident 
prevention must have : the curiosity of a cat ; 
tenacity of a bull ; determination of a taxi 
driver ; diplomacy of a wayward husband ; 
patience of a self-sacrificing wife; enthusi- 
asm of a jitterburg; good humor of an 
idiot; simplicity of a jackass; assurance of 
a college boy ; tireless energy of a bill col- 
lector. 

— Safety Service Newsletter 



140 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




The Floor Supervisor 



Call lights flashing, medications to be 
given, rounds to be made — this is no 
time to talk to a detail man! But 
knowledge of the drugs you handle 
is important. So . . . when you get a 
chance, talk with the Lederle Repre- 
sentative. He can give you much 
helpful information on regularly used 
products like: 

Ask your pharmacist to let you know when 
the Lederle man is in the hospital. (Maybe 
you'd like to schedule him to speak at 
your next supervisors' meeting!) 

*IIEO. TRADE-MARK 



ACHROMYCIN* Tetracycline, the 
leading tetracycline, today's foremost broad- 
spectrum antibiotic. 

FOLBESYN* vitamins, high potency 
parenteral B-complex with C. 
DIAMOX* Acetazoleamide, a carbonic 
anhydrase inhibitor, the outstanding drug of 
its kind, useful in edema, glaucoma, epilepsy. 
VAFUDASE* Streptokinase-Streptodor- 
nase, used for enzymatic debridement and 
control of inflammation. 



LEDERLE LABORATORIES DIVISION 

NORTH AMERICAN Cyanamid limited 

6B50 Royalmount Avenne, Town of 
Moant Royal. Montreal. Quebec 



MCOICAl. MPRESENTATIVt 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



141 



REGISTERED HOSPITAL NURSES, 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES, 

and 

Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses 

required for 

^ecCen^ ^Kdi€ut ^eaU^ SeruAccc^ 

HOSPITAL POSITIONS 

Oshweken, Manitowaning, Moose Factory and Sioux Lookout, Ont, ; 
Hodgson, Pine Falls and Norway House, Man. ; Fort Qu'Appelle, North 
Battleford, Sask. ; Edmonton, Hobbema, Gleichen, Cardston, Morley 
and Brocket, Alta. ; Sardis, Prince Rupert and Nanaimo, B.C. 

PUBLIC HEALTH POSITIONS 

Outpost Nursing Stations, Health Centres and field positions in Provin- 
ces, Eastern Arctic, and North-West Territories. 

SALARIES 

(1) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $3,300 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 

(2) Hospital Staff Nurses : up to $3,120 per year depending upon quali- 
fications and location. 

(3) Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses: up to $185 per month, 
depending upon qualifications. 

• Room and board in hospitals — $30 per month. Statutory holidays. 
Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sick leave credits. Hos- 
pital-medical and superannuation plans available. Assistance may be 
provided to help cover cost of transportation. 

• Special compensatory leave for those posted to isolated areas. 

For interesting, challenging, satisfying work, apply to: 
Indian and Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses : 

( 1 ) 4824 Fraser St., Vancouver 10, B.C. ; 

(2) Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta; 

(3) 10 Travellers Building, Regina, Sask. ; 

(4) 522 Dominion Public Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba; 

(5) Box 292, North Bay, Ontario; 

(6) 55 "B" St. Joseph Street, Quebec, P.Q. ; 

(7) Moose Factory Indian Hospital, Moosonee, Ontario. 

or 

Chief, Personnel Division, 

Department of National Health and Welfare, 

Ottawa, Ontario. 



142 THE CANADIAN NURSE 




Checking Ident-A-Band before giving blood. 



FRANKLIN C. HOLUSTER COMPANY 
833 N. ORLEANS ST. ♦ CHICAGO 10, ILLINOIS 



You CAN Check 
Identity. . . 

... as the nurses at left are doing. The 
patient is about to receive blood and is 
unconscious and dependent on the nurses. 
Should she receive blood intended for 
someone else, the result could be tragic. 
However, the nurses are averting danger 
by checking the Ident-A-Band® on the 
patient's wrist. Her name and number 
are clearly visible. 

Just one of many good reasons why 
Ident-A-Bands on all patients at all times 
are essential. 



Please send me free samples and information 
about Ident-A-Bands for all patients. (No 
tariff on Ident-A-Bands in Canada.) 



HOSPITAL 



ADDRESS 



There's an new vogue in wallpaper in 
Calgary. The staff at Jackson's Welding 
Shop started sticking quarters to the wall 
with the intention of taking them down 
for a staff treat when the amount reached 
$10. Then it was decided that there was 
no point in taking them down and that they 
should aim for $100 and give the money 
to the children at the hospital. Visitors 
became curious and joined the game. A short 
time ago the money reached the mark and 
was stripped off the wall and sent to the 
Red Cross. Now a receipt from the Red 
Cross has an honored spot on the wall and 
around it are coins and bills totalling nearly 
$100. Now they plan to paper the wall with 
receipts. 

— News ok Red Cross 
* * * 

The maiden who takes her time about 
marrying is usually happier than the one 
who enters matrimony early in life. This 
is a conclusion drawn by sociologists from 
a study of 604 young w'omen, single and 
married. Psychological tests indicate that the 
single girls "had better emotional adjust- 
ment, greater self-reliance and a greater 
sense of personal freedom." The tests also 



showed that those who are in no hurry 
to marry are less likely to be anti-social. 
Although most authorities on marriage agree 
that a woman should not marry until she 
is emotionally mature, one sociologist points 
out that their advice is not always followed 
because it is the immature and emotionally 
insecure young woman for whom marriage 
has the strongest appeal. — (ISPS) 

* * * 

Courtesy is kindness expressed in action, 
and etiquette is merely a collection of forms 
that help to make courtesy easy and natural. 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF 
NURSING SERVICE 

Required for fully approved 125-bed 
General Hospital in Suburban Toronto. 
Salary open depending on training & 
experience. 

APPLY: ADMINISTRATOR, 

NUMBER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 

200 CHURCH ST., WESTON, 

TORONTO 15, ONT. 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



143 



THE ASSOCIATION OF NURSES 
OF THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC 

The 1956 Spring Examinations for Provin- 
cial Registration will cover two groups of 
candidates, and will be held as follows : 

Examinations for Registration — Part II: 

Graduates desiring to qualify for a license 
to practise will write on April 9th, 10th 
and 11th, 1956. Candidates will not be per- 
mitted to write these examinations until they 
have actually completed their training and 
hold the diploma of their school. 

Applications must be received by February 
29th. 1956. 

Examinations for Registration — Part I: 

Students who will have completed their 
first year will enter the Examinations for 
Registration, Part 1, which will be held on 

March 19th, 20th. 21st, and 22nd, 1956. 

(Time to be announced in each school.) 

Applications must be received by February 
8th. 1956. 

For application forms and all information 
relating to the exsuninations, apply to the 
headquarters of the Association. 

A. WINONAH LINDSAY, R.N., 

Secretary-Registrar. 

Suite 506 — 1538 Sherbrooke Street, West, 

Montreal 25, P.O. 



EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR 

for 

SCHOOL OF NURSING 

Saint John General Hospital 

DUTIES TO COMMENCE JULY 1, 1956. 

Degree In nursing education with 
experience required. 

New Educational Department 
opening in March, 1956. 

Expected registration 200 students. 

APPLY: DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 

SAINT JOHN GENERAL HOSPITAL, 

SAINT JOHN, N.B. 



Keep an hour or two now and then for 
the cultivation of at least one hobby. And 
by "hobby" I do not mean a form of athle- 
tic recreation but some pursuit which en- 
gages your interest and involves a certain 
amount of intellectual activity. It should 
be completely divorced from your profes- 
sional studies and, if possible, should lead 
you into association with men and women 
whose vocations and outlooks are different 
from your own. 

— Sir Farquhar Buzzard 



ALBERTA 

District 1 

Peace River 

The officers for the coming year were 
elected at the last meeting of the season : 
J. Wickett, president; Mrs. Wanda Camp- 
bell, vice-pres. ; Mrs. E. Holmes, sec. 
treas. ; committee conveners : Advertising, 
Mrs. MaMrguerite Greenfield ; welfare, Mrs. 
Nancy Sproul ; entertainment, Mrs. Alice 
Flinn. 



District 2 



Cam ROSE 



The annual Nightingale Dance was held 
in November under the auspices of the 
chapter. It was suggested at one of the 
regular monthly meetings that the members 
might assist in furnishing the new Com- 
munity Rest Room as a worthwhile project. 
At a later meeting it was decided to pur- 
chase a play-pen and a bottle warmer to be 
donated in the name of the chapter to the 
new community centre. 

Wetaskiwin 

Mrs. Bresden was appointed as a corres- 
ponding member of the Institutional Nursing 
Cornmittee. The delegates to the annual con- 
vention, 1955, have been appointed as a 
committee to study and submit any neces- 
sary recommendations in regard to plans, 
for the 1956 meeting. 

At the November meeting of the chapter, 
Mrs. Asp and Mrs. Climic were appointed 
to select a slate of officers for 1956. It was 
decided to donate a sum of money to the 
Bethany Home to help in the work with 
orphans and children from broken homes. 
The guest speaker, Rachael Tasker, gave 
a very interesting talk on "Home Delivery." 
The January meeting featured a special 
program under the direction of Mrs. Mc- 
Whinnie. High school girls interested in 
nursing, were guests of honor on this oc- 



144 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



casion. It is hoped the opportunity to asso- 
ciate with active nurses and to discuss 
student nurse Ufe will encourage future 
candidates. 

Other guest speakers during the season 
have been Elsie Henschell, Sydney, Aus- 
tralia and Mr. Schumacher both of whom 
showed slides of their visits to many parts 
of the world. 

District 3 
Calgary 

The members of this chapter have had a 
very busy term. I. Stewart attended a ses- 
sion of the local branch of the Canadian 
Mental Health Association. Her report 
proved extremely interesting. The major 
projects for the past year of the Council 
of Social Agencies were outHned for the 
members by Miss D. Guild at one of the 
meetings. Miss Algard attended a session 
held by the Women's Bureau, Department 
of Labor, at which Miss M. Royce, director 
of the bureau, was guest speaker. Her report 
clarified the functions of this department. 
Earlier this past year Sister Leclerc attended 
a convention for Catholic hospitals and 
schools of nursing in St. Louis. Members 
were interested in the highlights which she 
later presented to them. 

A motion to hold a minimum of four 
chapter meetings a year has been approved. 
This will require amendment of the district 
by-laws. At a supper meeting late in the 
fall, the following officers were elected for 
the coming term : A. Fallis, president ; Mrs. 
M. Duthie, vice-pres. ; J. Cummings, sec- 
retary ; Mrs. N. Milan, treasurer. In her 
greeting Miss Fallis expressed the hope 
that each one would take an active part in 
the association and thus assure the success 
of its work. 

Interested members were invited to attend 
a meeting of the Institutional Nursing Com- 
mittee and to spend an evening at the 
Calgary Associate Clinic. The need to study 
the proposed revision of by-laws was empha- 
sized. 

The best wishes of the chapter were ex- 
tended to F. Ferguson for success and 
happiness in her new endeavor in Ceylon. 

High River 

Chapter meetings have been well attended, 
and programs have been interesting. Dr. 
Little, a recent speaker based his lecture 
on the subject of "Rest" and the ill effects 
of confinement to bed. Dr. M. Rowland 
spoke on the prevention of communicable 
diseases through immunization, and used a 
film "The Body Fights Bacteria" to empha- 
size his remarks at the November meeting. 
A membership committee has been formed 
under the direction of Mrs. Robertson and 
J. Hagg. 

Mmes. MacDonald, Betton, McRae and 
Lyon took charge of the January program. 
The slate of officers elected for the year 
was : Mrs. Irving, president ; Mrs. White, 
vice-president ; Mrs. J. Dougherty, secretary 
and R. Sarson, treasurer. 







Even mild or occasional constipa- 
tion takes a heavy toll of a nurse's 
energy. 

Pheno-Active is a gentle laxative 
that will not cause cramps, yet is 
effective for even the most severe 
cases. You can take Pheno-Active, 
or recommend its use to others, with 
complete confidence. 

I Available in handy tubes 
for your purse, and in 
economy size for home use. 



MONTREAL CANADA 




FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



145 



We say delicious.^* 

Pretorians say 

"heerlik." 




Olds 

Several members assisted in "Operation 
Lifesaver" by setting up a first aid station 
for that day. Mrs. Kinder has been chosen 
corresponding member to the Institutional 
Nursing Committee. 

Vulcan 

Provision of a T.V. set for a shut-in and 
development of a plan of assistance for a 
rheumatic heart suflferer have been among 
the projects undertaken by members of this 
chapter. Home nursing lectures have been 
tentatively planned for the future. Mrs. S. 
Christianson was appointed secretary for the 
Civil Defence home nursing course. 

District 4 
Medicine Hat 

Fall and winter activities were resumed 
at a meeting of the members early in Sep- 
tember. The private ward at the Maternity 
Hospital, which was ^furnished by the dis- 
trict, is to be provided with new curtains. 
Mrs. Anderson and Mrs. Montgomerie 
placed a wreath at the Cenotaph. 

Proposed revisions of the by-laws have 
been studied by a committee under the 
direction of Miss Bietsch and a report for- 
warded by this chapter of the A. A. R.N. 
The Community Nursing Registry report 
showed considerable activity for November. 
It was decided that the constitution and by- 



laws of the registry should be printed in 
booklet form. Mrs. Renner gave a compre- 
hensive report of the work of the institu- 
tional nursing committee at a recent chapter 
meeting. A brief resume of the civil defence 
course which she attended in Arnprior was 
given by Mrs. McKay. The annual meeting 
was held in January at which the slate of 
officers for 1956 was presented. 



Provost 

The possibility of sponsoring a blood 
donor clinic as a chapter project is to be 
explored. It was recommended that a repre- 
sentative of the local Red Cross branch 
be invited as guest speaker for a future 
program. 

The development and care of children's 
teeth was the subject of a discussion by 
Dr. H. Canniff at a recent meeting. The 
members found the information educational 
as well as very interesting. 



District 5 



Hanna 



New officers elected for the term are : 
Mrs. I. Pelltier, president ; Mrs. E. White, 
vice-pres., and M. MacKinnon, secretary. 
Mrs. B. Stephens and M. Fredgin are in 
charge of program planning. 

Civil defence was discussed by Dr. Argue 
at one of the earlier chapter meetings. 



146 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



District 6 
Lacombe 

Twenty-two members were present at the 
first meeting initiating the fall and winter 
program. The chapter plans to assume re- 
sponsibility for the drive for funds for the 
Cancer Society — a project successfully 
undertaken in 1955. A buffet supper m con- 
nection with the nurses' formal dance was 
served as a means of raising funds for the 
treasury. Dr. McKibbon provided the mem- 
bers with the latest information on the 
toxemias of pregnancy following the busi- 
ness session. 

A detailed and interesting lecture on neph- 
ritis by Dr. McFetridge was thoroughly 
enjoyed by the audience at a later meeting. 
It was planned to invite a representative of 
the Cancer Society as a guest speaker at a 
future meeting. 



Red Deer 

The past year has been both active and 
interesting. A bylaw committee was formed 
to study revisions and then submit them to 
the executive and members of the provin- 
cial association for approval. Funds were 
provided to help pay treatment expenses 
for a worthy patient and a donation was 
made to the polio drive. It was also decided 
that a contribution should be made to a 
charity fund. Miss Yuill and Mrs. McKeoun 
attended the annual provincial convention 
earlier this year. 

Increasing the active membership has 
received serious consideration. Members 
have been asked to cooperate individually 
in trying to increase attendance. Dr. More, 
Mrs. C. Van Dusen and Mr. Taylor, psy- 
chologist, have been guest speakers at vari- 
ous times during the past year. Miss Ross 
from the V.O.N, lieadquarters, Ottawa, was 
present at one meeting and outlined the 
steps necessary to set up such a service in 
the district. 

The establishment of a nursing scholar- 
ship has been undertaken as a major project 
by this chapter. A committee has been 
formed to draw up the list of requirements 
necessary. It has been decided to use a por- 
tion of the funds to assist a student to 
complete her basic nursing education. Mrs. 
Davis was nominated to represent the in- 
stitutional nursing group. Members enjoyed 
a social evening at their December meeting. 



District 7 
Jasper 

Miss Gilda Graves, whose work among 
the Indians with her study of rare blood 
types has provided so much interest, gave 
a very informative address at a recent meet- 
ing. Dr. Venner discussed "Misunderstood 
Illnesses of Childhood" and "Epilepsy" as 
guest speaker during the past year. It was 
decided to seek advice in the selection of 
films which would be of interest to the 
members. 

The topic of breast cancer was discussed 




anin 

the tablet with the "V" 



because. . . 
Veganin brings 
relief from pain 

Pain upsets a woman's poise and ap- 
pearance, whatever her job. Her work 
becomes much more difficult, adding 
tension that is unnecessary today. 
That's why relief from pain is so im- 
portant, especially to nurses . . . not 
just at specially difficult times, but 
every time pain occurs. 
Veganin tablets are recommended by 
physicians and dentists . . . especially 
for "stronger" relief . . . since Veganin 
contains approximately 8 grains of 
anti-pain medication. Available in 
handy tubes of lO's and 20's for pocket 
or purse. 




VVAJRNE R-CHILGOTT 

DIV WM R WARNER a CO LTD 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



147 




McMASTER UNIVERSITY 

School of Nursing 

1956-1957 



DEGREE COURSE IN BASIC NURSING 

A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepare students for all 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.). It includes studies in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 

DEGREE COURSE IN SCIENCE TEACHING FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

A Two-Year Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree, Bachelor of 
Education in Nursing (B.Ed.N.). It includes studies in the humanities, the 
physical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 

For additional information, write to-. 

School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 



by Dr. Betkowski and a film shown at a 
late fall gathering. Plans were completed 
for the monthly Baby Clinic and three mem- 
bers were selected to assist with this. The 
Christmas banquet was held in the C.N.R. 
dining room and was followed by a party 
at the home of Mrs. Graves. Dr. O. Hogan, 
Dr. and Mrs. Betkowski and Dr. Vinner 
were honored guests for the evening. 

Edmonton 

Discussion of proposed by-law changes 
was of major concern at a recent chapter 
meeting. A suggestion that an enlarged 
executive of the district meet and study 
such changes was accepted. R. McLure gave 
a most interesting talk about her course in 
public health which she had taken in Pitts- 
burgh. Many highlights about the city itself 
were included. Miss McLure acted as chair- 
man of the nominating committee for the 
January meeting. 

Stony Plain 
The programs for future meetings have 



been the chief topics of discussion at chap- 
ter sessions this past fall. Members have 
been submitting suggestions in regard to this. 
Welfare organizations are to be approached 
with the hope of obtaining speakers. A 
recent guest speaker was Dr. Gillespie, 
medical health officer for Lac St. Anne 
Health Unit. His topic, "Maternal Depriva- 
tion and Mental Health in Children" was 
most interesting. Two films, "Crossroads" 
and "Miracle Fluid" were presented at one 
of the past meetings and proved both educa- 
tional and enjoyable. 

Vermilion 

The following slate of officers was elected 
for the current season : Mrs. K. Brix, presi- 
dent ; Mrs. Alice Soldan, vice-pres. ; Mrs. 
V. Barr, secretary ; J. McPhee, treas. 

The chapter is directing a scrapbook com- 
petition on Cancer Education among school 
pupils in the local area. This contest is being 
sponsored by the Alberta division of the 
Canadian Cancer Society. A home cooking 
sale was held late in the fall as a money 
making project. 



148 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



District 8 
PiNCHER Creek 

Members of the chapter assisted with the 
Blood Donor clinic held recently. A course 
in home nursing has been planned with two 
volunteers from the chapter contributing 
their services. 

Taber 

An organizational meeting was held in 
the Municipal Hospital to form a chapter 
of the A.A.R.N. The officers elected were : 
Mrs. Nicol, chairman ; Miss Gamble, vice- 
chairman ; Miss I. Okamoto, secretary ; Mrs. 
Rash, treasurer. Bylaws were adjusted and 
accepted. Meetings are to be held monthly. 
Members have decided to help with the 
Baby Clinic as one project and to sponsor 
the annual nurses' dance. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 

Ladysmith 

The annual meeting of the chapter was 
held in November with 15 members present. 
Mrs. J. Berto presented the report of a 
successful year with varied activities. 

Officers for 1956 were elected as follows : 
President, Mrs. H. Steele; vice-pres., Mrs. 
P. Gannon ; secretary, Mrs. J. Ulaga ; 
treasurer, Mrs. J. Mitchell ; social convener, 
Mrs. A. Quayle. Miss O. Jami, Miss H. 
Fulmore and Mrs. D. B. Quayle attended 
the institute in Nanaimo on "Body Mechan- 
ics and Rehabilitation Nursing." Miss C. 
Charters conducted this valuable course 
which was sponsored by the R.N. A. B.C. 
The purpose of the course was to provide 
instructors for the local chapters. 

Vancouver 

St. Paul's Hospital 

The members of this year's graduating 
class were entertained at a buffet supper 
by the alumnae association. Mrs. Collishaw 
presented a trophy to the outstanding student 
in each section on behalf of all alumnae 
members. Outside graduates presently on 
staff were guests of honor at the annual 
Christmas party. A bazaar was held early 
in December and featured home cooking 
and sewing. 

News of the graduates reveals that A. 
Klassen, N. Martens and A. Friesen are 
working in Kelowna. A. (Mellor) Pulfer 
is on the staff of the Royal Inland Hos- 
pital, Kamloops while B. J. Mellor is at the 
King Edward VH Memorial Hospital, Ber- 
muda. R. Wolfe is working at the Western 
Hospital, Toronto and Miss Galloway at 
Welland County Hospital, Ontario. P. John- 
cox completed her postgraduate studies in 
surgery at the General Hospital, Vancouver 
and is in Fresno, Calif. E. Ropas and P. 
Branca have started postgraduate study in 
surgery in their home school. G. (Larson) 
Alder has joined the staff of the Central 
Supply Dept. 



DALHOUSIE 
UNIVERSITY 

Courses for Graduate Nurses 

Term 1955-56 

The School of Nursing offers one-year 
diploma Courses in the following fields : 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

The Director, 

School of Nursing 

Dalhousie University 

Halifax, N.S. 



DIRECTOR OF NURSING 

The South Waterloo Memorial Hospi- 
tal, Gait, Ontario, invites applications 
from qualified personnel for the 
position of Director of Nursing. The 
hospital is less than 21/2 years old and 
furnished with the latest equipment in 
every department. 

220-active bed General Hospital with 
41 -bassinettes. In addition school of 
nursing with 43 students at present. 

Adequate salary together with modern 
3 roomed furnished suite. 

The position is open immediately. 

Apply to 
MR. GEORGE S. DIXON, ADMINISTRATOR 



FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



149 



ROYAL VICTORiA 
HOSPITAL 

School of Nursing, Montreal 

COURSES FOR GRADUATE 
NURSES 

1. A four-month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nursing. 

2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological Nursing. 

Salary — After second month at 
General Staff rates. 

For information apply to: 

Director of Nursing 

Royal Victoria Hospital 

Montreal 2, Que. 



PSYCHIATRIC 
NURSING COURSE 

The Allan Memorial Institute of 
Psychiatry of the Royal Victoria 
Hospital offers six-month courses in 
Theory and Practice in Psychiatric 
Nursing to Graduate Nurses in good 
standing in their own province. 

Classes — Spring and Fall. 

Complete maintenance or living-out 
allowance, meals in hospital and uni- 
form laundry for the first three months. 
General duty rates the second three 
months. 

For further information write to: 

Miss H. M. Lamont, Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 2, Que. 
or Miss Kathleeen Marshall, Supervisor of 
Nurses, Allan Memorial Institute of Psy- 
chiatry, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 
2, Que. 



NEW BRUNSWICK 

MONCTON 

General Hospital 
Nurses' Hospital Aid 

Authority to purchase a motion picture 
screen for the nurses' classroom was given 
to K. Richardson and Airs. C. Colwell. This 
was an outstanding feature of the November 
meeting of the members. A recent cooking 
sale with a drawing for a cake added sub- 
stantially to treasury funds. Small gifts were 
collected for distribution to sick members 
at Christmas. Mrs. C. Forsythe was wel- 
comed as a new member. The student nurses 
were presented with 25 season skating tickets 
as a Christmas gift and the members en- 
joyed a special Christmas program and 
exchange of gifts at their December meeting. 



ONTARIO 

District 5 



Toronto 

St. Michael's Hospital 

A meetmg of the alumnae association was 
held prior lo the Christmas season. Plans 
were made for the preparation and mailing 
of gift boxes to sick nurses, and for a 
theatre night. The annual nurses' dinner 
was held early in December in the residence. 

G. Ferguson has been appointed to the 
teaching staff of the obstetrical department. 
M. Hough has joined the staff of Baker 
Clinic, Edmonton. M. Willsher is stationed 
in Zweibruchen, Germany with the R.C.A.F., 
while M. MacKenzie is working in St. 
Joseph's Hospital, Ann Arbor. S. Walker 
is presently in New York at the Neuro- 
logical Institute, Presbyterian Hospital. B. 
Burns is taking postgraduate study at Boston 
University. R. Krmpotic has joined the staff 
of Franklin Hospital, San Francisco. B. 
Kelly and M. Noble are on the staff of the 
Montreal General Hospital. The appoint- 
ment of F. Roach as Dean of Nursing 
Education, Assumption College, was noted 
with pride. 

Woiiicn's College Hospital 

In recognition of her years of service and 
as a token of their regard for her, members 
of the alumnae association presented Miss 
C. Dixon with a piece of luggage. The 
presentation was made by Mrs. Mary 
Roberts. Mrs. M. Hood, who also has given 
many years of faithful service to her hos- 
pital and alumnae, received a life member- 
ship in the association and a bouquet of red 
roses. These were highlights of the last 
meeting of the association for 1955 at which 
Dr. Ferreira was the guest speaker. 

The class of 1931 is making tentative 
plans for a reunion, marking their 25th 
anniversary, following the graduation dinner 
this coming spring. It is hoped that other 



150 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



classes will follow their example. H. Muir 
has joined the staff of the new Sudbury 
Memorial Hospital. R. Duff visited the hos- 
pital recently and was the guest of honor 
at a buffet supper and a tea. M. Kerr re- 
cently returned from Europe. 

District 12 
Kapuskasing 

A new chapter has been formed which 
includes Cochrane, Kapuskasing and Hearst 
areas. In spite of the distances which must 
be covered to permit attendance, interest is 
high and the members plan to hold monthly 
meetings — eight in Kapuskasing and two 
in Cochrane. The first meeting was held 
in November at the Sensenbrenner Hospital 
under the chairmanship of Mrs. Loosemore, 
district president. The slate of officers elec- 
ted was: G. Larocque, president; J. War- 
rington, 1st vice-pres. ; Miss Millredge, 2nd 
vice-pres. ; P. Osborn, membership convener. 



SASKATCHEWAN 

Saskatoon 
City Hospital 

The annual tea and bazaar of the student 
nurses' association was held under the 
auspices of the class of 1957A. Mrs. H. 
Armstrong, Misses J. Bernie, M. Gibson 
and E. Klewchuk received the guests. Mrs. 
D. Wilkie, Misses L. Willis, M. MacKen- 
zie and E. Pearston presided over the tea 
table. D. Kacsmar and I. Levorson, scholar- 
ship students of last year, are attending 
the University of Saskatchewan. E. Redden 
and A. Hompoth have joined the staff of 
the nursing school office as assistant night 
supervi-sors. 

Regina 

Members attending a recent chapter 
meeting experienced a rare treat in hearing 
Dr. H. B. de Groot discuss folk music. 
In the short time at his disposal, Dr. de 
Groot outlined the evolution of folk music 
and illustrated with records. Music of the 
British West Indies, Russia, Spain and 
Hungary was played. The gypsy music of 
the latter two countries was especially 
enjoyable. A short business meeting fol- 
lowed. 

General Hospital 

The school of nursing is the proud owner 
of a new movie projector, with plans to 
acquire a new slide projector in the near 
future as well. The gymnasium in the re- 
cently completed nurses' residence is much 
appreciated by both graduate and student 
nurses as indicated by the increasing ac- 
tivity. Mrs. A. Stewart and Miss M. Lyons 
attended the institute on "The Role of the 
Nurse in Civil Disaster" held at Fort 
Qu'Appelle. 







EXPORT 

CA N ADA'S FINEST 
CIGARETTE 



Grey Nuns' Hospital 

The student nurses are planning a special 
ceremony to welcome a new and modern 
"Mrs. Chase" into their school. Mrs. H. 
McCormack and Miss V. Ryan attended 
the Civil Defence institute held in Fort 
Qu'Appelle. C. Kenny attended and enjoyed 
the course held earlier this year at Civil 
Defence College, Arnprior. D. Percy, Chief 
Nursing Consultant, Department of Na- 
tional Health and Welfare, visited the school 
of nursing recently. Mrs. Ellis has resigned 
from the staff. 



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Protect/an 




THAT ALL UNIFORMS 
CLOTHING AND 
OTHER BELONGINGS 
ARE MARKED WITH 

CASH'S Loomwoven NAMES 

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with No-So Cement. From dealers or 

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CASH'S: 3 Doz. $1.80; > Doz. S3.00; NO-SO 
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FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 



151 



Positions Vacant 

Advertising Rates — $5.00 for 3 lines or less; $1.00 for each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign — $7.50 for 3 lines or less; $1.50 for each additional line. 

Closing date for copy and cancellations : 10th of the month preceding the month of 
publication. All letters should be addressed to : The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Director of Nursing <S Nursing Education for 160-bed General Hospital. Postgraduate 
course in administration or equivalent experience required. Salary open. Applications 
should give details of education, qualifications & experience. Apply Administrator, 
The Victoria Public Hospital, Fredericton, N.B. 

Asst. Director Nursing Service (night shift). Degree not necessary. Staff Nurses, all shifts. 

Excellent personnel policies. Nurses' residence. Apply Director Nursing Service, General 
Hospital, Kings Co., Hanford, California. 

Supt. of Nurses immediately for 67-bed hospital. Salary open depending on training & 
experience. Gen. Duty Nurses also required. Good salary & personnel policies. New 
80-bed hospital opening in 1956. Apply M. M. Barber, R.N., Administrator, Portage Hospital, 
Dist. No. 18, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. 

Superintendent of Nurses for 30-bed hospital. Feb. 1 or later. Salary: $275 per mo., $40 
per mo. board & lodging. 40-hr. wk. 4-wk. vacation, 11 statutory holidays, 18 days sick 
leave. Pleasant surroundings. Apply K. Scheer, Administrator, Grand Forks, B.C. 

Supervisor of Public Health Nursing for generalized program m city of 43,000. 5-day wk., 
1 mo. vacation with extra time at Christmas or Easter. Cumulative sick leave. Pension 
plan. Blue Cross <S P.S.I. , Workmen's Compensation. Transportation provided or allow- 
ance. For further, information please write supplying details of training & experience 
to Dr. I. P. Wells, M.O.H., Peterborough, Ont. 

Supervisor & Public Health Nurses (qualified) for Porcupine Health Unit, 5-day wk. 
4 wk. vacation. 18 days sick leave annually. Car provided. Good working conditions. 
Apply Secretary, Porcupine Health Unit, 164 Algonquin Blvd. E., Timmins, Ont. 

Operating Room Supervisor for operating suite — 4 rooms. 1 80-bed hospital. Good 
salary and personnel policies. Postgraduate course and experience preferred. Apply 
Miss B. A. Beattie, Director of Nursing, Public General Hospital, Chatham, Ont. 

Hospital Supervisor. Rotating afternoon & night shifts. Blue Cross in effect. 4-wk. vaca- 
tion, 5 statutory holidays. Apply stating age, experience & salary expected to Director 
of Nursing, Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, Ont. 

Obstetrical Supervisor (Experienced) for night duty, 11-7. Salary: $230 with board, 
room & laundry. Write to Director of Nurses, Misericordia Hospital, Haileybury, Ont. 

General Supervisors, Operating Room Nurses and General Duty Nurses for new 150-bed 
hospital. Starting salary for Registered General Duty Nurses $230 with annual increases 
to $40. l'/2 days per mo. cumulative sick leave; 40-hr. wk; 28 days vacation; 10 statu- 
tory holidays. Apply: Supt. of Nurses, Trail-Tadanac Hospital, Trail, B.C. 

Operating Room Supervisor, Night Supervisor & Staff Nurses. Good salary & personnel 
policies. Living accommodations available. Apply Director of Nurses, General Hospital, 
Parry Sound, Ontario. 

Psychiatric Nurse to assume position as Head Nurse & Clinical Supervisor of new 
38-bed Psychiatric Unit in a 500-bed General Hospital. An excellent opportunity for 
a Psychiatric Nurse who wishes to assume leadership in developing the policies, pro- 
cedures & teaching program of this new Psychiatric Unit. Patients treated only by 
psychiatrists. The most modern facilities & treatment methods. Cooperative administra- 
tion. Bachelor's Degree required plus Psychiatric experience. Salary commensurate with 
experience & abilities. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

152 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



University of Alberta Hospital 

Edmonton, Alberta. 

Requires General Duty Nurses. Salary range: $190-$215 per mo. plus 2 meals 
& laundry. 40-hr. wk. to be instituted not later than March 31st, 1956. 
Rotating shifts, 21 days vacation, statutory holidays, other benefits. 

For further informafion apply 

ASSOC. DIRECTOR OF NURSING (SERVICE), UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA HOSPITAL, 
EDMONTON, ALBERTA. 



Superintendent (Qualified) for new 35-bed hospital. New private suite with telephone. 
Salary to be arranged. Vacation with pay. Apply stating qualifications with references 
to Mr. H. R. Wilson, Chairman, Souris Dist. Hospital Board, Souris, Manitoba. 

Pediatric & Medical Ward Supervisors also General Duty Nurses. Apply Director of 
Nurses, Woodstock General Hospital, Woodstock, Ontario. 

Asst. Director of Nursing for 200-bed hospital in Niagara Peninsula. Experienced, pref- 
erably with University certificate or postgraduate training. Good salary & personnel 
policies. Please furnish references stating age, qualifications & experience. Apply 
Director of Nursing, County General Hospital, Welland, Ont. 

Matron (Experienced) for 31-bed hospital. Duties to commence as soon as can be. 
3 doctors practicing, staff of 22, average daily census 24. Gross salary: $330 per mo. 
less $30 for room & board. 1 mo. vacation with pay after 1 yr. employment. 
New modern residence with separate matron s suite. Good train service. Apply to 
J. P. Fawcett, Sec, Union Hospital, Unity, Sask. 

Head Instructor for Training School to teach Sciences. 86-bed hospital; 30 students. 

Complete maintenance provided in comfortable suite. Apply, stating qualifications & 
salary expected, A. J. Schmiedl, Sec. Manager, General Hospital, Dauphin, Man. 

Instructor in Nursing. Faculty position in medical areas, accredited integrated diploma 
program, northern California college community. Liberal personnel policies, excellent 
clinical & teaching facilities. Progressive faculty, 90-students. Immediate opening. For 
details write Personnel Office, 510 E. Market St., Stockton, California. 

Obstetrical Clinical Instructor for School of Nursing with capacity 195 students attached 
to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or at 
least 3 yrs. experience & working towards degree. Located in "all American City" of 
120,000 in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural 
primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, 
Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Clinical Instructor in Obstetrical nursing for dept. with 26-beds & Supervisor of Nurseries 

for dept. with 30 bassinettes. Duties to include teaching & supervision of student nurses. 
University postgraduate course & experience preferred for both positions. Apply Director 
of Nursing, General Hospital, Oshawa, Ont. 

Nursing Arts Instructor for School of Nursing, with capacity 195 students, attached to 
expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or ot least 
3 yrs. experience & working toward degree. Located in "All American City" of 120,000 

in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural primary 
interests. Salary com.mensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman 
Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Instructor to teach anatomy and physiology, microbiology first term, followed by sur- 
gical nursing lectures and clinical supervision on surgical wards. Starting salary: $255; 
$10 for 2 yrs. experience; $10 yearly increments; IV2 days sick leave, cumulative; 
10 statutory holidays; 40-hr. wk; 1 class per yr. in September. Apply to: Director of 
Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, B.C. 

FEBRUARY. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 153 



SASKATOON CITY HOSPITAL 

SASKATOON, SASK. 

Requires 

General Staff Nurses for General Hospital with a School of Nursing with 200 
students. Salaries starting at $210 depending on qualifications. Increments 
of $5.00 every 6 mo. Bonus for evening & night duty. 44 hr., 5V2 day wk. 
Good Personnel policies. 

Apply to: 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, SASKATOON CITY HOSPITAL, 

SASKATOON, SASK. 



Public Health Nurse Grade 1. British Columbia Civil Service, Dept. of Health & Welfare. 
Starting Salary $255, $260, $266 per mo., depending on experience, rising to $298. per mo. 
Promotional opportunities available. Qualifications: Candidate must be eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia & have completed a University degree or Certificate course in 
Public Health Nursing. (Successful candidates may be required to serve in any part of 
the Province.) Cars are provided. 5-day wk. in most districts. Uniform allowance. Candi- 
dates must be British subjects; preference is given to ex-service women. Application forms 
obtainable from all Government Agencies, the Civil Service Commission, 544 Michigan 
St., Victoria, or 411 Dunsmuir St., Vancouver 3, to be completed & returned to the Chairman, 
Civil Service Commission, Victoria. Further information may be obtained from the Director, 
Public Health Nursing, Dept. of Health & Welfare, Parliament Bldgs., Victoria, B.C. 

Public Health Nurse. Starting salary: $2,844 with annual increases over 3 yrs. to $3,228 
per yr. Previous experience qualifies for a higher starting salary. Cost of transportation 
to Port Arthur refunded after 3 mo. Car allowance or free transportation while on duty. 
Pertsion plan after 3 yr. service. Apply stating qualifications & experience to Arthur 
H. Evans, Secretary, ^'Board of Health, Port Arthur, Ont. 

Public Health Nurses for generalized program. City of Ottawa, Health Dept. Salary: 
$2,760-$3,240 plus cost of living bonus. Good personnel policies. Superannuation & Blue 
Cross benefits. Apply Employment & Labor Registry Office, Room 118, Transportation 
Bldg., 48 Rideau St., Ottawa 2, Ont. 

Assistant Head Nurses for children's orthopedic hospital. Good personnel policies. Pen- 
sion plan available. Apply Director, Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, 1529 
Cedar Ave., Montreal. 

Registered Nurse, qualified to assist Supt. for 50-bed hospital. Hours chiefly 8:00 A.M. 
to 4:00 A.M. Apply Supt., General Hospital, Cobourg, Ontario. 

Registered or Licensed Practical Nurse for Baldur Medical Nursing Unit. Salary: $175 for 
reg'd. nurse & $110 for practical v/ith full maintenance. Apply John Hiscock, Sec. Baldur 
Medical Nursing Unit, Baldur, Man. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty (2) for 76-bed fully modern hospital on C.P.R. 
main line & Trans-Canada Highway to Calgary <S Banff. Gross Salary: $205 per mo., 
perquisites $30, $5.00 increment every 6 mo. 1 mo. annual vacation with pay; 8-hr. day; 
44-hr. wk. Sick leave with pay. Apply Matron, Municipal Hospital, Brooks, Alta. 

Registered Staff Nurses, immediate appointments, in 511-bed newly enlarged and finely 
equipped general hospital. Duty assignments in medical, surgical, pediatrics, psychi- 
atric, obstetrics, or contagion units. Northeastern Ohio stable "All-American City" of 
120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial, and educational friendly activities. 
Living costs reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance advantages of metropolitan 
Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly, cooperative work relations 
and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel policies. Starting salary: $240 per 
mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, recognized holidays, premium 
pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, retirement. Contact: Director of 
Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or collect telephone 4-5673. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty. Initial salary: $200 per mo.; with 6 or more months 
Psychiatric experience, $210 per mo. Salary increase at end of 1 yr. 44-hr. wk.; 8 statu- 
tory holidays, annual vacation with pay. Living accommodation if desired. For further 
information apply Supt. of Nurses, Homewood Sanitarium, Guelph, Ont. 

154 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



GRENFELL LABRADOR MEDICAL MISSION 

The Grenfell Mission operates four Hospitals & seven Nursing Stations in 
northern Newfoundland & on the Labrador. Here is a wonderful opportunity 
for valuable experience & an adventurous life. If you are making plans for 
next year, why not consider this splendid service still carried on in the name 
of a great man? 

For full information please write 

MISS DOROTHY A. PLANT, SECRETARY, GRENFELL LABRADOR MEDICAL MISSION 
48 SPARKS ST., OTTAWA 4, ONTARIO 



Registered & Non-Registered Nurses, X-Ray & Lab. Technician for General Hospital. 
Gross salary for nurses registered in Ont. equivalent to $233.85 per mo. Good personnel 
policies, new facilities. 8-hr. rotating shifts; 44-hr. wk.; 1-day off 1 wk. & 2 the next. 
11/2 days holiday & sick leave per mo.; 8 legal holidays per year. Up to $40 travelling 
expenses & increase paid after 1 yr. service. Semi-private Blue Cross with M.O.S. 
coverage. Full maintenance is provided including room, board & laundering of uniforms. 
Apply Supt., Lady Minto Hospital, Cochrane, Ont. 

Registered Nurses for modern 60-bed General Hospital situated 40 mi. south of Montreal. 
Salary: $200 per mo. 8-hr. duty; 44-hr. wk; rotating shifts. Many attractive benefits 
provided. Board & accomm.odation available at minimum, cost in completely new motel- 
style nurses' residence. Apply Supt., Barrie Memorial Hospital, Ormstown, Que. 

Registered Graduate Nurses for General Duty for 650-bed Tuberculosis Hospital, 10 mi. 
from downtown Toronto. Gross starting salary: $93 bi-weekly, less $15.23 for room, 
meals & laundry. 3 annual increments. 44-hr. wk., 8 hr. day, broken hrs. 3 wk. vacation 
after 1 yr., 9 statutory holidays. Hospital bus service to & from city. Apply Supt. of 
Nurses, Toronto Hospital, Weston, Ont. 

Registered Graduate Nurses for General Staff Duty for 200-bed hospital. Medical-Surgical 
Units 5t Obstetrical Unit. Good personnel policies. For further inform.ation apply to 
Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Belleville, Ont. 

Registered General Duty Nurses for medical & surgical. Rotating shifts. Good personnel 
policies. Apply Director of Nursing, The Greater Niagara General Hospital, Niagara 
Falls, Ontario. 

Registered Nurses (3) immediately for 36-bed General Hospital in southern Manitoba. 
Starting salary: $205 per mo. with 3 wk. vacation with pay 1st. yr. employment; 4-wk. 
vacation thereafter. All statutory holidays. Regular sick leave, 50% Blue Cross payments. 
Apply Supt. of Nurses, Hospital Dist. No. 24, Box 330, Altona, Manitoba. 

Registered Nurses for surgery, must be able to scrub & circulate. Starting salary: $325 
per mo. plus other benefits. Registered Nurses for general floor duty start at $300 per 
mo. plus other benefits. Must be able to get New Mexico registration. 30-bed hospital 
to move into new 70-bed hospital soon. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Memorial Hospital, 
Carlsbad, New Mexico. 

Registered or Graduate Nurses for General Duty (2) for modern 20-bed hospital. Salary 
<S increments in accordance with S.R.N. A. recommendations. 1 mo. vacation & sick time 
with pay after 1 yr. service. Separate staff residence. Apply Sec-Man. Riverside 
Memorial Hospital, Turtleiord, Sask. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty Staff. Salary commences at £40-10-0 per mo. with full 
maintenance. Transportation allowance. For full particulars apply Matron, King Edward 
VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 

Graduate Nurses for 100-bed West Coast General Hospital. Salary: $250 per mo. less 
$40 for board, residence, laundry. 3 annual increments; $10 per mo. night duty bonus. 
1 mo. vacation with full salary after 1 yr. service. IV2 days sick leave per mo. cum- 
ulative to 36 days. Transportation allowance up to $60 refunded after 1 yr. Apply Director 
of Nursing General Hospital, Prince Rupert, B.C. 

Graduate Nurses (3) for 24-bed hospital. Salary: $230 per mo. if B.C. registered; less 
$40 board, lodging, laundry. 1 mo. vacation after 1 yr. on full pay. IVa days sick leave 
per mo. cumulative. Apply, stating experience to Matron, Terrace & District Hospital, 
Terrace, British Columbia. 

FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 155 



See Quebec With Employmenf Rather Than A Tourist Visit 

GRADUATE NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY 

Where? JefFery Hale's Hospital 

Why Unique? Only English speaking hospital & training school in 
Quebec City 

For information write: 
DIRECTOR OR NURSES, JEFFERY HALE'S HOSPITAL, 54 ST. CYRILLE ST. EAST, QUEBEC, P.O. 



Graduate Nurses (2) for 64-bed hospital 250 mi. northwest Edmonton. Good train & mail 
service. Salary as recommended by R.N. A. of Alberta, increments of $5.00 every 6 mo. 
for 2 yrs. $30 room & board. Transportation allow^ance up to $50 after 1 yr. service. 
28 days paid vacation after 1 yr. plus 10 statutory holidays. U/z days sick leave per 
mo. Apply Sr. Superior, Providence Hospital, High Prairie, Alta. 

Graduate Nurses for duty on Obstetrical, Medical & Surgical Wards. Personnel policies 
as recommended by the Assoc, of Nurses of the Prov. of Quebec. Please apply Director 
of Nursing, Queen Elizabeth Hospital of Montreal, 2100 Marlowe Ave., Montreal 28, Que. 

Graduate Nurses & Dietician (1) for new, very modern 88-bed hospital in a pleasant 
progressive town. Nurses salary: $200 per mo. Annual increase $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 
2-wk. shift rotation, bonus for night shifts. 1 hr. drive to Toronto & several resorts. Local 
swimming pool, bowling alleys, skating, theatres etc. Apply Director of Nurses, Dufferin 
Area Hospital, Orangeville, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses for small hospital. Salary: $200 per mo. plus maintenance. 8-hr. day, 
44-hr. wk., statutory holidays as outlined by R.N.A.O. Travelling expenses refunded after 
12 mo. service. New nurses' residence under construction. Apply Lady Minto Hospital, 
Chapleau, Ontario. 

General Duty Graduate Nurses for well equipped 72-bed hospital on B.C. coast. Salary: 
$222 per mo. less $25 full maintenance. Semi-annual increments. 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays after 1 yr. Apply Matron, St. George's Hospital, Alert Bay, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses for Medical, SurgicaL Pediatrics, Obstetrics. Good salary & per- 
sonnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses for all departments. Gross salary: $210 per mo. if registered in 
Ontario $200 per mo. until registration has been established. $20 per mo. bonus for 
evening or night duty; annual increment of $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 44-hr. wk., 8 statutory 
holidays, 21 days vacation & 14 days leave for illness with pay after 1 yr. of employ- 
ment. Apply: Director of Nursing. General Hospital, Oshawa, Ont. 

General Duty Nurse for well equipped 30-bed General Hospital in beautiful inland valley 
adjacent Lake Kathlyn. Boating, fishing, sv/imming, golfing, curling, skiing. Initial salary: 
$240, full maintenance, $40. 44-hr. wk. vacation with pay. Comfortable, attractive nurses' 
residence on grounds. Rail fare advanced if necessary, refunded following 1 yr. service. 
References required. Apply Bulkley Valley Dist. Hospital, Smithers, B.C. 



EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

Due to the opening of a new wing in a well-equipped, new 1 25-bed hospital in 
Suburban Toronto. Enjoy the congenial working conditions of a smaller institution with 
the advantages of locating in metropolitan Toronto. Residence accommodation optional. 

SALARY RANGES 

GENERAL DUTY $205 - $275 monthly 

HEAD NURSES $225 - $295 monthly 

SUPERVISORS $240- $310 monthly 

Apply. 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, NUMBER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 

200 CHURCH ST., WESTON, TORONTO, ONTARIO 



156 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



GENERAL STAFF NURSES 

Required for All Departments in 

NEW 300-BED GENERAL HOSPITAL 

INITIAL SALARY: $225 PER MONTH, PLUS LAUNDRY 

EXCELLENT PERSONNEL POLICIES 

For further information apply to 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, SUDBURY MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 

REGENT STREET SOUTH, SUDBURY, ONTARIO 



General Duty Graduate Nurses for small attractive hospital located on highway between 
Ottawa & Morrisburg. For particulars write Supt., Winchester Hospital, Winchester, Ont. 



General Duty Nurses for 650-bed teaching hospital in central California. Salary: 

$337 per mo. 40-hr. wk. Liberal vacation, holiday & sick leave plan. Apply Personnel 

Office, 510 E. Market St., Stockton, California. 

General Duty Nurses. Salary: $230-270, $10 increment for experience. 40-hr. wk. IVa days 
sick leave per mo. cumulative; 10 statutory holidays, (1) m.o. vacation. Must be eligible 
for B.C. registration. Apply Director of Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, B.C. 

Staff Nurses for 600-bed General & Tuberculosis Hospitals with School of Nursing. 

Salary: $288-$341. Shift, special service & educational differentials, $10. 40-hr. wk; 3-wk. 
vacation; 11 holidays; accumulative sick leave. Apply Associate Director of Nursing 
Service, County General Hospital, Fresno, California. 

Staff Nurses & Operating Room Scrub Nurses for 225-bed General Hospital, 20 mi. north 
of New York City. Salary: $240-$280. $20 extra for O.R. duty & permanent evening 
duty; $15 for permanent night duty. Apply Director of Nursing, St. John's Riverside 
Hospital, Yonkers, N.Y. 

Operating Room Nurses, immediate appointments, for 511-bed newly enlarged and 
finely equipped hospital; 10 operating rooms now completed. Northeastern Ohio stable 
"All-American City" of 120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial and educa- 
tional friendly activities; living cost reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance 
advantages of metropolitan Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly 
and considerate working associates and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel 
policies. Starting salary: $240 per mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, 
recognized holidays, premium J5ay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, 
retirement. Contact Director of Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or 
collect telephone 4-5673. 

Operating Room Nurses, preferably with experience, for 75-bed hospital. Operating unit 
consists of 2 theatres, emergency treatment & recovery room. Apply Supt., Carleton 
Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, N.B. 

Operating Room Nurses (Immediately). Rotating shifts, good personnel policies. Apply 
Director of Nursing, The Greater Niagara General Hospital, Niagara Falls, Ontario. 



UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 


SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 


Requires 


General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric Services. 


Forty-four hour week. Salary $210. to $260. gross per month. Differential 


for evening and night duty. Residence Accommodation if desired. 


Apply to. 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, 


SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 2 157 



McKELLAR GENERAL HOSPITAL, FORT WILLIAM, ONT. 

Requires 

CLINICAL INSTRUCTOR IN OPERATING ROOM 

Gross salary commensurate with experience, 28 days vacation after one 
year, 8 statutory holidays, sick leave accumulative to 60 days; Residence 
accommodation available at reasonable rates. Hospital has recently completed 
a well equipped and staffed wing with extensive renovation program pro- 
gressing in the old section. 

APPLY DIRECTOR OF NURSING 



Operating Room Scrub Nurses with experience for new operating suite near completion, 
finely equipped. Salary open depending upon preparation or experience. Desirable 
working conditions. Travel expenses if necessary. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Union Hospital, 
Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. 

Operating Room Nurses (2) for 60-bed General Hospital. Apply Superintendent, Leam- 
ington District Memorial Hospital, Leamington, Ontario. 



Maternity Nurses for modern 60-bed General Hospital located 40 mi. south of Montreal. 
Salary: $155 per mo. 8-hr. duty; 44-hr. wk; rotating shifts. Many attractive benefits 
provided. Board & accommodation available at minimum cost in completely new motel- 
style nurses' residence. Apply Supt., Barrie Memorial Hospital, Ormstown, Que. 

General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation & postgraduate program. Full maintenance. Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after 1 yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk. 
For further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, N.S. 

Baker Memorial Sanatorium, Calgary, Alberta, offers to Graduate Nurses a 6-mo. post- 
graduate course in Tuberculosis. Maintenance & salary as for general staff nurses. 
Opportunity for permanent employment if desired. Spring & Fail Classes. Further 
information on request. 

Registered Laboratory Technician (Experienced) would like position in small hospital 

laboratory. Ontario or B.C. preferred. Available 1 mo. Apply The Canadian Nurses, Box M, 
1522 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Dietitian (qualified) for Teaching Hospital. Opportunity for advancement. Full main- 
tenance. Fare from Canada for accepted candidate. For full particulars, write, giving 
qualifications & date available, Matron, King Edward Vll Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 

Office Nurse with commercial training required for doctor's office January 1956. Must 
have ability to take full responsibility for running large office practice in St. Catharines. 
Apply Box J, The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 



ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISOR 


Required by 


UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 


To organize a surgical unit of 1 00 beds. Good personnel policies. 


Salary: $240 to $300 per month. 


Apply fo. 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, 


SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 



158 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES FOR CANADA 

has Staff and Supervisory positions in various parts of Canada. 
Personnel Practices Provide: 

• Opportunity for promotion. 

• Transportation while on duty. 
• Vacation with pay. 

• Retirement annuity benefits. 

For further mformation write to: 

Director in Chief, 

Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada, 

193 Sparks Street, Ottawa 4, Ont. 



Assl. Superintendent & General Duty Nurses for 35-bed hospital, 50 mi. trom Toronto. 
Good salary & personnel policies. Please furnish references & apply to Supt., Stevenson 
Memorial Hospital, Alliston, Ont. 

Operating Room Supervisor for Ontario active surgical unit of 100-bed hospital. Approx. 
1,800 cases annually. Vacation after 1 yr. of service. Sick leave, statutory holidays & 
Blue Cross Plan. Postgraduate diploma desirous but not necessary if experience is 
adequate. Apply The Director of Nursing, Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, Ont. 

Graduate Registered Nurses for general duty for 118-bed General Hospital along the 
shores of Lake Michigan, 25 mi. from Chicago. Base salary $300. Good personal policies. 
Apply Highland Park Hosp., Foundation, 718 Glenview Ave., Highland Park, 111. 

Registered Nurses for 82-bed accredited hospital. Gross Salary: $210-$230 per mo. 44-hr. 

SVa-day wk. with no split shifts. 30 days vacation with pay after 1 yr. of service plus 
statutory holidays. Room in a comfortable residence & laundry of uniforms provided 
at $10-$12 per mo. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Union Hosp., Canora, Sask. 

General Duty Nurses for 40-bed hospital. Salary $250, full maintenance $45. 42-hr. wk., 28 
days annual vacation plus 10 statutory holidays. Rotating shifts, cum.ulative sick leave, 
self-contained residence. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Princeton, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses for Pediatrics, Medical, Nursery & O.R. Scrub Nurse for new 

165-bed hospital plus 35-basinettes. Excellent salary & generous personnel policies. 
Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Pembroke, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses for 114-bed hospital. Salary: $220-$250 with $5.00 increments every 
6 mo. 44-hr. wk., 3-wk. annual vacation, statutory holidays etc. For further particulars 
please apply to Director of Nurses, Union Hosp., Swift Current, Sask. 

Industrial <& Public Health Nurse, experience desirable but not essential for Company 
with 350 employees. Located in mid southwestern Ont. Familiarity with all phases of 
Workmen's Compensation would be an asset but not essential. Usual company benefits 
including Group Life, Blue Cross & P.S.I. Good and congenial working conditions. Apply 
by letter stating experience, salary expected & when available to Hay & Co. Ltd., 
Woodstock, Ont. 



REGISTERED NURSES 

$2,430 - $3,120 

ACCORDING TO QUALIFICATIONS 

for 
SUNNYBROOK HOSPITAL, TORONTO 

and 
WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, LONDON 

DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS' AFFAIRS HOSPITALS 

Application forms, available at your nearest Civil Service Commission Office, National Em- 
ployment Service & Post Office, shoulcJ be forvy^arded to the Civil Service Commission, 
25 St. Clair Ave., E., Toronto 7, Ontario. 



FEBRUARY, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 2 159 



Official Directory 

CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 
270 Laurier Ave., W., Ottawa 

President Miss Gladys J. Sharpe, Western Hospital, Toronto 2B, Ont. 

Past President Miss Helen G. McArthur, 95 Wellesley St. E., Toronto 5, Ont. 

First Vice-President Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, 

Vancouver. B.C. 

Second Vice-President Miss Alice Girard, Hopital St. Luc, Lagauchetiere St., Montreal, Que. 

Tliird Vice-President Miss Muriel Hunter, Provincial Health Dept., Fredericton, N.B. 

General Secretary Miss M. Pearl Stiver, 270 Laurier Ave. W., Ottawa. 

OTHER MEMBERS OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Presidents of Provincial Associations — 

Alberta Miss Elizabeth Bietsch. General Hospital, Medicine Hat. 

British Columbia Miss Alberta Creasor, 1645 West 10th Ave., Vancouver 9. 

Manitoba Miss Mai-y Wilson. Ste. 18. Lenore Apts., Lenoi'e St., Winnipeg. 

New Brunswick Miss Grace Stevens, Box 970, Edmundston. 

Newfoundland Miss Elizabeth Summers, 55 Miliary Rd., St. John's. 

Nova Scotia Mrs. Dorothy McKeown, 79y2 Allen St., Halifax. 

Ontario Miss Alma Reid, McMaster University, Hamilton. 

Prince Edward Island Sister Mary Irene, Charlottetovvn Hospital, Charlottetown. 

Quebec Mile Eve Merleau, Apt. 52, 3201 Forest Hill, Montreal 26. 

Saskatchewan Miss Mary MacKenzie, St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon. 

Religious Sisters (Regional Representation) — 

Maritimes ^ Rev. Sister Helen Marie. St. Joseph's Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 

Quebec "■..... Rev. Sister Denise Lefebvre, Institut Marguerite d'Youville, 

1185 St. Matthew St., Montreal 25. 

Ontario Rev. Sister M. de Sales, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto 2. 

Western Canada Rev. Sister Mary Lucita, St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, B.C. 

Chairmen of National Committees — 

Nursing: Service Miss Alice Girard, Hopital St. Luc, Lagauchetiere St., Montreal, Que. 

Nursing Education Miss Evelyn Mallory, School of Nursing, University of British 

Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C. 

Publicity & Public 

Relations Miss Evelyn Pepper, Rm. 726. Jackson Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Legislation & By-Laws.... Miss Helen Carpenter, 50 St. George St., Toronto 5, Ont. 
Finance Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 

Alberta Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen, Ste. 5, 10129-102nd St., Edmonton. 

Registered Nurses' Ass'n of British Columbia, Miss Alice L. Wright, 2524 Cypress St., Van- 
couver, 9. 

Manitoba Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Lillian E. Pettigrew, 247 Balmoral St., Winnipeg. 

New Brunswick Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Muriel Archibald, P.O. Box 846, Fredericton. 

Ass'n of Registered Nurses of Newfoundland, Miss Pauline Laracy, Cabot Bldg., Duckworth St., 
St. John's. 

Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Nova Scotia, Miss Nancy H. Watson, 301 Barrlngton St., Halifax. 

Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Ontario, Miss Florence H. Walker, 515 Jarvis St., Toronto 5. 

Ass'n of Nurses of Prince Edward Island, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 Prince St., Charlottetown. 

Asociation of Nurses of the Province of Quebec, Miss Winonah Lindsay, 506 Medical Arts Bldg., 
Montreal 25. 

Saskatchewan Registered Nurses' Ass'n, Miss Lola Wilson, 401 Northern Crown Bldg., Reglna. 

ASSOCIATION OFFICERS 

Canadian Nurses' Asociation: 270 Laurier Ave. West, Ottawa. Genera! Secretary-Treasurer, Miss 
M. Pearl Stiver. Secretary of Nursing Education, Miss Frances U. McQuarrie. Secretary of Nursing 
Service, Miss F. Lillian Campion. Assistant Secretary, Miss Rita Maclsaac. 

International Council of Nurses: 1, Dean Trench St., Westminster, London S.W. 1, England. 
Executive Secretary, Miss Daisy C. Bridges. 

160 THE CANADIAN NURSE 




"^"^Better physical condition 
when fed meat early . . .'' 



TN a study conducted by Leverton and Clark 
-*- "Meat in the Diet of Young Infants", 
(J. A. M. A., 134,1215 (1947), special pre- 
pared meat was added to the formula of 
full-term babies beginning at the age of six 
weeks and continuing for a period of eight 
weeks. The pediatrician in charge considered 
that the babies were in better physical 
condition generally as a result of the meat 
supplement. Nurses in attendance reported 
that the meat-fed infants seemed better 
satisfied, slept well and cried little. 

Swift's Meats for Babies was the original 
product of this kind placed on the market. 
Prepared from only fine, lean meat, the food is 



cooked and milled to a fine puree. The texture is 
soft, moist and easily fed in formula or for initial 
spoon feeding just as it comes from the can. There 
are seven kinds for variety and special conditions: 
Beef, Lamb, Pork, Veal, Liver, Heart, Liver and 
Bacon, and also Swifs Egg Yolks for Babies, 
Salmon Seafood for Babies and the chopped 
Swift's Meats for Juniors. 



Meats for Babies 

SWIFT'S 

most precious product 



Swifl 



7^ Si'u^ ^^>K4 J^offtdi^ .^dSSEt- 

SWIFT CANADIAN CO., LIMITED 



Swifts 

Meats-Babies 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



161 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



VOLUME 52 



NUMBER 3 



MARCH 1956 



1 66 New Products 

1 T3 Forty Years of Pilgrimage E. K. Russell 

1 T5 The Social Sciences and Improvement 

OF Patient Care E. L. Brown 

1 80 The District Nurse Knows Better M. Kirk 

1 83 Psychiatric Nursing E. Bregg 

185 Fun on Trains M. Steed 

187 Nurses as Teachers of Science A. E. Reid 

191 An Orderly Training Program M. L. Richmond 

193 Meconium Ileus D. Wright and J. Bullock 

196 La Societe db?s Infirmieres Visiteuses R. Rivard 

1 9T My Complaints A. Dalton 

1 99 Nursing Profiles 

200 In Memoriam 

202 Nursing Across the Nation 

204 Le Nursing a Travers le Pays 

206 Selection 

21 4 Convention Personalities 

216 Book Reviews 

224 News Notes 



Editor and Business Manager 
MARGARET E. KERR, M.A., R.N. 

Assistant Editor 
JEAN E. MacGREGOR, B.N., R.N. 



The views expressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
represent the policy 
or views of 

The Canadian Nurse 
nor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association. 



Subscriptioti Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 

Student nurses — ; one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. U.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 

In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $7.00. 

Single copies, 35 cents. 

Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian Nurse. 

Detailed Official Directory appears in June & December. 

Please give one month's notice of Change of Address. 

Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 

National Advertising Representatives: W. F. L. Edwards & Co. Ltd., 34 King St. E., Toronto 1, Ont. 

Member of Canadian Circulations Audit Board. 

1522 Sherbrooke Street, West, Montreal 25. Quebec 



162 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 





'^m-^^ ?immrr 'aaaafe^*- iiwiinwii iiMiiiimiif i 



BFM-156A 



Here^s a balanced diet for toddlers 

that even the busiest mothers can follow! 

One of the biggest problems of every mother is time — working 
according to a strict schedule. And it is often the time factor 
that prevents a young mother from adhering to a balanced diet 
for the toddler who has graduated from strained food, 
but is not yet ready for adult fare. 

That is when Heinz Junior Foods can be 
such a help. They are easily digested and at the 
same time are the right texture to promote 
the chewing habit. You can be sure that by 
recommending Heinz wide variety of Junior Foods, 
you will be prescribing a well balanced diet 
that mothers will find convenient and economical. 

If you would like to taste and test Heinz Junior 
Foods, yourself, write for free samples to 
Professional Service Department, Heinz Baby Foods, 
Leamington, Ontario. 

HEINZjunior foods 




MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



163 



^etuAceti Ou^ueluci^ 



LAST SUMMER A CONFERENCE was held at 
National Office when there was consider- 
able discussion regarding the topics that 
would probably generate greatest interest 
in the forthcoming convention. Everyone 
would want to know about costs so Ethel 
Armstrong Collins, convention coordinator 
of the CNA, was assigned the task of secur- 
ing information from the railway companies 
and the airlines about fares. That informa- 
tion was published last October, together 
with a preliminarj' description of some post- 
convention tours. Following the 1954 con- 
vention, the arranged tours proved so popu- 
lar that Mfs. Collins has spent a great deal 
of time perfecting arrangements for the vaca- 
tion trips this year. Considerable supplemen- 
tary material regarding them was published 
last month. 

The two special trains from Eastern 
Canada to Winnipeg have been well-pub- 
licized both at provincial annual meetings 
and through the Journal. This month, 
Margaret Steed tells us of the enjoyment 
of the hundreds of nurses who travelled on 
the "Nurses Special" in 1954. 

As everyone knows by now, the theme 
of this year's convention is "Nursing Serves 
the Nation." Alice Girard, chairman of the 
CNA Nursing Service Committee posed 
some thought-provoking questions relating 
to this theme last month. "But basic to good 
nursing service," ran the discussion at last 
summer's conference, "is nursing education. 
In stressing our theme this year, we must 
not let it completely overshadow the impor- 
tance of a sound educational program to 
provide the highly qualified nursing staffs 
to give the service." 

Though s4ie has retired from the School 
of Nursing of the University of Toronto 
where, after more than 30 years, her dy- 
namic leadership has left an indelible mark, 
E. Kathleen Russell has by no means retired 
from active interest and participation in 
nursing education. Shortly after completing 
an interim evaluation of the centralized 
nursing program at the University of Sas- 
katchewan last year, Dr. Russell was ap- 
pointed by the University of New Brunswick 
to make an intensive study of the schools 
of nursing in that province. 

Dr. Russell's interest has never been con- 
fined to any one school. On the contrary, 
she has always conceived of nursing educa- 
tion as being the medium through which 



improved community service might be effec- 
ted. She was one of the first to advocate 
a survey of nursing education in Canada 
and served as a member of the joint com- 
mittee that guided the project some 25 years 
ago. We are delighted to welcome her as 
our guest editor this month. 
* * * 

As has often been said in the course of 
taJks about our Journal, there is a very 
varied reader audience for every issue. This 
audience ranges from the more senior group 
in administrative and executive positions 
through the vast throng of staff nurses in 
every branch of our profession to the eager 
youngsters who are the students in our 
schools of nursing. It includes hundreds 
of nurses who are no longer active par- 
ticipants in the hospitals and public health 
organizations but who nevertheless are 
valued workers in the chapters and district 
associations — the associate members who 
are always eager to know what is going 
on in the nursing world. Each issue is plan- 
ned with this wide span of reader interest 
in mind. 

This month we welcome to this reader- 
ship all of the active and associate members 
of the Registered Nurses' Association of 
Nova Scotia. You will find mental stimula- 
tion in the challenging address of Dr. 
Esther Lucile Brown, in the discussion of 
developments in the program of two Cana- 
dian university schools of nursing, in the 
analysis of what psychiatric nursing really 
is. Good reading, friends ! 

Those Canadians whose good fortune it 
was to receive Florence Nightingale Foun- 
dation fellowships probably have all received 
copies of the new book, recently published 
by the League of Red Cross Societies, "The 
Lamp Radiant." This ' is a fascinating story 
of the inception, development and postwar 
achievements of that illustrious group of 
"Old Internationals" whose memories of 
war-destroyed 15 Manchester Square, Lon- 
don, remain ever fresh. Others who are 
interested in securing this small history 
may order it from the League at 26 Avenue 
Beau-Sejour, Geneva, Switzerland. The price 
is 80 cents. 



We judge ourselves by what we feel cap- 
able of doing, while others judge us by what 
we have already done. — Longfellow 



164 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



^Personal and 
|rofessional use 



'//-Purpose Creme /s produced using 
111 materials and according to the exact 
1 of *BEIERSDORF, makers of Europe's 
imous preparations for skin care. 

>JZA CREME keeps your skin smooth, supple 
id lovely at all times . . . gives it day-to-day 
;on against winter winds and piercing cold 
. as summer heat) which rob your skin of 
ral oils. 

lore dry, rough, or chapped skin ! Vanza 
Jature help you by actively replacing lost 
ition" when your skin has been exposed 
elements; or when you wash frequently 
Dap or detergents. Delightful, smooth- 
ng . . . such a little goes such a long way. 

RY USE — Vanza Creme ... a penetrative, 
nt for the care of baby's skin is a proven aid 
lursery. Protects against discomfort of dry 




FOR SKIN CARE 

RSDORF & CO. A.-G., HAMBURG. West Germany 



-^^ME lot SKiN CARE 




Tubes: 35 cents and 60 cents 



Jars: $1.10 and $2.50 



skin, roughness and chapping, so common during 
the winter months. It "lubricates" with a choles- 
terinized water-in-oil emulsion, the nearest cos- 
metic approach to the sebaceous secretion itself. 

VANZA SUPERFATTED SOAP-Those sensitive to 
ordinary toilet soap or detergents, or having dry 
thin skin, benefit through the regular use of 
Vanza Superfatted Soap. It is invaluable for the 
nursery as a companion product to Vanza Creme. 

Cake: 25 cents 

MAIL COUPON FOR FULL-SIZE TUBE 




VanZant & Co. Limited 
357 College Street 
Toronto 2B, Ontario 

Please mail me free of charge a 35-cent tube of Vanza Creme 
and guest size Vanza Superfatted Soap. 



CITY PROV. 



Edited by DEAN F. N. HUGHES 

Published Through Courtesy of Canadian Pharinacentical Journal 

BIONET DROPS 

Manufacturer — Frank W. Horner Ltd., Montreal. 

Description— Contains: Bicetonium (cetyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride) 0.025%, 
methapyrilene HCl 0.25%, ephedrine HCl 0.50%, hydrocortisone 0.02%. 

Indications — Allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinitis, nasopharyngitis and 
sinusitis. 

Administration — To be sprayed or dropped into nostrils as prescribed. 

BUTISOL 

Manufacturer — McNeil Laboratories, Philadelphia; Can. Dist.: Van Zant & Co. Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Butisol repeat action tablets, each containing 30 mg. butisol sodium 
(sodium S-ethyl-S-sec-butyl barbiturate), 15 mg. in the outer coat for immediate release 
and 15 mg. in the specially coated core for delayed action. 

Indications — Conditions requiring mild prolonged sedation such as: Essential hyper- 
tension, coronary disease, congestive heart failure, premenstrual tension, menopause, 
anxiety neuroses, etc. 

Administration— One dose affords a sustained sedative effect for 8 to 12 hours. 
Dosage is 1 or 2 tablets 2 or 3 times a day. 

COLISONE 

Manufacturer — Charles E. Frosst & Co., Montreal. 

Description — Brand of prednisone, anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic agent said 
to be 3-5 times as effective as cortisone or hydrocortisone. Scored tablets of 5.0 mg. 

Indications — Collagen diseases — as for cortisone. 

Administration — Initially, 20 to 30 mg. daily by mouth in divided doses after meals 
and before retiring. Higher doses may sometimes be indicated. Maintenance doses 
range from 5 to 20 m^g. daily. 

DICOSAL 

Manufacturer — H. Powell Chemical Company Ltd., Bowmanville, Ont. 

Description — Compressed tablet containing: Salicylamide (6 gr.) 390 mg., secobar- 
bital sodium (1/4 gr.) 16 mg., dihydrocodeinone bitartrate ('/a gr.) 8 mg. 

Indications — As an analgesic and sedative for the relief of pain symptoms of 
migraine, neuralgia, severe headache, dysmenorrhea, muscle and joint pains. 

Administration — One tablet every three or four hours. 

GAMADYNE No. 1, No. 2. No. 3 

Manufacturer — Gama Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Descriptions — Each capsule contains: 

No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 

Acetylsalicylic Acid 5 gr. 5 gr. 5 gr. 

Phenacetin 2 gr. 2 gr. 2 gr. 

Caffeine Citrate 1/2 gr. 1/2 gr. 1/2 gr. 

Codeine Phosphate '. i/g gr. 1/4 gr. V2 gr. 

Indications — Analgesic, anodyne, antipyretic. 

Administration — One or two capsules as directed by physician. 

GAMATUSS 

Manufacturer — Gama Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Description — -Each fl. oz. contains: Codeine phosphate 1 gr., sodium citrate 25 gr., 
ammonium chloride 16 gr., potassium iodide 16 gr., chloroform 1.6 m. in a palatable 
flavored base. 

Indications — Expectorant and respiratory sedative. 

Administration — One or two teaspoonfuls every four hours. Children, according 
to age. 

GOLD SODIUM THIOSULPHATE 

Manufacturer — Abbott Laboratories Limited, Montreal. 

Indications — For the treatment of lupus erythematosus. 

Administration — Solutions of this gold salt are unstable. They should be freshly 
prepared before using. 

Dosage — The preferred initial dose is 5 mg. given intravenously in 2 to 5 cc. 
of sterile distilled water. Subsequent doses given at weekly intervals are increased 
5 mg. per dose to a maximum of 50 mg. for women and 75 mg. for men provided no 
reactions have occurred. 

The Journal presents pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses understand that only a physician may prescribe. 
166 THE CANADIAN NURSE 




McMASTER UNIVERSITY 

School of Nursing 

1956-1957 



DEGREE COURSE IN BASIC NURSING 

A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepare students for all 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.). It includes studies in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 

DEGREE COURSE IN SCIENCE TEACHING FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

A Two-Year Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree. Bachelor of 
Education in Nursing (B.Ed.N.). It includes studies in the humanities, the 
physical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 
Bursaries are available in both years of this course. 

For additional information, write to: 

School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 



QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 

COURSES OFFERED 

1. Degree Course leading to B.NSc. 
Opportunity is provided for special- 
ization in final year. 

2. Diplonut {'mirses: 

(a) Teaching, Supervision in 

Scliools of Nursing, 
(b) Public Health Nursing. 

For ijifonnation apply to: 

DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 
QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



THE MOUNTAIN 
SANATORIUM 

HAMILTON, ONTARIO 

TWO-MONTH 

POSTGRADUATE COURSE 

IN THE IMMUNOLOGY, 

PREVENTION & TREATMENT 

OF TUBERCULOSIS. 

This course is especially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis Nursing. 

For further information apply to: 

Director of Nursing, 

Mountain Sanatorium, 

Hamilton, Ontario. 



MARCH. 195S • Vol. 52, No. 3 



167 



HYLENTA TABLETS 

Manufaclurer — Ayerst, McKenna & Harrison Ltd., Montreal. 

Description — Each scored tablet contains penicillin G potassium 500,000 I.U. formu- 
lated so that disintegration occurs in the small intestine. 

Indication — Treatment and prevention of infections due to penicillin-sensitive 
organisms. 

Administration — Therapeutic — 2 or 3 tablets daily are usually adequate except 
in bacterial endocarditis, meningitis and staphylococcic sepsis. 

Prophylactic — One-half tablet twice daily. Higher blood levels are obtained when 
given on a fasting stomach. 

INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINE POLYVALENT 

Manufacturer — Lederle Laboratories Division, North American Cyanamid Ltd., 
Montreal. 

Description — A refined and concentrated vaccine prepared by centrifugation from 
the extra-embryonic fluid of the chick embryo ani;' .ormalin-killed. 

Indications — Immunization against epidemic influenza. 

Administration — Subcutaneously or intramuscularly. This vaccine should not be 
injected intravenously. 

Dosage — Adult: 1 cc. Children under 12 years of age: Dose should not exceed 0.5 cc. 
with proportionately less for the very young. Booster injection: 0.5 cc. if unusual epi- 
demic conditions exist. The booster injection should be given preferably 6 months to 1 
year after basic immunization. 

UQUID SOBEE 

Manufacturer — Mead Johnson & Company of Canada, Limited, Toronto and Belle- 
ville, Ontario. 

Description — Made from water, soybean, flour, dextromaltose, sucrose, soybean oil, 
coconut oil, calcium carbonate, sodium chloride, dicalcium phosphate, chondrus extract, 
vitamin A palmitate and calciferol. 

Indication — Hypoallergenic soya formula for allergic infants. 

Administration — As directed by physician. 

NEUTRA DETERGENT CAKE 
Manufacturer — Neutra Chemical Co., Toronto. 
Description — An^'" alkyl aryl sulphonate (Nacconol) detergent adjusted to pH 5.5-6.0 

in a bar form containing 4% olive oil to protect skin against excess drying. 

Indications — For soap-sensitive skin, acne and whenever thorough cleansing of skin 
is indicated. 

Administration — Use instead of soap. 

NEUTRATAR SHAMPOO 

Manufacturer — Neutra Chemical Co., Toronto. 

Description — A combination of hexachlorophene and specially prepared crude coal 
tar in a neutral lauryl sulphate base. 

Indications — Seborrhea and other common causes of dandruff, for oily hair and 
scalp and whenever thorough cleansing of hair and scalp is indicated. 

Administration — Use as regular shampoo. 



PABALATE-HC 

Manufacturer — A. H. Robins Co., Montreal. 

Description — Each light blue tablet contains: Hydrocortisone 2.5 mg., potassium 
salicylate 0.3 Gra., potassium para-aminobenzoate 0.3 Gm., ascorbic acid 50.0 mg. 

Indications—Rheumatoid arthritis and its variants; osteoarthritis, acute rheumatic 
fever, bursitis, fibrositis and neuritis. 

Administration — Adults, usually 2 tablets 4 times daily. Children, according to age 
and ability to swallow tablets. 

PECTOREA 

Manufacturer — E. B. Shuttleworth Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Contains per cc: Pectin 12 mg., kaolin 215 mg., in a pleasantly 
flavored vehicle. 

Indications — Indicated in diarrheas of various origin. 

Administration — Adults — Two to four tablespoonfuls several times daily as required. 

Children — One or two teaspoonfuls according to age. 

THYAMA TIMESULES 
Manufacturer — Paul Money Laboratories of Canada Limited, Hamilton, Ontario. 
Description — Each capsule contains: d, 1-Amphetamine sulfate 15 mg., thyroid 3 gr., 

atropine sulfate 1/180 gr., aloin V4 g^., phenobarbital 1/4 gr. 

Controlled disintegration capsules. Each capsule prepared in a special base to 
allow for the disintegration of the contents throughout a 6-10 hour period. 

Indications — Adjunctive treatment of obesity. 

The Journal presents fharmaceiiticals for information. Nurses understand that only a physician may prescribe. 
168 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
MANITOBA 

COURSES 
FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

The following one-year certificate 
courses are ofifered : 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

For information apply to: 

Director 

School of Nursing Education 

University of Manitoba 

Winnipeg, Man. 



PSYCHIATRIC 

NURSING COURSE 

The Hospital for Mental Diseases, 
Brandon, Manitoba, offers a 6-month 
Diploma Course in Psychiatric Nursing 
to Registered Nurses. 

Applicants accepted in September of 
each year. Salary while taking course : 
$205 per mo. less $25 per mo. for full 
maintenance. 

Upon completion of course nurses are 
eligible for positions on Permanent 
Staff. 

For further information apply: 

Superintendent of Nurses, 

Hospital for Mental Diseases, 

Brandon, Manitoba. 



THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 

Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities for advanced preparation : 

1. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Obstetrics. 

2. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Operating Room Principles and 
Advanced Practice. 

These courses commence in January 
and September of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is given after the first month. 
Enrolment is limited to a maximum of 
six students in each course. 

For further information please write to : 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING 

GENERAL HOSPITAL 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA 



UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 

SCHOOL OF NURSING 



I. Basic Degree Course In Nursing (B.Sc): 

This course provides study in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing, 
and prepares the graduate for com- 
munity and hospital nursing practice. 

II. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 

(B.Sc): 

A two-year program designed to pre- 
pare the nurse for positions in Nursing 
Education and Public Health Nursing. 
The program includes courses iri the 
humanities, basic sciences, supervision, 
teaching and public health nursing. 

III. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses: 

One year diploma courses are available 
to registered nurses who wish to pre- 
pare for positions in Nursing Educa- 
tion and Public Health Nursing. 

IV. Certificate Course in Advanced Practi- 
cal Obstetrics: 

A four and one half month course of 
study and supervised clinical ex- 
perience in the care of the mother and 
the newborn infant. 

For information apply to : 

THE DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 

UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 

EDMONTON, ALBERTA 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



169 



ROYAL VICTORIA 
HOSPITAL 

School of Nursing, Montreal 

COURSES FOR GRADUATE 
NURSES 

L A four-month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nursing. 

2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological Nursing. 

Salary — After second month at 
General StafiF rates. 

For information apply to: 

Director of Nursing 

Royal Victoria Hospital 

Montreal 2, Que. 



PSYCHIATRIC 
NURSING COURSE 

The Allan Memorial Institute of 
Psychiatry of the Royal Victoria 
Hospital ofifers six-month courses in 
Theory and Practice in Psychiatric 
Nursing to Graduate Nurses in good 
standing in their own province. 

Classes — Spring and Fall. 

Complete maintenance or living-out 
allowance, meals in hospital and uni- 
form laundry for the first three months. 
General duty rates the second three 
months. 

For further information write to : 

Miss H. M. Latnont, Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 2, Que. 
or Miss Kathleeen Marshall, Supervisor of 
Nurses, Allan Memorial Institute of Psy- 
chiatry, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 
Z, Que. 



PSYCHIATRIC COURSE 

for 

GRADUATE NURSES 

The Nova Scotia Hospital ofTers to 
qualified Graduate Nurses a six- 
month certificate course in Psychiatric 
Nursing. 

' Classes in June and December. 
• Remuneration and maintenance. 

For further information apply to: 

Superintendent of Nurses 
Nova Scotia Hospital 
Drawer 350 
Dartmoutli, Nova Scotia 



NOVA SCOTIA SANATORIUM 

KENTVILLE N.S. 

Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 

1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 

2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 

3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit. 

4. Full maintenance, salary & all staff 
privileges. 

5. Classes start May 1st and Novem- 
ber 1st. 

For information apply to : 

SUPT. OF NURSES, NOVA SCOTIA 
SANATORIUM, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



170 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



KNOX 



Protein Pre^iew^ 




Maintaining Lean Body Mass 
in the Edentulous Geriatric Patient 




Extensive loss of body protein can occur 
in either the spare or obese geriatric patient. 
But whatever the patient's somatotype, a 
decrease in lean body mass is usually the 
result of inadequate protein intake due to 
poor dentition, slowed-down digestion and 
quite frequently, unappetizing main dishes. 
Knox Gelatine is an excellent non-resi- 
due protein which is easy to chew and 
readily digested and assimilated. As a ve- 
hicle for many foods, Knox Gelatine 
brightens bland diets, giving a new interest 
to jaded appetites. As a concentrated pro- 
tein drink, Knox Gelatine supplies seven 
out of eight essential amino acids and a 
majority of the other amino acids com- 
posing protein. 



Specific suggestions on how to use Knox 
Gelatine in different types of geriatric 
diets are described in the booklets listed 
in the coupon below. 



Knox Gelatine (Canada) Limited 
Professional .Service Department CD-15 
140 St. Paul St. West, Montreal, Quebec 

Indicate number of special diet booklets 
desired for your patients opposite title: 



GERUTRIC. 



REDUCING. 



CONVALESCENT. 



YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



171 




Sugar-restricted dieting 
can he a pleasure/ 




\ A I 



Certainly. Sugar-restricted 
patients can use a non-caloric 
sweetener and enjoy it! 
The only requirement: use Improved 
SucARYL. Improved Sucaryl has 
no "off" flavor to offend the perceptive 
taste. Improved Sucaryl stays 
sweet in cooking — even when 
recipes call for a 450° oven. 
Supplied in liquid, tablets, 
and powder at all drug stores. 

Abbott Laboratories Ltd. Montreal 
IMPROVED 

SUCAKYK 

LAMATE ABBOTT) 



^■■■■■■H 




172 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



m cflflfioiflo nufist 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL FOR THE NURSES OF CANADA 
PUBLISHED BY THE CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 



VOLUME 52 



NUMBER 3 



MONTREAL, MARCH, 1956 



Forty Years of Pilgrimage 



The Canadian Nurses' Association 
has announced the topic for the coming 
biennial meeting to be held in Win- 
nipeg in June. "Nursing serves the 
nation" is the general theme around 
which the whole program has been 
constructed. But, broad as this subject 
is, it must submit to even further ex- 
pansion : inevitably nursing service 
precipitates us into the alliecl question 
of nursing education, for it is well 
known that the service of any profes- 
sion finds its level in the schools that 
prepare the workers. So we are now 
faced with the two seemingly separate, 
and yet completely interdependent, ap- 
proaches to our field of professional 
work. 

For the past twenty-five years there 
has been increasing effort to change 
the structure and pattern of nursing 
schools in order to give competent 
preparation for adequate nursing serv- 
ice to contemporary society. The 
concerted efifort in this direction, in 
Canada, might be dated from the pub- 
lication of the Weir Report in 1932. 
With what success? It would be quite 
wrong to discount real accomplish- 
ment, but equally wrong to ignore the 
increasing confusion as new patches 

MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



are added to the old garment of nurs- 
ing education. Now Canadian nurses 
are asking insistently for the explana- 
tion of this delay and are determined 
to overcome all obstacles and to pursue 
the matter, in season and out of season, 
until they see the fundamental recon- 




E. Kathleen Russell 



173 



struction that must come. Nursing as 
it was adapted to nineteenth century 
medical, hospital and social conditions 
is unable to serve the extraordinarily 
different conditions of the mid-twen- 
tieth century. Sighing for past glory — 
real or imaginary — is merely a waste 
of time. 

Undoubtedly nursing education pre- 
sents an extremely difficult task, 
inherently complex and dogged by re- 
actionary influences. Unfortunately, it 
is being made even more difficult by 
the tendency to over-simplification of 
the whole question. It is not simple, 
and cannot be made simple, but it 
must be possible to outline the total 
objective and to prepare a blue print 
for constructive action. Note that we 
speak of the total objective. Piecemeal 
change may make matters worse than 
before and yield only diminishing 
returns. A simple illustration is found 
in the fact that the eight-hour day for 
nurses has left the hospital patient 
more isolated than ever. Certainly, a 
return to the old twelve-hour period 
of duty is neither desirable nor pos- 
sible. A deeper search must be made 
for the answer to this and many other 
questions. 

Editorial comment must of necessity 
be brief. It is only possible now to add 
that many problems present themselves 
in the pursuit of our total educational 
objective but perhaps three may be 
cited as indicative of the task that lies 
ahead. The first of the three has been 
suggested already, namely, the adjust- 
ment needed in hospitals in order to 
give nursing to the patient. With in- 
tent we ask tersely for nursing, not 
for "nursing care" or "nursing the 
patient as a person." These expres- 
sions can become so hackneyed that 
they tend to obscure thought or to 
serve as substitutes for thought. 



The patient may be represented as a 
small island, one among many in the 
hospital sea. A fleet of nursing boats 
and auxiliary craft ply to and from 
the island throughout the twenty-four 
hours, carrying very necessary cargo 
of divers shapes and sizes ; but no boat 
can pause long in its rapid voyaging 
so none really knows the island, 
though the passive island itself comes 
to recognize — more or less — a few 
of the craft that happen to call a bit 
more frequently than others. Is this 
a distorted description or merely a bit 
of exaggeration to give emphasis? If 
essentially true, the import of it all to 
the patient — and the doctor and the 
nurse — cannot be stressed too greatly. 
And could it be that the young student 
is learning thereby to expect not to 
know her patients — and this at the 
most impressionable stage of her clin- 
ical training? 

A second task is to obtain accept- 
ance throughout the nursing world for 
the fact that public health nursing is 
real nursing, just as truly as is hospital 
nursing. With this acceptance, prep- 
aration for health practice will be given 
more adequate attention from the be- 
ginning of the basic professional 
course. 

Perhaps the final place in this selec- 
ted trio should be given to the tre- 
mendous challenge of finding and 
preparing even a tiny company of 
directors of nursing schools, and of 
teaching stafif, ready to lead their 
followers into the promised land even 
if it entails forty years of pilgrimage. 
For comfort, it might be considered 
that nearly twenty-five of those years 
have been checked oflF already ! 
Kathleen Russell, 

B.A., B. Paed., D.C.L. 
Professor Emeritus, 
University of Toronto 



The following facts have been brought to 
light in a recent study of hospital morbidity 
in Ontario. The results are based mainly 
on hospitalization reports for 1951. 

The men outnumbered the women in the 
incidence of such conditions as gastric ulcers, 
arteriosclerotic heart disease, displacement 
of intervertebral disc and alcoholism. The 
women showed a greater tendency towards 
diabetes mellitus, diseases of the thyroid 



gland, migraine headache and varicose veins. 
They are more likely to become anemic and 
outrank the men eight to one in develop- 
ing bunions ! Flat feet and hay fever affect 
both sexes with equal intensity. 

— Hospital Morbidity Study, 
Proznnce of Ontario 
* * * 

The Canadian Red Cross Society will 
celebrate its 50th Anniversary in 1959. 



174 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



The Social Sciences and 

Improvement of Patient Care 



Esther Llxile Brown 

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, particu- 
larly the decade since the end of 
World War II, has seen a vast ex- 
pansion of hospitals, outpatient clinics, 
health agencies, and bodies charged 
with planning for the health services 
in large parts of the Western world. 
The magnificent new University Hos- 
pital in Saskatoon takes its place 
among the proud guardians of what 
modern medical science and hospital 
construction and administration have 
been able to achieve. I speak, however, 
not of hospital buildings as such, of 
the achievements of the biological and 
physical sciences, nor of the practice 
of medicine in which I have no com- 
petence, but of patient care as it is 
provided within the hospital and as it 
is experienced by the patient. 

For some 15 years now there has 
been increasing concern both by the 
staffs who provide that care and by 
the patients who experience it lest 
we be failing even to maintain stan- 
dards comparable to those that existed 
prior to the past war. In techniques 
for diagno'^ing, treating, and prevent- 
ing disease we have shown preeminent 
success. But what about relationships 
with patients, and the contribution of 
those relationships to the healing pro- 
cess? Let us take a brief look at pa- 
tient care as it would probably appear 
to social scientists as well as to many 
members of the health services, who 
visited a succession of large general 
ho.spitals that had well-established rep- 
utations in diagnosis and treatment of 
disease and laboratory research. 

1. Observation of floors or wards 
would reveal much movement, often 
hurried and sometimes confused, by 

Dr. Brown is on the executive staff 
of the Russell Sage Foundation, New 
York. She gave this paper as one in a 
series of addresses presented at the 
opening of The University Hospital, 
Saskatoon, Sask., last May. Several of 
these addresses are being published this 
month in The Canadian Hospital. 



staff of many different categories, in- 
cluding several new- groups of assist- 
ant personnel. Almost everyone would 
be carrying out a procedure ordered 
by the appropriate person in the 
service with which he was associated. 
Even if he were a member of the reg- 
ular ward staff and not from another 
department, however, he would rarely 
seem to be part of a team whose efforts 
had been closely coordinated in behalf 
of helping patients to manage the 
problems of illness, particularly psycho- 
logical problems. Very infrequently 
would one see the members of the 
ward staff sitting down together at a 
conference table for regular and sys- 
tematic discussion of the needs of in- 
dividual patients and how those needs 
could best be met. 

Patients report that they find the 
stream of personnel who do something 
to them or jor them but rarely with 
them, extremely disconcerting and 
fatiguing. Instead of gaining psycho- 
logical support they have a sense of 
vast aloneness. and often an increase 
of anxiety. When ward staff is asked 
whether group planning could not lead 
to reduction in the number of person- 
nel serving a particular patient, and 
whether it is not possible for someone 
— physician or nurse — to sit down 
quietly with, and listen to, the patient 
for a few minutes each day. the ques- 
tioner is promptly told that present 
deficits in ward care are the result 
of serious numerical shortages, partic- 
ularly of nurses. That grave shortages 
exist in many geographical areas that 
have been rapidly expanding their 
medical and health services, as well 
as in practically all psychiatric hos- 
pitals, is factually correct, but to make 
these shortages bear so large a respon- 
sibility for inadequacies is to preclude 
examination of other essential factors. 

2. The average general hospital is 
still organized to take care almost 
exclusively of patients who are in bed, 
although early ambulation has greatly 
reduced the nature of hospitalization. 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



175 



The social scientist is surprised at the 
absence of convenient lounges fur- 
nished with books, magazines, and 
games, and the absence of facilities for 
showing films, serving tea, or provid- 
ing other social activities. From the 
lessons learned by psychiatric hos- 
pitals, pediatric and rehabilitation 
services, are we not to conclude that 
all ill patients need a social environ- 
ment more nearly resembling that of 
the home and community which would 
give them some sense of contact with 
the outside world, some distraction 
from preoccupation with illness, and 
would perhaps reduce the demands for 
service made upon the ward staff? 
If there be a shortage of personnel, 
could a social setting not be created 
that would minimize this inadequacy 
somewhat, and would allow patients 
themselves to give more psychological 
help to other patients? 

3. Although large numbers of per- 
sons are employed in doing something 
to or jor the patient, examination of 
ward care reveals that systematic plans 
for teaching patients how to care for 
themselves after, leaving the hospital, 
or facilities for the maximum rehabil- 
itation possible while in hospital, are 
rare indeed. Many individual patients 
certainlv receive excellent instruction 
from physician or nurse, and an in- 
creasing number of hospitals are con- 
cerned with problems of rehabilitation. 
But for numberless other patients re- 
sponsibility appears to end when the 
acute phase of the illness is over. 
Everyone is so well acquainted with 
the serious consequences for the pa- 
tient, in discomfort, anxiety, and often 
needless readmission to the hospital 
that no illustrations are necessary. The 
question is. why is it impossible to 
provide at least the essential guidance, 
even if rehabilitation cannot be sup- 
plied? The answer probably lies chiefly 
in the fact that there is no clear al- 
location of responsibility -''.mong per- 
sonnel about who is to do the teaching, 
or insufficient supervision, if respon- 
sibility has been assigned, to guarantee 
that the teaching will be consistently 
performed. And the reason for failure 
to determine who shall assume the re- 
sponsibility is rooted, in considerable 
part, in the inadequacy of comnumica- 
tion that exists nm-^ng the categories 
of s'^aff concerned with patient care. 



4. This last conclusion brings us 
immediately to one of the most serious 
problems in its consequences for pa- 
tient care, but one of which physicians 
particularly seem so little aware that 
something must be said about it in 
greater detail. It is the distressing lack 
of communication between the two 
professions most directly and intimate- 
ly in contact with the patient, namely, 
the doctor and the nurse. So incred- 
ible does this phenomenon appear to 
the social scientist when he first begins 
objective observation of hospitals, that 
one sociologist periodically stationed 
himself near the charge desk on vari- 
ous wards to count the number of 
exchanges — of no matter what nature 
— between these two groups of staff. 
His count showed that physicians 
spoke to physicians, even at the head 
nurse's station, eight times as frequent- 
ly as they spoke to nurses. If this 
occurs in a fine voluntary hospital 
that prides itself on administrative 
competence, is it any wonder that a lay 
board member of another hospital 
characterized this social distance be- 
tween the two groups as a "barren 
no-man's land" ? 

XMiat are the consequences of such 
failure in communication for the pa- 
tient? One brief illustration will have 
to suffice. In a particular hospital that 
I was visiting, it was suggested that 
I talk to the head nurse of a ward for 
veterans with long-term illness, so ex- 
ceptionally competent and highly moti- 
vated was she in the care of chronic 
patients. In describing the various 
patients and the nursing problems 
presented, she came to the name of 
Mr. M. 

"Last night he told the nurse," said 
she, "that he did not expect to live. 
We had no idea that he had anxiety 
about dving, particularly when his con- 
dition is so much better than that of 
other patients." 

"And what has been done to relieve 
Mr. M. of anxiety?" I inquired. 

"The night nurse reported it to me 
and I have reported it to the resident," 
was the reply. 

"Do vou Icnow whether the resident 
has already had a talk with Mr. M. ?" 
I queried. She did not know. 

"Do you think he wiH talk with Mr. 
M. — and verv soon ?" She refused 
to hazard an opinion. When I inquired 



176 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



what she considered her responsibihty, 
knowing as she did that a patient was 
afraid he was going to die, she only 
said again that she had reported the 
matter promptly. 

"But couldn't you ask the resident, 
with a smile. 'Did you remember to 
see Mr. M.?" 

To this she answered, "You have 
been discussing with us in the hospital 
the value of ward staff meetings at 
which we could talk about the man- 
agement of patients. If we are able 
to start such meetings, problems like 
that of Mr. M. can be taken up." 

The only difficulty with the pro- 
posed solution was that such meetings 
would not be instituted for weeks at 
best, and Mr. M. was suffering anxi- 
ety. Here was a thoroughly experi- 
enced nurse whose interpersonal 
relations with patients, as I watched 
her. appeared so excellent that she 
could probably have allayed Mr. M.'s 
fears in short order. Yet she did not 
feel free to assume that responsibility 
or even to make certain that the resi- 
dent physician had assumed it. We 
can only infer that the institutional 
system of the hospital, a subject to 
which we shall return soon, had pro- 
duced this strange pattern of behavior. 

5. Detailed observation of patient 
care and interviews with personnel 
lead to the conclusion that motivation 
is often inadequate and morale low 
among many members of ward staffs. 
So poor indeed does motivation fre- 
quently appear that we must ask 
whether the roots of the present prob- 
lems do not lie here quite as much 
as in numerical shortages. In hospital 
after hospital that is favored with 
relatively large staffs, excellent equip- 
ment, and facilities of the traditional 
kind, administrators admit that if only 
the resources in personnel and equip- 
ment could be fully mobilized patient 
care would probably be greatly im- 
proved. 

When members of the staff are in- 
terviewed by a social scientist in whom 
they have confidence, recurring opin- 
ions and emotions are expressed that 
perhaps explain the half-hearted 
interest. If these opinions are sorted 
and arranged according to their fre- 
quency, the interviewer is likely to 
discover that above everything else 
staffs want to be found fault with 



less when the fault lies really in the 
hospital system rather than in their 
own neglect or shortcomings. Gener- 
allv in second place is the desire by 
the staff for recognition in the form 
of a word of praise or a smile when 
something has been done well. Rela- 
tively high on the list is the expression 
of need for stronger support from 
ward physicians or supervisory nurses 
in frustrating and anxiety-provoking 
situations. Parallel with the expression 
of need for support, however, is the 
desire to be consulted about patients* 
behavior or what could be done to im- 
prove ward conditions. Interestingly, 
higher pay and shorter working hours, 
that management often concludes are 
workers' chief interest, are likely to be 
well down the list — ■ and that in spite 
of the low salary scale of hospitals 
generally. 

What hospital employees who work 
most closely with patients want, there- 
fore, is much like what most workers 
elsewhere want: the sense that what 
they are doing is important, and that 
it is recognized as such both by those 
higher in authority and by their own 
category of staff. They want that 
recognition to be demonstrated in pos- 
itive terms not only of praise and of 
being asked for opinions concerning 
ward matters with which they are well 
acquainted, but they want to be given 
the feeling that they are part of a 
group therapeutic eft'ort. In the failure 
of the hospital to supply these basic 
needs of its employees may lie an es- 
sential reason for patient care being so 
impersonal and hurried, and neglectful 
of other than technical procedures. 
Is it not possible that floor staffs have 
lived in a cold, sterile atmosphere that 
has chilled them to the bone until they 
in turn reflect that atmosphere in their 
stiff and starched relations with pa- 
tients ? 

6. This question brings us to the 
last point in this array of observations. 
The social scientist notes research 
laboratories where productive efforts 
are being made to further diagnostic 
and therapeutic goals. But he rarely 
finds comparable research concerned 
with assessment of the quality of pa- 
tient care, with development of tech- 
niques for increasing effectiveness of 
relations between staff members and 
between staff and patients, and with 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



177 



evaluation of the results achieved. In a 
manuscript recently submitted to Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation for publication, 
one of the authors has v^rritten the 
following paragraph about a hospital 
that for a decade has pioneered in 
studies of improvement of patient care. 
As late as 1943 there was little re- 
search that tended to increase self- 
awareness : understanding of the manner 
in which each individual in the hospital 
setting was functioning, how he was 
contributing to therapeutic goals, and 
how his contribution might be imple- 
mented further. Although a few things 
within the hospital system were well 
studied, the system itself escaped notice, 
and (social science) research was not 
an integral part of the system. 
Research of the kind to which Dr. 
Milton Greenblatt refers has as yet 
been slight. What has been learned, 
however, from the application of con- 
cepts of behavior to the field of in- 
dustrial management alone furnishes 
sufficient guide lines for initiating hos- 
pital research and experimentation. J. 
A. C. Brown, a British psychiatrist, 
has simply and clearly synthesized this 
knowledge in "The Social Psychology 
of Industry," published in 1954 by 
Penguin Books. Dr. Brown's discus- 
sion of morale and the impetus that 
causes men to want to work is almost 
as relevant for the hospital as the in- 
dustrial plant. If the analysis made by 
social scientists who have studied in- 
stitutional organization be applied to 
large complex hospitals, the cause for 
the frequent failure to supply the basic 
needs of employees becomes apparent. 
That cause is the traditional and 
inflexible nature of the formal social 
structure of the hospital. Let us think 
of it for a moment as it would appear 
on an organizational chart. The chart 
would show parallel horizontal lines 
representing authority and status. At 
the top of the structure would be the 
board of trustees ; at the bottom, so 
far as direct patient care is concerned, 
would be the aide or orderly. The 
chart also would show parallel vertical 
lines representing functions or serv- 
ices, such as the medical, social work, 
nursing, or physiotherapy service. At 
the top of each of these vertical lines 
would be the persons responsible for 
planning and administering the serv- 
ice; at the bottotn. those responsible 



for carrying out orders at the point 
of iinmediate contact with patients. 
Within this organizational structure 
everyone would function within a rel- 
atively well-defined area, and those 
numerically very important groups at 
the bottom of the hierarchy, within 
closely circumscribed areas. 

This limitation to functional move- 
ment either upward or outward is ac- 
centuated, moreover, by the fact that 
communication moves primarily only 
in one direction — from persons with 
more authority and higher status to 
those with less — and the communica- 
tion is phrased largely as orders, pro- 
nouncements, and announcements. 
Few plans or even suggestions and 
pertinent information flow in the other 
direction, while reasonable requests for 
supplies or repairs often move so 
slowly and with such distortion along 
extended lines of communication that 
patients and floor staflf conclude that 
"the hospital" is not interested. 

The effect of the formal organization 
of the large hospital, thus analyzed, 
is obviously the opposite to what 
would be required were floor staffs to 
be given recognition, a feeling of im- 
portance, and a sense of contributing 
to a group therapeutic effort. The 
problem becomes, therefore, one of 
striving to discover how these two 
apparently irreconcilable sets of fac- 
tors may be more nearly harmonized. 
Some hospital administrations have 
rather naively assumed that if in- 
creased praise and decreased blame 
of ward personnel would improve 
morale and efficiency, little more was 
required than a suggestion to those 
in positions of authority that they alter 
their behavior when on the wards. Un- 
fortunatelv, behavior patterns are not 
likely to be changed, or remain 
changed, if the social organization con- 
tinues inflexible and no attempt is 
made to re-evaluate and restructure 
the roles ascribed to the lower echelons 
of personnel. 

Recently a few hospitals have ex- 
perimented with altering relationships 
among staff by creating situations that 
foster less reliance upon authority and 
status and more upon coordinated 
group effort. The results have been 
promising enough to encourage these 
hospitals to attempt to discover how 
such situations can be expanded in 



178 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



number and scope and made to con- 
tribute the maximum possible to 
breaking down harmful barriers. 

Space permits illustrative reference 
to only one type of situation. The 
weekly or semi-weekly ward-staff con- 
ference has been selected because most 
persons have some acquaintance with 
it and it has proved potentially useful 
in improving patient care. Although 
it has been employed in many places 
for discussion of management of pa- 
tients or altering ward conditions, it 
is capable of greater effectiveness and 
of serving more ends simultaneously 
than has generally been supposed. Suc- 
cess has frequently been limited be- 
cause the resident physician did not 
attend, monopolized the discussion, or 
kept reverting to considerations of 
diagnosis and treatment ; because only 
the morning shift was represented or 
aides and orderlies were not included. 
If a total staff be present and a per- 
missive atmosphere cultivated, such 
meetings are capable of encouraging 
movement on several fronts concur- 
rently. The discussion of patient care 
and ward conditions is extremely valu- 
able in itself. But an opportunity has 
also been provided whereby anxieties 
can be expressed and support offered ; 
frustrations and annoyances aired and 
often resolved ; personnel who have 
never before uttered an opinion helped 
to participate and thereby to develop 
greater occupational competence ; and 
the entire staff gradually woven into 
a closely coordinated team of workers. 
In a project on improvement of pa- 



tient care in large psychiatric hos- 
pitals that Russell Sage Foundation 
lately sponsored and the results of 
which will shortly be published, the 
ward psychiatrists for the selected ex- 
perimental areas concluded that they 
could not raise the level of care ap- 
preciably unless the ward staffs were 
individually and collectively taken into 
full partnership. The ward-staff meet- 
ing was one of the chief instruments 
employed for creating and maintaining 
that partnership. I wish T could report 
in detail on the changes that were 
achieved in a few months. It is only 
possible to note that changes were of 
an order that made many visitors 
hesitant to believe that these were 
the same wards and the same staff 
they had seen prior to the beginning 
of the project. Motivation ran so high 
that the personnel vied with each 
other to see who could think of more 
or better ways to improve conditions ; 
one physician, in particular, was sub- 
jected to great pressure to initiate 
further undertakings. Almost all staff 
reported to the social scientist who 
acted as observer that they were more 
interested in and satisfied with their 
work than they had ever been before. 
One supervisory nurse stated that in 
his 14 years of psychiatric nursing he 
had heard much talk of the team, but 
this was the first time he had ever seen 
it practised. Best of all, improvement 
of even long-time chronic patients was 
pronounced, and both patients and 
their families showed far more satisfac- 
tion with the hospital than formerly. 



Fluoridation 



The effect of fluoridation in reducing the 
rate of tooth decay has been graphically 
illustrated by the results of a 10-year ex- 
perimental study in an Ontario town. 

The purpose of the experiment was to 
determine whether the mechanical adjust- 
ment of the fluoride content of the water 
supply would reduce the rate of tooth decay 
to the lower level found in regions where 
drinking water contains fluoride naturally. 
The result was "a significant decrease, 
amounting to 60 per cent in the number of 
decayed, missing and filled teeth" suffered 
by school children of the area. It has been 



established that there is nothing to indicate 
that this practice is harmful to persons of 
any age. On the contrary it appears that 
introduction of fluoride is both harmless and 
beneficial. 

The cost of water fluoridation in the ex- 
perimental area, where the ratio was 1.2 
parts to one million parts water, ranged 
between 12 and 17 cents per capita per year 
using sodium fluoride. The use of sodium 
silicofluoride in the future is expected to 
reduce the cost to about six cents per capita. 

— Ontario Department of Health 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



179/ 



The District Nurse Knows Better 



Margaret Kirk 



Editor's Note: Miss Kirk is a New 
Zealander who completed her course in 
public health nursing at the University 
of Toronto School of Nursing then 
joined the staflf of the Indian Health 
Service, being assigned to the Micmac 
Health Unit at Shubenacadie, N.S. The 
article below was written primarily to 
inform the nurses "down under" about 
the work she is doing in Canada. Hence, 
there are some descriptive passages that 
will present a familiar picture to Cana- 
dian nurses. But for the thousands who 
have had no experience in a rural health 
service, Miss Kirk's quick perception 
and sparkling sense of humor lighten 
the day and night responsibilities that 
are inevitable in such work. 

I AM WRITING from an Indian Res- 
ervation in central Nova Scotia, 
that quiet little province clinging to 
the eastern seaboard of a vast con- 
tinent. True, the visitor seeking the 
rustic simplicity described on his tour- 
ist pamphlet believes it peaceful. The 
district nurse knows better ! 

This is the largest of more than 
a dozen such areas set aside for the 
Micmac Indians, native Canadians of 
Nova Scotia, "to be neither bought 
nor sold, nor trodden by foot of white 
man without permission," although 
today the latter clause is modified. 
All around sprawl hills clothed in a 
forest of conifers, well mixed with 
eastern hardwoods, maple, birch and 
oak. In clearings, which have been 
given over to the wild blueberries, 
cluster the homes of the Micmacs, 
statistically a dying race but, with in- 
termarriage, really sufifering from 
white absorption. Some squares of 
green indicate potato patches, but the 
liard stony land does not respond well 
to cultivation, nor its masters to the 
thought of labor ! 

During the summer these families, 
■from grandpa to the newborn, forsake 
their own patches and head for Maine 
where, at the height of the commercial 
potato and blueberry harvest, good 
money is to be had. However, the 
majority find it necessary to "hitch 



home," often spending a night un- 
concernedly in a county jail. 

The fall (and what a sight are those 
blazing scarlet maples!) calls hunters 
to don regulation red caps and leave 
for the woods. Many Indians proudly 
wear the badge of licensed guides, and 
wait to conduct excited American 
businessmen to their first deer. Now 
with the first dusting of snow they 
are cutting and hauling Christmas 
trees out of the forest on homemade 
sleds ; fir and prized blue spruce, which 
will give joy to city homes. 

All winter they will watch traps, 
dreaming of large beaver and muskrat 
pelts, as they snowshoe hopefully over 
their traplines. Beaver is rare now, 
and the trapping season limited for 
their valuable pelts, but there is a 
hounty on the little sniffing nose of Mr. 
Muskrat. 

Indoors, a cottage industry flour- 
ishes. While husbands split maple and 
hirch saplings to unbelievable thinness, 
wives weave baskets of every shape, 
size and color. Others use the wood 
shavings to make exquisite flowers 
and sell them in the Halifax open 
market. 

The Health Centre (for such my 
residence with clinic and dispensary 
attached is called) emerges sturdily 
above the surface of a hilltop. 

Howling Atlantic gales bring rain 
and fog and. as the season progresses, 
sleet and blizzards whistle by all the 
way from Hudson Bay. It requires 
increasing strength to open a front 
door directly facing the west, and even 
more to shut it again. 

In our community, pride of posses- 
sion is a foreign expression. The In- 
dian homes, little two-storied boxes 
of shingles and shakes, are barely 
furnished. As always some are spot- 
less, many terribly overcrowded, and 
others uninhabitable yet inhabited. To 
you in a land of bungalows it must 
be explained that the square high 
house, however unbeautiful, heats bet- 
ter through a long winter, specially 
when cooking is on a wood stove also 
used for heating. Water is carried 



180 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



from common wells. I try not to 
imagine the washing facilities, nor 
notice the consternation when nurse 
wants to wash her hands. However, 
as a teaching measure the ritual is 
carried out, in a grubby basin if neces- 
sary. Whether I end up any cleaner 
or not is beside the point. 

For my sake interviews are held 
in English, though all family backchat 
continues in Micmac. Today, few can 
read and fewer write this language 
that the French Jesuit priests so pa- 
tiently transcribed into Arabic sym- 
bols, with the first telling of the Gospel 
in Canada's history. The original 
Indian hieroglyphics are preserved in 
an old prayer book belonging to the 
parish priest, and with a little imagina- 
tion they can be guessed at. The sign 
for marriage is a primitive but obvious 
double bed. 

To describe the actual duties of a 
nurse in the Indian Health Service, 
only the word "generalized" would 
ever qualify. Newly postgraduated and 
fresh in the field of public health, I 
was bent on the education of my pub- 
lic, and they on the education of the 
nurse. Initiation included meeting the 
Government agent, who generally ad- 
ministers public affairs and finances 
within Indian territory, and afternoon 
tea with the chief. I asked about a 
plan of work. "We haven't any. You 
must make your own," they replied. 

For the first few mornings I was 
beseiged with ailments of every de- 
scription. After suturing some lacer- 
ations, writing an obesity diet for a 
300-pound brave, and generally diag- 
nosing and prescribing with the license 
of a family physician, I thankfully 
referred the doubtful cases to the doc- 
tor who called once a week. When 
everyone had satisfied his curiosity 
regarding the new nurse, callers slack- 
ened off, and the plan was able to 
organize itself. 

In this area, where the weather 
conditions play a decisive part in one's 
program, much of the routine work 
must be fitted into the late spring 
and fall, as after the middle of Novem- 
ber, no guarantee of arriving on 
schedule can be given. Some of the 
roads have a Rurma-type surface — 
a giant washboard, camouflaged ditches, 
and every corner a right angle. It is, 
indeed, a far cry from the super high- 



ways of Ontario. I roar around the 
wilderness in a mud -spattered Pon- 
tiac, stones flying, dogs barking. I 
carry enough pills and potions for a 
mobile drug store, a large black bag 
labelled "general," and another labelled 
"maternity." Several times my trusty 
vehicle has allowed itself to get stuck, 
but we have always been rescued by a 
crowd of yelling little Redskins, cry- 
ing "The nurse is in the ditch up to 
her fender," and regarding it as the 
event of the week. 

Once, when bearing a supervisor 
from headquarters in Halifax along a 
narrow track, we found a rock sub- 
merged in a blackberry bush and 
smashed a door. A small boy, our only 
witness, said comfortingly, "Yo' sho' 
was going a pace, missus." 

With headquarters at the largest 
settlement, the smaller communities, 
some of them 150 miles distant, look 
forward to regular visits from the 
nurse's car, bringing "needles," books, 
cod liver oil, cough mixture, headlice 
lotion and goodwill. The school chil- 
dren eagerly help to unload baby 
scales and the movie projector with 
collapsible screen. They are as awkward 
in a car as a pair of skis but our latest 
pieces of equipment so are held in deep 
respect. Incidentally, during the late 
fall months it is a wise measure always 
to carry a sleeping bag on journeys 
which involve a night away from 
home. 

At one school, rather isolated from 
white contact, the beginners are learn- 
ing their first English. When the nurse 
appears even the smallest rises and 
bows. The next move is from a boy 
who says, memory-style, "May I take 
your coat, ma'am?" and carries it 
reverently to the cupboard. Even if 
icicles were forming on mv nose, to 
keep it on would be the end ! Another 
brings a tin basin of warm water, and, 
under the wondering gaze of big brown 
eyes, I wash up with dignity. The 
pupils then display their arms, with 
precision and confidence, to receive 
their "boosters" of triple vaccine 
(diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus). There 
is only one room in which to do every- 
thing, yet the children give perfect 
cooperation. The older ones all can 
tell why these are necessary. 

The fathers had to be rounded up 
to mend baby-carriages and carrying 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



181 



baskets belore the first few mothers 
toiled to baby clinic. Alas for the beau- 
tiful literature I had seen on display 
during our course ! Not very suitable 
for showing a mother with two bottles 
and a black pot how to prepare for- 
mula ! How often it is necessary to 
modify our preconceived ideas of 
hygiene to conform to local standards. 

I remember a father who proudly 
presented a pickle jar containing the 
roundworm three feet long, which my 
pills caused to escape from his daugh- 
ter. "Very good pills, miss ; better 
than Indian medicine." 

There was the time when everyone 
seemed to complain of sore eyes. It 
was baffling till I discovered the first 
T.V. set, standing gloriously alone in 
a home with little else visible. Each 
night as many as would fit sat on the 
bare floor till the end of the program, 
well after midnight — and were 
thoughtfully charged 25 cents by the 
owners ! 

Then came the x-ray survey, when 
crowds flocked round the portable 
generator and equipment set up in 
church, school, or home, but could not 
find the courage to try it. Some hid 
in attics and others fled to the woods. 
Tuberculosis among Indians and Es- 
kimos, as with other native races, finds 
little resistance and is difficult to con- 
trol, despite frequent surveys of every- 
one over six months old, and B.C.G. 
for the infants of parents who can be 
persuaded to give consent. All preven- 
tive measures, taken for granted in 
"SO many communities, must be fought 
for patiently and persuasively, yet 
when an Indian is sick there is no 
one with greater faith in a needle. 
Rather than encourage him, it is often 
more a matter of discouraging the 
prescription the Indian has set his 
heart on. 

Indian days are measured from 
dawn till dark, and I have never seen 
so many unpunctual pupils at any 
school. "Oflf duty" means nothing 
either. However, when a person has 



walked two miles down an icy, pitch- 
dark road, it is difficult to refuse him 
no matter how trivial his complaint 
may be. The arrival of babies excepted, 
the most exciting things usually hap- 
pen at night. 

There was the early rising toddler 
who, with his puppy, ate two packets 
of chocolate laxative (about 20 times 
the dose). It was a minor disaster 
for the boy, but his dog was missing 
for days ! 

On the night of the first snow- 
storm this year a lone drunk man 
almost beat my door down. With all 
the Christian love I could muster I 
beamed "Come in" and he did, with 
a cloud of flakes, and his muddy snow- 
caked boots right on the mat. "Wife 
drinking," he muttered. "Threw pot 
of tea at my boy and ran away." I 
donned winter uniform (ski pants) 
over pajamas, and with chains rattling 
we slithered through 40 miles of slush 
taking a burned, scared nine-year-old 
to hospital. 

After a beating a mother plodded 
up one night to say she was so dis- 
couraged she was going to leave her 
ten children. After pouring out her 
woes she was persuaded to return, so 
back we plodded to find husband snor- 
ing and the doors locked. Like com- 
mon thieves we quietly pried open a 
window and I pushed her in. 

Legislation forbids the sale of liquor 
to an Indian, so thrives "bootlegging," 
and home brewing with yeast cake 
from the grocery store, or aspirins 
saved up from nursing station dis- 
tributions. All the misery and degrada- 
tion associated with it follows. 

Life in this manner, here pictured 
so briefly, is likely to continue seven 
days a week unless the nurse leaves. 
She did last Sunday and what hap- 
pened? I was caught by one of those 
storms mentioned above so instead 
of being snowed in I was snowed out 
and spent the night with hospital 
friends (no sleeping bag) until such 
time as the roads were ploughed clear. 



Why some human wounds fail to heal 
may be partially explained by the presence 
of mucoproteins which agglutinate the pa- 
tient's own erythrocytes. This may cause 
"plugging" of the capillaries and produce 
an inflammatory condition of tissue cells. 
Although more extensive trials are necessary 



to confirm present findings, investigators 
have discovered that chlorophyll derivatives 
tend to counteract this condition. Chloro- 
phyll derivative ointment used in the treat- 
ment of previously resistant varicose or 
decubitus ulcers has shown beneficial healing 
effects. 



182 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Psychiatric Nursing 



Elizabeth Bregg, B.Sc. 



IT HAS ALWAYS Seemed to me that 
the definition of terms, while of 
great importance in any interchange of 
ideas, can be a tedious and rather 
frustrating use of time. This is espe- 
cially true when one is considering 
nursing because everyone has a defini- 
tion of nursing. It is always a defini- 
tion garnered from the individual's 
own experience, the experience of his 
friends, impressions of Sairy Gamp 
and Florence Nightingale and the dis- 
ingenuous stories from Hollywood. It is 
always peculiarly his own and subject 
to all the bias and prejudice of his 
pattern of living. This makes many 
people quite ready to speak of and for 
nursing. There is no other discipline, 
unless perhaps it is psychology, with 
so many spokesmen, so many critics 
and so few really informed supporters. 
Nursing therefore becomes a compli- 
cated picture in the minds of our 
public. As soon as we add to the 
muddle the adjective "psychiatric" we 
are launched on a very rough trip 
indeed. Here we really come face to 
face with feelings, fears, suspicions, and 
a rather horrified fascination. Many 
in and out of medicine and nursing 
have the comforting idea that if we 
don't talk too much about it, it may 
go away. Sometimes the more anxious 
relieve their feelings by reflecting that 
while it is interesting, nurses and doc- 
tors who stay too long in psychiatry 
get a little queer too. In some way this 
relieves the discomfort. 

Whatever the method of arrival em- 
ployed, most people reach a definition 
of psychiatric nursing. This will most 
certainly be one best suited to their 
particular feelings in this area. Be- 
cause of this, the majority must think 
of psychiatric nursing as the kind of 
nursing carried out in mental hospitals 
in the midst of hopelessness, disturb- 
ance, premeditated homicidal attacks, 
noise and confusion. They are upset 
to think of "nice" young girls exposed 

Miss Bregg is director of nursing at 
the Toronto Psychiatric Hospital, To- 
ronto. 



to these sights and sounds. These mis- 
conceptions and anxieties are revealed 
in countless ways — most obviously 
perhaps by the apathy which allows 
us to ignore fairly completely the 
thousands of our citizens who are con- 
fined to mental hospital. So, for many, 
psychiatric nursing is something car- 
ried out in mental hospitals. This is 
of the greatest concern to me and 
gives, I believe, a completely erroneous 
picture of the concept of nursing which 
is developing today. 

A patient is always a member of a 
social system. Removing him to hos- 
pital does nothing to negate this. It 
complicates simply by the addition of 
a new pattern of living and feeling. 
It accentuates his interpersonal diffi- 
culties, creates new social problems 
and removes tried and trusted props. 
The most adequate of us responds to 
this strain with more or less anxiety, 
irritability or the pronounced use of 
other defence patterns. The nurse re- 
ceives the full impact of this and re- 
sponds. If she responds with percep- 
tiveness, sensitivity and warmth to 
unspoken needs, she guides the patient 
towards physical and emotional com- 
fort. She is also practicing psychiatric 
nursing which is the refinement and 
most skilled use of the interpersonal 
situation for growth and health. 

Psychiatric nursing becomes, then, 
the skilled use of the nurse-patient re- 
lationship to aid the patient's recovery, 
to help him handle difficulties as they 
appear to him, to meet needs unmet 
in the past and to restore him emo- 
tionally and physically well to the 
community. There is no successful 
nurse practicing who does not in some 
way attempt this. Her degree of satis- 
faction depends on her ability to 
operate in this way. It is an essential 
if she is to gain satisfaction because, 
for an intelligent woman, the routine 
of physical care divorced from this 
wider area is not stimulating. Only 
to the very young novice in nursing 
can the making of a hospital bed give 
a glow of achievement that will last 
all day. It it in the attempt to under- 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



183 



stand the complex person in the bed 
and the equally complex person in the 
uniform that satisfaction, challenge and 
development occur. 

Many of our student nurses in On- 
tario are now offered a 12-week ex- 
perience in nursing the mentally ill. 
There are many rather confused 
reasons for this but basically, I think, 
it is a recognition of the interdepend- 
ence of mind and body and the hope 
that somebody somewhere can teach 
this in 12 weeks. Some centres now 
complacently plan to do it in eight 
weeks — a completely unrealistic point 
of view since time as a maturation 
factor cannot be overlooked. What- 
ever the motives, psychiatric nursing 
has become a 12-week specialty and 
there it stays. A student nurse may 
reach this at the end of her first year 
of practice or at the end of her third 
year, or, due to force of circumstances, 
she may never reach it at all. This 
in spite of the fact that from her first 
hour on the ward she is dealing with 
emotional disturbance of greater or 
lesser degree in herself, her patients 
and her fellow workers. 

I think there was a time when the 
lot of the nurse was simpler than it 
is today. She simply worked under 
direction. Her task was "to carry out" 
rather than "think through." To some 
this business of "carrying out" is still 
the highly desired characteristic of the 
nurse. There is much distrust of higher 
education for nurses especially if this 
education removes the student from the 
confines of the wards. In those situa- 
tions where a nurse is still expected 
to "carry out' ' and not "question 
through" her task is simpler but the 
turnover of staff is enormous. When 
encouraged to think through, she be- 
comes often a storm centre and the 
tides of resistance grow. Other things 
grow too — independence of thought, 
greater respect for the knowledge of 
others and a healthier climate for pa- 
tients. 

Now psychiatric nursing when it is 
locked in a mental hospital and cus- 
todially oriented, is as dead as nursing 
in a general hospital when shackled 
by blind routine and militaristic hier- 
archv. Nursing is a function — one of 
the functions of the health team. The 
operations of nursing are technical and 
interpersonal. Almost anyone of nor- 



mal intelligence can learn most of the 
technical aspects of nursing but only 
a nurse specially educated to recog- 
nize and respond to the patient's need 
for help can go beyond the routine 
and supply relief or the means of 
future growth. And it is this going 
beyond that has come, in many in- 
stances, to be called quite erroneously 
psychiatric nursing. It is this miscon- 
ception which restrains nursing from 
fulfilling its highest calling. What 
saves us from complete failure is the 
fact that the ranks of nursing are filled 
with women who have the vision and 
maturity to go the extra half-mile and 
to take the young nurse with them. 
Unfortunately, many who do this com- 
plete nursing have never thought 
through their methods or the reasons 
for their successes and failures. There- 
fore, they cannot teach it — the learner 
has to be exposed and catch it. Some 
people have a natural immunity. 

If we accept the desirability of this 
complete nursing then we can use 
our experience and knowledge to put 
this so-called psychiatric nursing back 
where it belongs at the root of nurs- 
ing. This does not mean that skill and 
knowledge in technical areas will ever 
decrease in importance. On the con- 
trary, techniques will become of greater 
use and value, will be the exordium 
to a fuller relationship with the pa- 
tient and a greater acceptance on his 
part of the help offered. 

This leaves us still with the respon- 
sibility for hundreds of acutely ill 
psychotic and neurotic patients. What 
kind of nursing do they need? The 
answer is 1,10 different. They need the 
same perceptiveness, sensitivity and 
knowledge that is due any patient. The 
difference is in the degree of these 
qualities and in the stability and mat- 
urity of those nurses who choose to 
work with the mentally ill. It is not a 
new or different kind of nursing but 
rather a refinement of nursing where 
challenges are great and satisfaction 
tremendous. 

We shall never achieve this kind 
of nursing as long as our emphasis 
is on techniques but we could come 
much closer were we to put what we 
now call psychiatric nursing out of the 
specialty area and back to the begin- 
ning of our nursing education prog- 
rams. Then we could really use the 



184 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



special 12 weeks for intensive develop- 
ment and growth for the student and 
the mentally ill patient. 

This, it seems to me, is the real chal- 
lenge of nursing as it is for medicine 
and hospital administration. Nothing 
will go smoothly until our teaching 



helps us to work with people — start- 
ing, if you like, from the patient and 
spreading out in all directions. It is a 
terribly difficult assignment because it 
always involves oneself and this, as 
most of us know, is a subject which, 
like psychiatric nursing, is fascinating 
but not quite healthy. 



Fun on Trains 



Margaret Steed 



ALL aboard! Is there anyone who 
has not thrilled to the exciting pos- 
sibilities of those words ? The shrill 
warning of the whistle as the train 
nears the crossing, the roar of wheels, 
the rush of escaping steam as the cars 
slide to a stop, the sense of adventure 
and anticipation hovering over the 
waiting passengers — all arouse an 
eager longing to climb on board and 
go — somewhere, anywhere. 

As a child in a small railroad town, 
I used to watch the west-bound train 
as it pulled away from the station and 
picture where it went. I could see it 
nosing its way through the dense bush- 
land of Northern Ontario, rocking 
round the curves of the beautiful north 
shore of Lake Superior, then, on across 
the prairies, golden with wheat, until 
the rolling foothills introduced the 
Rockies. Here my imagination failed 
me ! I knew the Rockies were big — 
bigger than the "mountain" down 
which I slid on my toboggan in winter. 
I know now that they must be seen 
to appreciate their vast grandeur. 

I had a dream. Someday / would 
be one of the lucky ones to whom the 
conductor would shout his invitation. 
Someday I, too, would see those won- 
derful, faraway places. 

That dream became a reality when 
the CNA biennial convention was held 
in Banfif. The click of the wheels on 
the rails became a song in my mind : 

Nurses, nurses I've been thinking 
What a dull world this would be 
If we never had conventions 
Taking us from sea to sea. 



Miss Steed is an ardent travel enthu- 
siast from Toronto Western Hospital. 



The fun started as we met more 
excited, happy folk like ourselves scur- 
rying through the crowded terminal. 
For many it was to be their first ex- 
perience of living and sleeping on a 
train — an adventure in itself. Each 
coach had a captain who acted as hos- 
tess and human encyclopedia. The 
questions ! Passenger lists were pro- 
vided which smoothed out the scramble 
to find the friends you knew were 
there and surprised you with the 
names of some whom you had not ex- 
pected. 

Each day was packed to the brim 
with activity. Commercial well-wishers 
contributed fresh variety daily — a 
fragrant rose delighted each of us one 
morning. The larger gifts were used 
to prove conclusively that the gambling 
instinct is equally strong in both sexes. 
Every night one of our number 
gleamed with the luck of the Irish. In 
the evening the parlor car resounded 
with our enthusiastic singing. 

And then there was the day of the 
hat-fashioning contest ! It's amazing 
what one can do with a coat hanger, 
a powder puff, a cake carton, a jar of 
pickles or olives, soda crackers and 
countless other bits and bobs. They 
were not only wearable — some 
fashion-conscious souls modelled them 
at the next station stop — but were 
also, in some instances, edible. 

The entire trip took on the atmos- 
phere of a triumphal tour as we were 
met at one local stop by a bag-pipe 
band, serenaded at another, waved 
hello and good-bye at still others. It 
added that extra bit of zest to the gen- 
eral feeling of good will, good humor 
and adventure which pervaded the 
whole train. 



MARCH, 1956 • VoL 52, No. 3 



185 



And now another convention year 
is upon us. Our hardworking conven- 
tion coordinator is already far ad- 
vanced with her arrangements for you, 
planning your trip in the same excel- 



lent fashion as before. So make your 
reservations early, don't forget to bring 
your sense of humor and spirit of ad- 
venture and let's climb on board the 
Funland Special to Winnipeg. 



ALL aboard! 



THE NURSES' ROLE IN CIVIL DEFENCE 



AN INSTITUTE ENTITLED "The NurSCs' Rolc 
in Civil Disaster," the first of its kind 
to be held at the Saskatchewan Civil Defence 
School since its inception in 1951, was re- 
cently concluded. 

This institute was sponsored under the 
joint auspices of the provincial civil defence 
organization and the S.R.N. A. It was held 
at Valley Centre, Fort Qu'Appelle, which 
is the training centre for civil defence activ- 
ities. From the comments made by those 
attending the institute, it appeared to be 
generally agreed that the benefits derived 
from attendance at the institute greatly off- 
set the lack of seasonable enjoyment. Many 
Saskatchewan nurses had previously enjoyed 
the privilege of attending the course on ABC 
warfare conducted by a team from Ottawa 
in December, 1951. Many others had been 
trained over the years at courses given 
locally. This was the first course conducted 
at the provincial level since 1951. 



A real need had been felt for a refresher 
course for some and an indoctrination pro- 
gram for others. It was with this thought 
in mind that the program was planned. 
Nurses from various localities in the 
province were invited to attend. They rep- 
resented schools of nursing, public health 
nursing and institutional nursing. The re- 
sponse was very gratifying. 

There were 47 nurses enrolled for the 
complete course. The speakers included 
nurses who had recently attended the Civil 
Defence College, Arnprior. The material 
that they presented was practical and inter- 
esting as well as instructive. Miss Evelyn 
Pepper, Nursing Consultant of the Civil 
Defence Health Services, Department of 
National Health and Welfare, attended the 
institute and contributed vitally to the worth 
of the program. The success of this institute 
has provided a real incentive for further 
gatherings along similar lines. 



■■I 
■■I 




186 



Civil Defence School in Saskatchezvan 

THE CANADIAN NURSE 



OIIIG {DUCfl 



Nurses as Teachers of Science 



Alma E. Reid, B.A. 

The Story of How One Canadian University School of 
Nursing Commenced Something New and Different in 
Nursing Education 



A SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENT in pro- 
fessional education of the past 
thirty-five years has been the place 
that nursing has found, or probably 
more accurately, is finding as one of 
the professional disciplines in Canadian 
universities. The early beginnings and 
subsequent course of this development 
in each of the universities across Can- 
ada would make an interesting study. 
For the most part it has varied ac- 
cording to the particular demands of 
nurses and nursing in the locality, the 
resources of the university f which 
means financial as well as other re- 
sources) and most of all, according 
to the philosophy of education and 
predilections of those who pioneered in 
and promoted the development. A 
study of this development in all its 
variations, while revealing much in- 
dividuality and dissimilarity in the 
many programs, would likely show 
common characteristics and grounds 
from which might be deduced guiding 
principles for nursing education in 
universities. Here is the story of how 
one program, specially designed for 
professional preparation in nursing, 
was conceived and planned in one 
Canadian university. 

It was from a conviction that the 
university school of nursing has a real 
responsibility to serve the demands 
and needs of nursing that the Mc- 

Miss Reid is the director of the School 
of Nursing of McMaster University, 
Hamilton. Ont. 



Master University School of Nursing 
decided to enter the field of post-basic 
nursing education. Since 1942 Mc- 
Master has conducted a program in 
basic nursing education, a prograin 
which, having emerged from the in- 
evitable vicissitudes of all early devel- 
opments, has now become well-estab- 
lished as a four-year degree course. 
Hence, the time seemed propitious to 
extend the offerings of the university 
to graduate nurses. Innumerable re- 
quests from graduate nurses concern- 
ing the posibility of study at McMaster 
made us increasingly aware of the uni- 
versity's responsibility to aid in fur- 
thering the betterment of nursing 
education in some way other than by 
a degree course in basic nursing. The 
interest of the W. K. Kellogg Founda- 
tion in giving financial assistance for 
the initial period of an approved pro- 
ject served also to make us think more 
seriously on the question. 

In considering the type of contribu- 
tion which the University might make 
to nursing, several questions came to 
mind, questions which needed to be 
answered before conclusions necessary 
for the formulation of specific plans 
could be made : 

( 1 ) In Canada today, what particular 
field or fields of nursing education are 
being neglected, or, are at least poorly 
provided for either through university 
programs or other means? From the 
outset it was agreed that if our objective 
truly was to assist post-basic nursing 
education, then we should not duplicate 



MARCH. 1956 • VoL 52. No. 3 



187 



courses which neighboring universities 
are already oflfering, since at the present 
time these courses are not over-enrolled. 
At the same time, it was essential to 
ascertain in some way that there would 
be sufficient numbers of graduate nurses 
in Canada interested in the type of prep- 
aration offered, in order to warrant our 
university setting up such a course. The 
blessing and support of the organized 
profession for whatever was undertaken 
must also be assured. 

(2) Has McMaster University ade- 
quate and satisfactory facilities, includ- 
ing personnel, to undertake this work 
and has the project full understanding 
and acceptance in the various adminis- 
trative and academic bodies of the uni- 
versity, were vital questions. 
For obvious practical reasons it was 
necessary to settle upon some field of 
nursing education before commencing 
any inquiry which would enable us to 
explore the aforementioned questions 
satisfactorily. Preparation for the 
teaching of basic sciences in nursing 
was the field upon which we chose to 
centre our attention. Our reasons for 
making this choice can be attributed 
partly to our knowledge of the existing 
weaknesses in science instruction in 
schools of nursing which we believed 
was due, in soine measure, to the in- 
adequacies of those giving the instruc- 
tion, partly to our awareness of the 
tendency for Canadian nurses interes- 
ted in this field to enrol in courses 
in the universities of the United States 
where special science preparation in 
nursing could be secured, and partly 
to our own experience in and facilities 
for teaching basic sciences in nursing 
at McMaster. 

Along with our exploratory study 
went course planning, for in the pro- 
cess of soliciting opinions and ideas 
on the present situation and need in 
science teaching, it was natural that we 
could also secure some help towards 
formulating a course of study. Both 
processes involved much time, to say 
nothing of efifort. The whole story 
might make rather tedious reading, if 
related in all its ramifications. For us 
it was fascinating and interesting, even 
though long drawn out and discourag- 
ing at times. 

Suffice to say, the preliminary in- 
vestigations and plans were carried out 
in a variety of ways: discussing the 



matter with leaders in nursing educa- 
tion in Ontario and with persons who 
are recognized authorities in this field 
in selected centres of the United 
States ; soliciting opinion and data by 
means of questionnaires sent to 60 hos- 
pital schools of nursing in Ontario, 
35 representative hospital schools 
throughout the other provinces of Can- 
ada, and 12 schools or departments of 
nursing in Canadian universities ; 
sponsoring a workshop for graduate 
nurses on the topic "helping students 
use science in nursing" ; conferring 
with the members of the executive of 
the Registered Nurses' Association of 
Ontario (two of whom were also mem- 
bers of the executive of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association), representatives 
from the Nursing Branch of the On- 
tario Department of Health, and with 
members of the administrative and 
academic councils of the university. 

While complete unanimity of opin- 
ion on all points was not expected 
from the many individuals and organ- 
izations consulted, it was helpful and 
interesting that there was sufficient 
majority agreement on certain funda- 
mental points to enable us to proceed 
with plans in a spirit of good confi- 
dence. The pertinent findings, elicited 
through the measures undertaken, 
might be briefly summarized. 

There was fairly universal agree- 
ment that the teaching of basic sciences 
in schools of nursing presents prob- 
lems, and that there is dissatisfaction 
with the results of the present methods 
and means of teaching these sciences. 
A conglomerate group of people is to- 
day teaching these subjects: nurses 
holding degrees of one kind or another, 
nurses holding special certificates for 
teaching, nurses without special qual- 
ifications, doctors, high school teachers, 
pharmacists, dietitians. 

Most schools said that they were 
not in a position to purchase science 
teaching for their students from a uni- 
versity, college or high school, and 
many of those who are now purchasing 
some of this teaching, or have done 
so in the past, expressed dissatisfaction 
with it due to cost, loss of student 
time, inappropriate teaching, etc. 
Practically all schools, excepting those 
participating in the centralized pro- 
gram in Saskatchewan, employ one and 



188 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



sometimes two so-called science in- 
structors. 

There seemed to be a definite pref- 
erence for nurses as teachers of science 
as opposed to any other persons or 
arrangements, yet there was almost 
general agreement that a definite lack 
of well-prepared teachers of sciences in 
schools of nursing exists in Canada. 
The reasons for this were not sought, 
but we all know too well that they 
are not due entirely to a lack of avail- 
able preparatory training for those 
wishing to enter this field. Economic 
and other security factors of employ- 
ment, on top of a proper regard for 
the position of the science instructor, 
play an important part in this sombre 
situation. 

As a solution to some of the prob- 
lems of science teaching in Ontario, 
the idea of a central school for certain 
instruction, including science instruc- 
tion, was considered. It was thought 
that this might be practicable in some 
regions but could not be recommended 
as a general solution to the problem, 
partly because of the geographical 
isolation of a goodly number of schools 
and partly because of the large student 
enrolment in about ten hospital schools 
for which good facilities have been set 
up. 

The need for a specially designed 
course to prepare science instructors 
in Canada received strong support 
from a large majority of those consul- 
ted. One or two interesting questions 
were raised in opposition to the ques- 
tion of whether such a course were a 
prime need. What constitutes basic 
nursing science and what do students 
in nursing need in the way of science, 
were considered by one or two 
thoughtful persons to be more funda- 
mental and pressing questions. In 
Consideration of the-^e undoubtedly per- 
tinent and sound questions, we agreed 
that they were important queries and 
ones which we are still far from 
answering to the satisfaction of all. 
Yet could it not be through such a 
program as was proposed that such 
questions could be studied at least 
academically, and steps initiated for 
some exoerimental work in solving 
them ? Without being unduly pessim- 
istic, there seemed to be little hope in 
our present situation that such big 



questions could be even tackled, let 
alone solved. 

As has been mentioned, help was 
also gained with respect to planning 
the course and its content. Early in 
our considerations, we saw the wisdom 
of planning a degree program, rather 
than one leading to a certificate. To 
establish a certificate program seemed 
to be, at best, only meeting the present 
emergency, and not encouraging or 
providing for an acceptable preparation 
for science teaching. The suggestion 
that the certificate might be the first 
step to a degree had merit, but the 
idea was abandoned as the difficulty 
of arranging a desirable sequence of 
studies made it impracticable, and 
pedagogically speaking unsound. 

Whether the biological sciences 
should be studied as an integrated 
whole, rather than separately, was an- 
other interesting question. Here our 
decision was to study each science in- 
dividually, for it was our belief that the 
person preparing to teach sciences 
should, first and foremost, possess a 
sound knowledge of the individual 
sciences, since, from this vantage, in- 
tegration would be definitely safer and 
easier. Provision could be made for 
some assistance in the principles of in- 
tegration in seminar discussions. 

Probably the longest delayed delib- 
erations occurred at the University, 
where the project received sympathetic 
and keen interest but very careful 
scrutiny. Universities tread cautiously 
on new ground these days ! Ours ex- 
plored it for about two years. Some 
of the delay, however, could be ex- 
plained by the longseeming vacuvim 
which occurs at a university between 
spring convocation and registration in 
the fall. This project came to the 
"powers that-be" just at the com- 
mencement of that period. Before pre- 
senting the plans to the Board and 
Senate of the University, the cur- 
riculum of the course had been framed. 
The final outcome of the Senate's con- 
sideration of the project was the ap- 
pointment of a special committee to 
study the matter in detail and to make 
recommendations. This committee had 
as its chairman a professor of physics. 
Three other Senate members and the 
Director of the School of Nursing 
made up the committee. It worked 
hard through many long, interesting, 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



189 



hut difficult meetings. Differences of 
opinion and outlook had to he recon- 
ciled and compromises reached. Fre- 
quently, expert help from other faculty 
mcmhers was sought. The committee 
concerned itself chiefly with cur- 
riculum content, and at the outset 
agreed upon certain criteria as guide- 
posts in the study : 

That the program sliould be at least 
the academic equivalent of the "Pass" 
B.A. degree ; 

that subject content should centre on 
fundamental learning rather than appli- 
cations ; 

that, as far as possible, the curriculum 
should be planned around existing 
courses in the university ; 

that non-science subjects and elcctives 
should form an important part of the 
curriculum ; 

that, for self-evident reasons, the 
course should embrace as short a period 
as possible. 

The curriculum recommended by the 
committee of the Senate was eventu- 
ally presented to the curriculum policy 
committee of the University and ap- 
proved. From here it came under fire 
at a full meeting of the faculty, where, 
after an interesting and memorable 
discussion, lasting about one hour, it 
was accepted with a few minor adjust- 
Miients. Subsequently, the Board and 
Senate gave the course their endorsa- 
tion, and we were away, at least, that 
is, so far as the University was con- 
cerned ! The W. K. Kellogg Founda- 
tion, having waited patiently and in- 
terestedly throughout our investiga- 
tions and deliberations, confirmed its 
willingness to accept the proposed pro- 
ject for their support over a maximum 
period of five years. The scramble 
which ensued in publicizing the course 
among interested nurses and in pre- 
paring for the commencement of the 
course, speaking mildly, resembled 
wedding haste ! This phase of the de- 
velopment would be shares! gladly with 
any interested persons, but does not 
seem to warrant telling here. 

To conclude this story without tel- 
ling you a bit about the course would 
be something like telling you how to 
make a cake, but saying nothing about 
what is in it or how it looks or tastes. 
Since we are rather proud or our 
"cake," and think it should "taste" 



good to nurses, we want the nurses 
across Canada to know something 
about it. 

Entrants to the course must have 
complete senior matriculation standing 
including mathematics, physics and 
chemistry. This is essential because 
the studies of the course begin from 
this background. The course, as out- 
lined, extends over a period of two 
academic years with additional require- 
ments which may be taken in the 
intervening and following summer 
periods. If circumstances make it im- 
possible for students to continue for 
two consecutive years, it is possible, 
if a degree is to be granted, to take 
the course over a longer period, pro- 
vided the requirements are met within 
five years of the date of enrolment. 
Much of the liberal arts and other 
requirements of the course may be 
obtained in another approved univer- 
sity, and through transfer of official 
credits would be accepted by McMas- 
ter. Conceivably some might obtain 
these credits while in employment by 
enrolling in extension studies ofifered 
by a university. The provision of some 
flexibility in the course seemed desir- 
able, especially as graduate nurses 
have already devoted three years to 
their professional preparation and are 
often confronted with problems of 
finance and personal responsibility. 

The studies of the course include 
a combination of social, biological and 
physical sciences, humanities, nursing 
education, and theory and practice 
pertaining to the teaching of sciences 
in schools of nursing. The curriculum 
totals 107 units of credit as compared 
to the "Pass" B.A. degree requirement 
of 102 units. It is of interest to note 
the relative proportions of the main 
branches of study : 

Physical and biological sciences oc- 
cupy 44 per cent of the total unit value 
of the course ; liberal arts, including 
social sciences, 30 per cent, and profes- 
sional studies the remaining 26 per cent. 
Ten units of credit are allowed for the 
basic course in nursing and make up a 
part of the 26 per cent of the curriculum 
devoted to professional studies. While 
the program is designed speciallj' to 
prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing, it also 
provides a good background of prepara- 



190 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



tion tor teaching in any field of nursing. 

General scientific principles and teaching 

methods are incorporated in the course. 

One ititeresting and rather amusing 
sidelight occurred when the question 
of the degree to be conferred was be- 
ing discussed in one of the academic 
councils of the University. The recom- 
mendation that came to this council 
was that the degree would be Bachelor 
of Education in Nursing (B. Ed.N.) 
and that the academic hood would be 
of certain colors and would be unlined, 
on the grounds that this was a second- 
ary degree. Immediately the chairman 
of the special Senate committee rose 
to his feet and protested. In no un- 
certain terms, he gave facts which 
showed that the course merited no 
second-rate degree. He was ably sup- 
ported by other members of the coin- 
mittee, and. as a result, the lining will 



be included in the hood ! 

This is the story, so far, of our 
venture into the field of post-basic 
nursing education, a venture that has 
been born of inuch cooperative plan- 
ning and for which we are indebted 
to many people. We trust that in time 
it will prove, as other post-basic nurs- 
ing courses in universities have already 
proven, of sound worth to professional 
nursing. We trust also that it strikes 
at the roots of some of the real prob- 
lems in science teaching in schools of 
nursing. We have striven, in planning 
for it, to take cognizance of some of 
the fundamental demands of Canadian 
nursing both from the standpoint of 
general education and professional 
preparation. In other words, this 
course has been conceived from the 
needs and for the good of Canadian 
nurses. 



An Orderly Training Program 



Mary L. Richmond, B.N. 



IN VIEW OF SOME PUBLISHED differ- 
ences of opinion about the value of 
an orderly training program, and to 
help dispel what appears to be a nega- 
tive or pessiinistic attitude toward such 
a program, we would like to report 
what we feel was a very worthwhile 
undertaking in this field. 

There is, basically, only one reason 
for establishing any training program 
within the hospital — better patient 
care. The other reasons — better util- 
ization of personnel, clearer definition 
of duties, greater job satisfaction, in- 
creased loyalty, more tolerant interper- 
sonal relations — all may be real and 
significant outcomes, but constitute 
justification of the time, efl^ort and ex- 
pense, only in so far as they contribute 
to better care of the patient. 

That an orderly training program 
was needed in our hospital was in- 
dicated by: high rate of turnover of 
orderly staff ; general low morale 
among the group ; a lack of integration 



Miss Richmond, who is educational 
director at Royal Jubilee Hospital, Vic- 
toria, is currently taking some further 
postgraduate study. 



with the total nursing plan ; a lack 
of uniformity of opinion among order- 
lies and nurses as to their rightful 
duties ; and a rather general feeling 
among the orderlies that they were' 
being "put-upon," and ainong the 
nurses that the orderlies did not al- 
ways carry a fair share of the nursing 
load. 

While these had constituted a need 
for action for some time, the immediate 
impetus to set up a training program 
came from an administrative interne, 
who, throughout the program, assisted 
with the planning and correlating. It 
was felt that any program of training 
in patient care should be intimately 
linked with the school of nursing, so 
the educational director and the nurs- 
ing arts instructor were brought into 
the plan at its beginning. These, with 
the administrative interne, the charge 
orderly, and selected head nurses, con- 
stituted the planning committee. 

Since before a training program is 
established one should "set objectives," 
initial discussions were held with the 
head nurses as to what the orderlies 
should be expected to do. These dis- 
cussions revealed very widely diver- 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



191 




11 



IIIEiniiilMiS^^^ 
of an aide on , 

Such discussion revealed our great 
need for a job description — at least 
an informal, if not a highly organized 
one. 

After reasonable agreement on such 
points, an outline was prepared of the 
procedures that orderlies might be 
taught. These formed a core around 
which a series of classes in ethics, 
basic sciences, and nursing arts were 
planned. Throughout, emphasis was 
placed on the orderlj^'s role as an es- 
sential part of the nursing team. As 
far as possible, the nurses' "nursing 
procedures" were taught, the same 
mimeographed outlines being used as 
for student nurses. 

The classes in ethics were given 
by the medical administrator and the 
administrative assistant; those in basic 
sciences by doctors and the instructors 
from the school of nursing, and those 
in nursing arts by the senior nursing 
arts instructor. Provision was made 
for supervised practice, and for both 
practical and written examinations. 




certificates were presented al a lunch- 
eon attended by the orderlies, the 
director of nurses, the hospital ad- 
ministrator and his assistants. 

The program has now been pre- 
sented twice. In the first series, twelve 
men completed the course, in the 
second, four men. It is planned to 
repeat the course as necessitated by 
changes in the orderly staff. 

We believe the orderly program has 
been worthwhile. The initial planning 
revealed the great need to interpret 
the role of all auxiliary personnel, not 
only to the individual himself, but to 
the head nurses and other members 
of the nursing staff. For the orderlies, 
the course seems to have resulted in : 
(a) better acceptance of supervision 
from nursing; (b) wider participation 
in patient care; (c) more careful tech- 
nique; (d) improved nurse-orderly 
relationships, and (e) less turnover of 
staflF. 

We like our orderly training pro- 
gram. We hope to reconsider, revise, 
and re-present it. 



Intolerant Mothers 

A new theory of the basic cause of ec- 
lampsia has been proposed. According to the 
new concept, fetal hormones can and do 
pass through the placenta in increasing 
amounts during pregnancy. These hormones, 
particularly the fetal insulin and sex hor- 
mones, are not always welcomed by the 
mother. Her tolerance varies with the car- 
bohydrate content of her diet. When the 
mother's tolerance reaches its limit a reaction 
occurs which shuts off the entry of the 
hormones by damaging the syncytium, the 
outermost layer of the placenta. 

The damage to the syncytium impedes 
nutrition of the fetus and often kills it 
(fetal mortality in eclampsia averages 35%). 
The damaged syncytium also produces poi- 
sons. If pumped back into the maternal 



circulation by the fetal heartbeat or uterine 
contractions, they cause a toxic condition 
and precipitate eclampsia in the mother. 
Eclampsia is the most frequent cause of 
maternal deaths in many parts of the world. 

— Lancet 

* * * 

Geriatric patients, underweight infants and 
children who suffer from poor appetites may 
be in need of more adequate supplies of 
lysine. Lysine is needed by the body for 
growth and tissue repair. Most infant foods, 
with the possible exception of meat products, 
fall short of the body requirements of this 
substance. The elderly person, too, may not 
be assimilating adequate amounts of lysine 
from his diet to supply body needs. 

— Lederle Laboratories 



192 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



UIIS 



SERVICf 



Meconium Ileus 



Doris Wright and Joyce Bullock 

TWIN boys were delivered at the 
Royal Victoria Montreal Maternity 
Hospital on August 31, 1955. The 
first-born, Alex, was the larger, weigh- 
ing approximately five pounds, while 
Bobby weighed just over three pounds. 
This was the fifth pregnancy for their 
mother and the birth was difficult for 
both babies. Alex's respirations were 
poor and he required resuscitation 
measures immediately following birth. 
Bobby was a breech presentation and 
he, too, showed respiratory distress 
and required oxygen upon delivery. 
Both babies remained in the case room 
for some time before they could be 
taken to the premature nursery and 
even then Alex's color was slightly 
cyanotic and he required frequent suc- 
tioning to remo\'e a collection of thick, 
green mucus. 

Bobby showed no apparent abnor- 
malities upon physical examination fol- 
lowing birth but approximately eight 
hours later his abdomen was distended 
and before his initial feeding at 4 :00 
p.m. of that day he had begun to vomit 
bile-colored liquid. Alex developed 
similar symptoms just a few hours 
later. Dark green fluid was aspirated 
from his stomach. He was unhappy, 
crying almost constantly and unable 
to retain his first feeding of glucose 
and saline although he was only given 
two ounces. Bobby did not retain his 
feeding either. 

The following day neither babe 
showed any improvement — Alex's 
distention had. indeed, become worse. 
Ordinarily a newborn babe passes a 
meconium stool within 24 hours. 



Miss Wright is the cHnical instructor 
and Miss Bullock, the head nurse, of 
the pediatric ward, Royal Victoria Hos- 
pital. Montreal. 

MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



Bobby passed a small amount of hard- 
ened meconiuin but Alex did not have 
any movement. A rectal examination 
was made on Alex and no evidence 
of meconium was found, suggesting a 
definite abnormality. As a result both 
babes had abdominal x-rays taken. 
The subsequent radiology report for 
Alex was as follows : 

The radiological characteristics of the 
intra-abdominal contents of this baby 
showed marked dilation of the proximal 
small bowel loops due presumably to a 
complete bowel obstruction somewhere 
in the proximal jejunum. The presence 
of calcium on the right side of the 
abdomen pretty well establishes this as 
an example of meconium peritonitis. 
Bobby's x-ray gave the appearance 
of an "acute small bowel obstruction," 
possibly somewhere in the jejunum. 
The appearance of the remainder of 
the abdominal contents was, as in 
Alex's case, suggestive of meconium 
ileus. Surgical intervention was clearly 
indicated and both boys were trans- 
ferred to the pediatric ward for pre- 
operative preparation. 

Everyone on the pediatric ward had 
been alerted and orientated regarding 
the coming of the twins and their sub- 
sequent care. The condition was un- 
usual, the babes in a critical state and 
intelligent nursing care was a major 
necessity. Alex and Bobby were placed 
on special frames to immobilize their 
arms and legs and provide good ab- 
dominal exposure. Venous "cut- 
downs" were performed on both babes 
and 5% glucose and water adminis- 
tered. Alex went to the operating room 
at 4 :00 p.m. on September 1 and 
Bobby followed at 6 :45 p.m. 

At operation Alex was found to 
have a large loop of greenish colored, 
completely necrotic, matted bowel. 



193 



There were numerous fleshy, vascular 
adhesions and a dilated proximal loop. 
The necrotic area was excised and the 
two lengths of small bowel were 
brought into position and sutured to 
the peritoneum. Catheters were placed 
in both loops and Alex returned to 
the ward in fairly good condition. 
Bobby was found to have jejunal 
atresia or narrowing with marked dis- 
tention of the proximal loop of small 
intestine and reduction in size of the 
distal loop. In his case a jejunostomy 
was performed and catheters inserted 
into the proximal and distal ends of 
the jejunum. Bobby withstood the 
operation well and returned to the 
ward in very good condition. 

Specimens of meconium were sent 
for analysis from both babes. Signif- 
icantly, the report indicated an absence 
of trypsin in both instances and Bobby 
also had a very low amylase content. 
The secretion of the mucous glands 
of the body is thick and viscid. Diges- 
tive enzymes are required to liquefy 
and break down the secretion ; other- 
wise a very thick meconium is pro- 
duced which the baby cannot expel. 
This condition is known as meconium 
ileus. 

Both babies had pancreatic juice 
and pepsin introduced into their prox- 
imal and distal catheters. Unfortunate- 
ly, it was suspected that Alex and 
Bobby were suffering from fibrocystic 
disease of the pancreas as well — a 
congenital condition producing char- 
acteristic changes in the pancreas and 
■lungs. 

Postoperatively the babes were 
placed in separate humidicribs regu- 
lated at a temperature of 90° and 
humidity 60-70%. In this way they 
did not require clothing and, therefore, 
could be observed much more readily 

— especially as to the rate and charac- 
ter of respiration and color. They were 
specialled constantly by the student 
nurses. Continual intravenous therapy 
was maintained in both small patients 

— approximately 300 cc. of 5% glu- 
cose and water, 25-50 cc. of normal 
saline and 50 cc. of blood (alternating 
with plasma q. 2 d.) Oral breast milk 
feedings supplied by the twins' mother 
and the hospital Breast Milk Bank 
were started. 

The nursing care was very exacting. 
The student specials had to observe 



their tiny charges carefully and fre- 
quently for abnormalities as to color 
or breathing. Frequent change of posi- 
tion was particularly important since 
fibrocystic disease is characterized by 
a tendency to develop pneumonia. 
Postoperative shock was another 
complication likely to develop and it 
was very important to detect the earli- 
est possible symptoms. Pancreatic 
juice and pepsin were instilled into 
the proximal and distal catheters 
q. 2 h. The catheters had to be ir- 
rigated q. 4 h. with normal saline. Skin 
care, particularly around the area of 
incision where intestinal contents could 
have caused excoriation, had to be 
conscientiously carried out. A thick 
layer of aluminum paste proved most 
helpful and at no time did infection 
of the area develop. 

The babes followed a demand feed- 
ing routine — they were fed whenever 
they cried. At first this was about 
every hour then the interval length- 
ened to every 2-3 hours. Because of 
their small size, one ounce premature 
feeding bottles with small soft nipples 
were used for the babies. The twins 
managed to retain 10-16 ounces a day. 
Once the incisions started to heal, 
the contents of the proximal loop were 
carefully collected, measured and in- 
stilled into the distal loop in both 
babies. This meant that they could now 
receive the full benefit of their feedings 
which, until then, had been largely 
draining from the proximal catheter. 
Accordingly it became \ery necessary 
that the nurses record accurately all 
rectal drainage. All intake — intra- 
venous and oral — was noted with 
equal care. The intravenous injections 
were checked q. 15 m. and recorded 
q. 1 h. as to amount absorbed, rate 
of flow. etc. 

Both Alex and Bobby showed en- 
couraging progress for a number of 
days postoperatively. Bobby passed a 
moderately large amount of thick black 
meconium on the fifth day following 
mineral oil 2 cc. given rectally and 
through the distal catheter. Thereafter 
fairlv normal meconium bowel move- 
ments w^ere established. He developed 
diarrhea on two occasions but it was 
well controlled each time. Alex showed 
much less response to the use of min- 
eral oil, tube irrigation and enemata. 
However, his abdomen did not become 



194 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



distended again and he was passing 
small pieces of meconium per rectum. 

On September 10, both Alex and 
Bobby developed rapid respirations. 
Alex was wheezing slightly and Bobby 
had diminished respirations over both 
bases. X-rays indicated bronchiolitis in 
the former, emphysema in the latter. 
Alex received streptomycin 25 mgm. 
t.i.d. and Chloromycetin 100 mgm. t.i.d. 
while Bobby continued to receive 
Chloromycetin 100 mgm. t.i.d. intra- 
muscularly (ordered prophylactically 
earlier) and was also given erythro- 
mycin 30 mgm. Both babes received 
an aerosol mixture of alevaire 1 cc, 
aminophylline ^ cc. and water 3j^ cc. 
instilled as a spray into their humid- 
icribs q. 6 h. This helped to liquefy 
the viscid, tenacious sputum with 
which they were troubled. 

On September 13. both boys under- 
went x-rays following barium. Alex 
later passed the barium in his stool 
and his condition was felt to be im- 
proving. Bobby's x-ray showed an 
essentially normal small bowel. On 
September 16 he had two normal yel- 
low curdy bowel movements per rec- 
tum and the next day went back to 
the operating room for suture of the 
intestine and closure of the abdomen. 
This was not too successful although 
the two parts of the bowel were 
brought up to the skin and partially 
sutured. 

Alex's condition unexpectedly de- 
teriorated on September 15. His res- 
pirations again became rapid and 
shallow and the right lung was covered 
with rales. Streptomycin therapy was 
instituted. Electrolyte studies, formerly 
thought to be normal, now showed an 
imbalance. 

Normal Alex's report 

Chlorine 99-107 83.2 M/Eg. 

Sodium 138-148 101.8 M/Eg. 

At midnight of the same day his con- 
dition was critical. Calcium gluconate 
5 cc. was added to the intravenous 
fluid to try to correct the calcium 
levels. Digitoxin 3/10 cc. was given 
since it was thought that the babe was 
in cardiac failure. The following day 
his condition continued to deteriorate 
slowly in spite of the use of digitoxin 
3/10 cc. at 7:00 a.m., coramine V2 cc. 



at 10:35 a.m., aminophylline 5 cc. at 
3:00 p.m. and a repeat injection of 
coramine V2 cc. at 5 :00 p.m. Alex died 
at midnight on September 16. 

On September 17, Bobby developed 
a stomatitis which required the dis- 
continuance of erythromycin. Strepto- 
mycin 60 mgm. and procaine penicillin 
150,000 units b.i.d. were started. The 
babe's mouth was treated locally with 
gentian violet 1 % after feedings. Elec- 
trolyte studies were done occasionally 
and always showed a slightly de- 
creased chloride, sodium, potassium 
and CO2 volume. The little boy's con- 
dition was good. He was active, feed- 
ing well and having yellow and brown 
curdy stools. On September 25, at 
midnight, he suddenly became cyanotic 
with distressed respirations. His ex- 
tremities were cold and he appeared 
to be in shock. On examination the 
doctor found Bobby's lungs clear and 
his airway patent. Artificial respiration 
and oxygen failed to help. Adrenal 
cortical extract 5 cc. administered in- 
travenously at 1:15 a.m. produced no 
improvement nor did intracardiac 
adrenalin and he died shortly after. 

The loss of the two babes was a 
source of sorrow to all who had been 
concerned with their care. /Autopsy 
reports revealed that the prognosis for 
each little boy was very poor in spite 
of all medical or nursing care. These 
reports were as follows : 

Alex 

a) Fibrocystic disease of the pancreas 

b) Jejunal stricture 

c) Obstruction of small bowel 

d) Dilatation and hypertrophy of small 
bowel 

e) Ascites 

f) Adhesions of mesentery 

g) Acute bronchopneumonia 

h) Hyperanemia and edema of hings 
Bobby 

a) Fibrocystic disease of the pancreas 

b) Stenosis of ileum 

c) Fibrous adhesions of peritonea! 
cavity 

d) Dilatation of jejunum 

e) Abscess of abdominal wall adjacent 
to ileostomy 

f) Atelectasis of lungs 

g) Hemopericardium (4 cc.) 



Last year the Canadian Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service provided free clinical 
Rh tests for 113,110 Canadian women. 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



195 



La Societe des Infirmieres Visiteuses 



Renek Rivard 



ORGAN IS ME d'ordre prive, la Socicte 
des Infirmieres Visiteuses main- 
tient un service d'infirmieres licenciees, 
destine a : 

Visiter les nialades a domicile. 

Prodigvier a ces patients les soins 
necessaires en rapport avec leur etat et 
la prescription du medecin traitant. 

Faire admettre le malade par la fa- 
mille, s'il se trouve des rebelles aux 
situations depassant I'ordinaire de la 
routine du foyer. 

Faire I'education du malade, qu'il 
n'accapare personne inutilement. 

Faire I'education des personnes devant 
s'occuper du malade en I'absence de 
I'infirmiere. 

Decouvrir les problemes sociaux s'il 
a lieu, et dinger le cas aux organisations 
specialisees pour le reglement des diffe- 
rents problemes. 

Faire I'enseignement de I'hygiene dans 
les foyers, au point de vue mental, phy- 
sique, alimentaire, en tenant compte du 
budget a disposer et du nombre de per- 
sonnes a nourrir. 

Faire le depistage de certains malades 
laisses trop souvent a eux-memes, et 
pouvant etre traites. 

Puis, anime d'un grand esprit de foi 
et de charite, semer I'amour, le sourire, 
le reconfort, la misericorde, la confiance 
ou la resignation dans ces foyers fre- 
quemment denues de toute vie interieure, 
de principe, de morale. 

Formation de Personnel 

L'entrevue: Elle se fait sur rendez- 
vous, en deux temps. 

a) Par la directrice : une formule sim- 
ple d'application est immediatement 
remplie par I'infirmiere. 

b) L'infirmiere est presentee aux res- 
ponsables des differents departments 
du Service. 

Le triage : Au moment de retenir les 
services d'une nouvelle infirmiere, une 
commission (formee des responsables 
des departments) etudie I'application 
de chaque sujet et fait un choix A, B, 



Mile Rivard est la directrice de cette 
Societe a Montreal. 



C, en tenant compte aussi d'une prio- 
rite, suivant la date d'application. 

L'cmhauchage : L'infirmiere choisie 
et qui accepte les conditions de travail, 
doit fournir les certificats d'usage, les- 
quels sont ensuite verifies. Notons ici, 
les conditions de travail de l'infirmiere : 
Heures de travail : 8^^ hres a.m. a 5 
hres p.m. Une heure et demie est allouee 
pour le diner. 

L'infirmiere entre au local chaque 
soir a 4^ hres, pour completer les rap- 
ports de sa journee. 

La semaine de cinq jours de travail. 
Des barcmes de vacances et jours de 
maladie augmentant avec les annees de 
service. 

Echelle de salaire modifiee avec les 
exigences du coiit de la vie. Augmen- 
tation de salaire annuelle a date fixe. 
Qualifications requises: Infinniere 
licenciee — au moins un an de pratique 
de sa profession. Beaucoup d'initiative, 
bon jugement, sante parfaite, franchise 
absolue, douee d'un grand esprit de 
foi et de charite. 

L'entrainement: Etude de la poli- 
tique de I'organisation ; de la technique 
adaptee dans le service ; des services 
sociaux existants dans la ville; des 
dossiers et fiches en usage dans le 
service. Puis, l'entrainement propre- 
ment dit chez les malades. 

La specialisation: Exigee pour les 
infirmieres destinees a remplir des 
postes de commande. 

L'evaluation du travail: Se fait 
apres les trois premiers inois ; puis, 
deux fois par annee. Ainsi, l'infir- 
miere desireuse d'arriver a mieux, 
d'ameliorer sa personnalite, a la satis- 
faction, tout au moins, de sentir que 
les autorites de I'organisation pour 
laquelle elle donne la majeure partie 
de ses journees, prend connaissance 
de ses eflforts et de ses succes dans 
I'accomplissement de sa tache. 

En terminant, je me permettrai 
d'aj outer que le choix des nouvelles 
infirmieres devient un peu plus diffi- 
cile. Les "bons sujets" se font plus 
rares. 

Cette carriere, d'une feminite si in- 
tense, dont la femme a voulu faire 



196 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



sienne, "puisqu'elle est fait pour le 
devouement sensible" de dire le R. 
Pere Legault, C.S.C., ne s'exemptera 
done pas du tourbillon vaporeux de 
la vie actuelle? 

L'infirmiere ne doit pas s'y laisser 
prendre. L'orientation qu'elle a con- 
senti a donner a sa vie, en vue d'une 



meilleure administration, doit I'inciter 
a ameliorer constamment sa personna- 
lite, comprendre davantage, developper 
et rafifermir les principes de formation 
qu'on nous enseigne, mais que nous 
n'admettons reellement qu'au cours de 
nos annees de pratique. L'amour et 
I'effort en seront les grandes solutions. 



My Complaints 



Anne Dalton 



I HAVE TWO COMPLAINTS to make and 
not only are they of importance but 
they involve a great number of people. 
The first is the expression on people's 
faces! You cannot expect too much of 
relatives, you can only talk to them 
and hope they will understand. But 
you should not have to tell doctors 
and nurses about their morbid leers. 
In the past few weeks, critically ill 
patients have been in my care and 
what exasperated me beyond words 
was the endless stream of nurses and 
orderlies slipping into the room to see 
the tragedy. It made me think of 
crowds gathering to see an accident on 
a street corner. No, they did not come 
to learn ; they came to look ! That was 
bad enough, but worse, not one of the 
onlookers ever smiled ! They would 
come into the room, look very startled, 
and then, that expression which tells 
the patient he is doomed would slowly 



Miss Dalton, who was in the 1954 
graduating class of the Royal Victoria 
Hospital, Montreal, is engaged in private 
nursing in Toronto. 



creep over their faces. Sometimes these 
insensitive people would shake their 
heads ! 

This leads to my second complaint. 
You would not believe this but I heard 
a staff doctor say in front of my pa- 
tient "He is going to die." Mind you, 
the patient was in oxygen but to me 
that made no difference ; he was con- 
scious and watching us. Another doc- 
tor said "There is nothing we can do." 
I actually heard a nurse, with a pained 
expression on her face, say "He is 
on his way out now." This sort of 
thing is shocking! stupid! and unfeel- 
ing! Even if a patient is only semi- 
conscious, nurses and doctors should 
be cheerful and, in front of the patient, 
say only what they themselves would 
like to hear if they were ill. 

I reinember as a student nurse going 
to the Montreal Neurological Institute 
and seeing a nurse smiling and chat- 
tering away to a patient who had been 
unconscious for three months. I never 
knew her, but she has my deepest 
respect and admiration. God bless her ! 



Les Infirmieres des Salles d'Operation 



LE 7 NovEMBRE 1955 a 7 :45 du soir avait 
lieu a I'Hotel-Dieu de Montreal, une 
assemblee ayant pour but d'aider les infir- 
mieres qui travaillent dans les salles d'opera- 
tion. Quatre-vingt-huit infirmieres assisterent 
a cette assemblee bilingue. 

Mile Flanagan et Mile Merleau, Presiden- 
te, Association de la Province de Quebec, 
ont souhaite succes et encouragerent le 



groupe. Mile Trottier, presidente de ce 
groupe a donne I'histoire de cette nouvelle 
organisation. 

Le but principal de cette reunion etait 
I'election des ofiicieres de ce groupe. Presi- 
dente, Soeur Louis d'Anjou, Hopital du 
Sacre-Coeur, Cartierville ; vice-presidente, 
Mile M. Warnock, Hopital Royal Victoria; 
secretaire, Mile C. Brault, Hopital Notre- 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



197 




operating Room Superi'isors 



( Jacqxics Doyon) 



Dame ; tresoriere, Soeur Michaud, Hopital 
Hotel-Dieu ; relations exterieures. Mile V. 
Crouse, The Montreal General Hospital ; 
conseillieres, Mile Ena O'Hare, St. Mary's 
Hospital, Soeur Therese, Hopital Hotel- 
Dieu, Mile Lefebvre, Hopital St-Luc. 

Beaucoup de questions concernant les 
problemes des salles d'operation ont ete 
soumises au comite executif et seront dis- 
cutees dans les prochaines assemblees. 



Ce groupe a ete organise avec le desir 
de maintenir la plus grande competence pos- 
sible dans ce champ du nursing. Ainsi, ce 
sera un moyen eflRcace de discuter les pro- 
blemes des salles d'operation et enseigner 
aux infirmieres qui se destinent a travailler 
dans ce champ les plus recentes decouvertes 
et developpments des salles d'operation. 

Vivian Crouse 



Operating Room Nurses 

A MEETING TO ORGANIZE the Operating room 
nurses was held at the Hotel Dieu Hos- 
pital, Montreal, in November. This was a 
bilingual meeting with 88 persons in attend- 
ance. 

The group was given a message of greet- 
ing and encouragement from Miss Merleau, 
President of the Association of Nurses for 
the Province of Quebec, and from Miss 
Flanagan. Miss Trottier, president of the 
group, gave a report on the history of this 
organization. 

The election of officers was the principal 
matter of business. They are : president. Sis- 
ter Louis d'Anjou, Hopital du Sacre Coeur, 
Cartierville ; vice president. Miss M. War- 
nock, Royal Victoria Hospital ; secretary. 
Miss C. Brault, Hopital Notre Dame ; 



treasurer. Sister Michaud. Hopital Hotel 
Dieu ; public relations, Miss V. Crouse, The 
Montreal General Hospital; counsellors. 
Miss Ena O'Hare, St. Mary's Hospital, 
Sister Therese, Hopital Hotel Dieu and 
Miss Lefebvre, St. Luc's Hospital. 

A number of questions, dealing with oper- 
ating room problems, were submitted to the 
executive committee. These will be discussed 
at future meetings. 

This group has been organized with the 
desire to maintain the highest level of pro- 
ficiency in this phase of nursing. It is a 
means for discussing operating room prob- 
lems. It brings before the operating room 
nurses the newest trends and developments 
in the operating room. 

Vivian Crouse 



Convention Tour — For those who are planning to lake the Hawaiian tour following 
the CNA biennial meeting in Winnipeg, a slight change in plans is announced. You will 
leave Vancouver on Tuesday July 8, at 2 p.m. and arrive back in Vancouver at 
7 a.m. on Saturday, July 14. 



198 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Nursing Profiles 



Florence Mary Roach, R.R.C., has been 
appointed dean of nursing education of the 
new department that has been established 
within the faculty of arts and science at 
Assumption College, Windsor, Ont. 

A graduate of St. Michael's Hospital, 
Toronto, Miss Roach secured her certificate 
in teaching and administration in schools 
of nursing from the University of Toronto. 
After further study at Seton Hall Univer- 
sity, South Orange, N.J., she was awarded 
a bachelor of science degree. Before joining 
the nursing service of the Royal Canadian 
Navy, Miss Roach had taught in Hamilton 
and at St. Boniface. Following her discharge 
from the services, where she had attained 
the rank of lieutenant-commander, she or- 
ganized and administered a new hospital 
at Oakville, Ont. She then returned to St. 
Michael's where she qualified as a registered 
records librarian. Prior to her appointment 
to Assumption College, Miss Roach was in 
charge of the medical records department 
of the Wellesley Division of the Toronto 
General Hospital. 




( I reelang, Toronto) 

Florence Makv Roach 

Dorothy Cox who, for the past eleven 
years, has been with the Department of 
Health of Prince Edward Island, has. joined 
the World Health Organization for service 
in India. Her new work will be in the 



school of nursing at the J. J. Hospital in 
Bombay where she will help to integrate 
public health nursing into the basic cur- 
riculum and will take some part in the 
planning of field experience. 

A Prince Edward Islander by birth, Miss 
Cox is a graduate of the Massachusetts 
General Hospital and of the course in public 
health nursing from the University of To- 
ronto. Later, she obtained her degree in 
nursing from the McGill School for Gradu- 
ate Nurses. She spent two years with the 
Nova Scotia Department of Health ; then 
during World War II returned to P.E.I, 
where she organized the provincial venereal 
disease control program. 

Miss Cox is a past-president of the Asso- 
ciation of Nurses of Prince Edward Island. 




Dorothy Cox 

J. Frances Ferguson, who has served 
as the registrar-consultant and general 
supervisor of the School for Nursing Aides 
in Calgary since its inception in 1946, was 
chosen, under the Colombo plan, to set up 
a similar school in Ceylon. 

A graduate of Royal Alexandra Hospital, 
Edmonton, Miss Ferguson took postgraduate 
work in pediatric nursing at Montreal Chil- 
dren's Hospital. She remained on the staff 
there until her enlistment with the Royal 
Canadian Army Medical Corps in 1942. She 
served in England, France, Belgium and 
Holland. She joined the Canadian Voca- 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



199 




Frances Ferguson 

tional Training staff soon after her return 
from overseas. 

Miss Ferguson gave splendid leadership 
to the Alberta Association of Registered 
Nurses during her two years as president. 
She has been very active, both nationally 
and provincially, in committee u^ork chairing 
the Arrangements Committee for the 1954 
CNA convention. 

Christina Murray Macleod was honored 
recently by the Brandon Association of 
Graduate Nurses when a gift of money was 
presented to her as an expression of affec- 
tion. In making the presentation the pres- 
ident of the local association said : 

"This is evidence of our love and esteem 
for you, and to reassure you that we are 
aware that we have all benefitted greatly 
from having had the privilege of your direc- 
tion. You have always held very high stand- 




Christina M. Macleod 

ards for the nursing profession before us. 
Ever since we learned of your accident we 
have wished to show you our love." 

Miss Macleod, who retired from the post 
of director of nursing at the Brandon Gen- 
eral Hospital in 1945, sustained serious 
injuries when she was knocked down by a 
car in Winnipeg in May, 1955. After a 
lengthy period of hospitalization she has 
made a remarkable recovery to the joy of 
her large circle of friends. Miss Macleod 
has always taken a very active interest in 
nursing affairs since she graduated from 
B.G.H. in 1908. We look forward to seeing 
her at the CN.A. convention in Winnipeg in 
June. 



3n iWemoriam 



Esthaol T. Bagshaw, who graduated 
from The Montreal General Hospital in 
1913, died at Hawkestone, Ont., on Novem- 
ber 24, 1955. Miss Bagshaw served overseas 
during World War I with No. 8 Canadian 
General Hospital. Following the war she 
was at the Special Hospital at Buxton for 
a year before returning to Canada. She 
served on the staff at Westminster Hospital, 
London, Ont., retiring in 1946. 



24, 1955, at the age of 55. A graduate in 
public health nursing from the University 
of Western Ontario, Miss Burns was with 
the Lambton County Health Unit for 20 
years. 

* * * 

May Elizabeth Fretz, who graduated 
from the Public General Hospital, Chatham, 
Ont., in 1927, died at Chatham on November 
27. 1955. 



Margaret Mary Bums, who graduated 
from St. Joseph's Hospital, London, Ont., 
in 1922, died at Sarnia, Ont., on December 



Christine (Musselman) Harrison, who 

graduated from the Vancouver General 
Hospital in 1916, died at Edmonton on 



200 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



December 9. 1955. Prior to her marriage 
in 1919, Mrs. Harrison was matron of 
Archer Memorial Hospital, Lamont, Alta. 

* * * 

Josephine F. Kilburn, who graduated 
from the Toronto General Hospital in 1916, 
died at Vancouver on December 23, 1955. 
She was 65. After graduation. Miss Kilburn 
joined the Ontario Department of Public 
Health for a few years, then went to Johns 
Hopkins University to study mental health 
work. Returning to Toronto, she headed 
Ontario's first mental health organization. 
In 1930 she moved to Vancouver and assis- 
ted in setting up the first child guidance 
centre there. She was head of the social 
work department at the Provincial Mental 
Hospital, Essondale, until her retirement 

five years ago. 

* * * 

Antoinette Morin died at Montreal on 
November 27, 1955. For many years Miss 
Morin was the district nurse in the Vassan 
area in the Province of Quebec. 

Elva (MacKenzie) Ranlcine, who grad- 
uated from Victoria Public Hospital, Fred- 
ericton, N.B. in 1939, died on November 18, 
1955. at Fredericton, following a prolonged 

illness. She was 39 years of age. 

* * * 

Elizabeth Mary Redmond, a graduate 
of the General Hospital, St. John's, Nfld., 
died on November 6, 1955. Miss Redmond 
was night supervisor at the General for 
many years. 

Flora Mary (Phillips) Rice, a graduate 



of the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 
died at North Bay, Ont., on December 4, 
1955. For 25 years Mrs. Rice served as as- 
sistant superintendent at Muskoka Hospital, 

Gravenhurst, Ont. 

* * * 

Ethel G. Saunders, who graduated from 
St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, in 1906, 
died at Victoria on December 7, 1955. Miss 
Saunders went overseas with the C.A.M.C. 
during World War I, serving at Gallipoli 
and Salonika and later in France and Eng- 
land. She was appointed matron of the 
military hospital at Work Point barracks, 
Victoria, following her return to Canada, 
transferring later to the Winnipeg military 
establishment. 

* * * 

Rita Madeline (Leach) Scott, who 

graduated from the General Hospital, 
Regina, Sask., in 1931, died at Edmundston, 
N.B.. on November 19, 1955, after a long 
illness. Mrs. Scott served in various centres 
in Canada with the R.C.A.F. during World 
War n. 

* * * 

Margaret Sivell died at Moose Jaw on 
November 26, 1955 at the age of 81. For 
nine years Miss Sivell practised nursing 
in and around Moose Jaw. In 1920 she 
joined the Travellers' Aid in Regina. Poor 
health forced her retirement from that work 
in 1947. 

Clara (White) Willis, who served as an 
army nurse during World War I. died at 
Vernon, B.C., on December 12, 1955, at the 
age of 83. 



The Mind changes the Stance 



It has been said that practically every- 
one working in physical therapy is thor- 
oughly dissatisfied with the present results 
in posture training. The reason is partly 
because the wrong things are taught and 
partly because the whole concept of posture 
training is wrong. 

The basic point which is being overlooked 
in most remedial work is that it is behavior 
not structure which determines the mechan- 
ics of the body. A person's muscular tensions 
are a fundamental part of his defence against 
the world. Under tension, a person will 
rapidly revert to his old tension state and 
to the old posture associated with it. For 
example, the posture of submission to au- 
thority is slight cringing. Only through re- 



education of these behavioral attitudes can 
mechanical faults be altered. 

— Lancet 

* * * 

.\ flange-type rubber stopper for bottles 
that permits autoclaving of fluids is a device 
created recently. The new stopper gives 
hospitals, that manufacture their own intra- 
venous solutions, a simpler and more con- 
venient bottle closure. Since the stopper can 
be re-used, the economy factor is another 
of its important features. Recent tests show 
no change in performance after frequent 
resterilization and the researchers feel that 
it can be re-used many times over. 

— Femval Laboratories Inc. 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



201 




\^vM\a£^tk nati^ 



prepared by your national office Canadian Nurses' Association, Ottawa 



To and Fro 

APPLICATIONS FOR TEMPORARY Sala- 
ried employment from 85 foreign 
nurses were received in National Offi- 
ce during 1955, as part of the Interna- 
tional Council of Nurses' Exchange 
Program. Twenty Canadian nurses 
took advantage of this program in 
securing additional nursing experience 
abroad. 

In addition, the Department of Im- 
migration reports that for the first nine 
months of 1955, 906 nurses emigrated 
to Canada. Of these 625 were British, 
58 German, 54 Dutch, and 51 from 
the United States. 

To balance this, 849 professional 
nurses and 31 student nurses left Can- 
ada for the United States during the 
U.S. fiscal year ending June, 1954. 
Since 1946 an average of 72)7 Canadian 
nurses have emigrated to the U.S. 
yearly. 

Nurses form the largest professional 
group emigrating to the U.S. from 
Canada w^hile engineers are the second 
largest group. 

A Visitor to National Office 

One of the 85 nurses securing tem- 
porary employment in Canada, under 
the I.C.N. Exchange Program, visited 
National Office recently. She is Miss 
Lurline Walters. 

A Jamaican nurse, Miss Walters 
was granted leave of absence to come 
to Canada to gain experience in the 
nursing care of patients with polio- 
myelitis. Her first six months were 
spent in the University of Alberta 
Hospital, Edmonton, where she ro- 
tated through various units providing 
experience most valuable to her. This 
was followed by observation and study 
in Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal. 

Upon her return to Jamaica, Miss 



Walters will be employed at the 
Kingston General Hospital. 

We should like to record here our 
appreciation to the provincial nurses' 
associations and to staffs of health 
agencies for their assistance in plan- 
ning interesting and helpful experi- 
ences for our visitors from abroad. 

Project in International Nursing 

December marked the launching of a 
new project in international nursing, 
when a nurse from British Guiana 
began a year's intensive experience 
in Canadian hospitals. 

As noted in our November column. 
Miss Joyce Owen, a ward sister at the 
Public Hospital, Georgestown, British 
Guiana, was awarded the Kitchener- 
Waterloo Rotary Scholarship. Upon 
her arrival at Malton Airport she was 
met by Miss Frances McQuarrie, 
C.N. A. Nursing Education secretary, 
and Mr. C. A. Pollock, chairman of 
the International Service Committee 
of the Kitchener-Waterloo Rotary 
Club. Experience in the field of psychi- 
atric nursing will include periods of 
study in Kitchener, St. Thomas, To- 
ronto. Montreal and Ottawa. 

Yearbook of Modern Nursing 

The first annual Yearbook of Mod- 
ern Nursing is to be published by 
G. P. Putnam's Sons of New York 
this month. To quote from the purpose 
of the Yearbook, it will be designed : 

1. To provide the medium in which 
progressive thinking is pooled. 

2. To prepare annually, in book form, 
a resume of the advancement of 
nursing in all its aspects, especially 
as it pertains to improved practice. 
A broad range of topics is included 
in recognition of the newer patterns 
which are constantly emerging. 



202 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



a major stride 

in clinical 

enzymology 




TRYPSIN BY THE INTRAMUSCULAR ROUTE 

Parenzymol is a sesame oil suspension of the profeolyiic enzyme 

trypsin, 5 mg. per cc. 

Indicated in acute inflammatory conditions, particularly 

phlebitis {thrombophlebitis and phlebothromboas) 

ocular inflammation {iritis, iridocyclitis, and chorioretinitis) 

traumatic wounds 
leg ulcers {varicose and diabetic) 

FOR ACUTE INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS 




MONTIEAL 



CANADA 



Interest in Canadian nursing is 
such that National Office was asked to 
submit a summary of developments 
of nursing in Canada during 1955. 
Others also asked to contribute to this 
publication are WHO, Pan-American 
Sanitary Bureau and the ICN. 

Encyclopedia Canadiana 

A new edition of the Encyclopedia 
Canadiana is now being prepared. The 
present edition was compiled in the 
1930's. Once again the CNA has been 
asked to prepare an article on the 
Nursing Profession in Canada. This 
article, dealing with the early begin- 
nings of our profession and review- 
ing the developments and achievements 



over the years, has been submitted. 
When published, the new edition will 
contain much up-to-date information 
on Canadian nursing. 

Telling the R.N.A.O. Story 

April 12, 13, and 14 the Registered 
Nurses' Association of Ontario will 
hold its annual meeting at the Royal 
York Hotel, Toronto. A panel on 
Public Relations will be held with the 
CNA's public relations counsel, Mr. 
John Fry, participating. The panel 
"Telling Our Story" will discuss gen- 
eral principles of public relations with 
their application to various nursing 
fields outlined by the other partici- 
pants. 



^e Tfun^tH^ h Pt€UAen4^ ie frcu^ 



Ca et La! 

Des demandes d'emplois temporaires et re- 
muneres furent regues au Secretariat national 
en 1955, d'infirmieres beneficiant du pro- 
gramme d'echange du Conseil International 
des Infirmieres. Vingt infirmieres canadiennes 
participeront egalement a ce programme et 
iront en Europe afin d'etendre leur experience. 

Le Ministere de I'lmmigration rapporte 
qu'en 1955, au cours des neuf premiers mois 
de I'annee, 906 infimieres ont immigre au 
Canada : 625 venant de Grande- Bretagne, 58 
d'Allemagne, 54 de Hollande et 51 des Etats- 
Unis. Dans le meme temps, 849 infirmieres 
canadiennes et 31 etudiantes-infirmieres emi- 
grerent aux Etats-Unis. Depuis 1946, annuel- 
lement, 7^7 infirmieres quittent le Canada 
pour les Etats-Unis. 

Les infirmieres forment le groupe le plus 
important emigrant aux Etats-Unis ; elles sont 
suivies de pres par les ingenieurs. 

Une visiteuse au Secretariat National 

Une infirmiere, beneficiant du programme 
d'echange du Conseil International des Infir- 
mieres, visitait recemment notre Bureau na- 
tional ; il s'agit de Mile L. Walters de la 
Jamaique qui a obtenu un conge afin de venir 
au Canada acquerir quelqu'experience dans le 
soin des en f ants victimes de la polio. 

Mile Walters a passe les six premiers mois 
de son sejour au Canada dans les divers ser- 
vices de I'Hopital de I'Universite d'Alberta 
a Edmonton ofi elle acquis une experience 
precieuse. Dans la suite elle a fait de courts 



se jours d'etude et d'observation a Toronto, 
Ottawa et a Montreal ; puisse-t-elle faire 
beneficier son pays de I'experience acquise 
dans le notre. 

Projet en Nursing International 

Un nouveau projet a ete lance en decembre 
lorsqu'une infirmiere de la Guyane anglaise 
est arrivee au Canada afin d'y poursuivre des 
etudes intensives dans les hopitaux canadiens. 

Cette infirmiere, Mile Joyce Owen, une 
surveillante dans I'Hopital Public de George- 
town, en Guyane anglaise, s'est vu decerner 
une bourse d'etude par le Club Rotary des 
villes de Kitchener et de Waterloo, Ont. A son 
arrivee elle fut accueillie a I'aeroport par Mile 
Francis McQuarrie, secretaire du Comite na- 
tional de I'Education en Nursing ainsi que 
par M. C. A. Pollock, president du Comite 
International de Service du club deja men- 
tionne. Mile Owen se propose d'etudier la 
psychiatric a Kitchener, St-Thomas, Toronto, 
Montreal et Ottawa. 

Revue sur le Nursing tnoderne 

Un volume, revue de I'annee sur le nursing 
moderne (Yearbook of Modern Nursing) 
vient d'etre public par la maison G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons de New York. Le but que Ton 
se propose d'atteindre par cette publication est 
de: 

1. Favoriser la mise en commun des idees 
de progres et d'avancement. 

2. Presenter dans une revue annuelle les 
progres du nursing dans tous ses aspects et 
particulierement dans le but d'en ameliorer la 
pratique. Des sujets varies y sont traites pour 



204 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



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MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



205 



demontrer les innovations qui se presentent 
sans cesse dans le domaine du nursing. 

L'inleret envers le nursing au Canada est 
tel que Ton a demande au Secretariat National 
d'ecrire un article resumant les progres du 
Nursing au Canada en 1955. 

Encyclopedia Canadiana 

Une nouvelle edition de I'Enciclopedia Ca- 
nadiana est en voie de preparation. L'edition 
actuelle date de 1930. Une fois de plus, I'A.I.C. 
a ete priee de preparer un article sur la pro- 
fession d'infirmiere au Canada. Cet article, 
traitant des debuts de notre profession et re- 
latant les progres accomplis d'annee en annee, 



a ete soumis. Cette nouvelle edition contiendra 
done des renseignemcnts de toute derniere 
heurc sur le nursing au Canada. 

L'histoire de I'A.I.E.O. 

Au cours de la semaine du 12 avril prochain, 
I'Association des Infirmieres enregistrees de 
rOntario tiendra son assemblee annuelle a 
I'Hotel Royal York, a Toronto. Un colloque 
sur les relations exterieures aura lieu avec le 
concours de M. John Frj-, conseiller en rela- 
tions exterieures de I'A.I.C. et aura pour 
sujet : "Racontons notre histoire" ; on y dis- 
cutera les principes generaux des relations 
exterieures et leurs applications dans les dif- 
ferents champs d'activite de I'infirmiere. 



SelcctcoH 



Quelques Nouvelles Tendances dans le Nursing 
en Hygiene Publique. 



IL Y A PLusiEURs ANNEES, ou cousidcrait 
comme une perte de temps que de centrer 
nos efforts sur le controle des maladies 
chroniques. Maintenant, nous savons qu'il est 
possible de prevenir et de traiter nombre de 
ces conditions. 

En tant que collaboratrices importantes 
dans les programmes pour la prevention des 
maladies, les infirmieres hygienistes des 
services de sante, des industries et des ecoles 
ont contribue d'une maniere unique a presque 
chaque phase du travail de sante de la com- 
munaute. 

Durant les vingt dernieres annees, des 
changements dans le domaine de la medecine 
clinique et de la pratique du nursing se sont 
operes les uns a la suite des autres, avec 
une rapidite grandissante. Les sulfamides, 
les antibiotiques, la medication endocrinienne, 
"le syndrome du Stress," les composes 
comme I'A.C.T.H. et la cortisone, plusieurs 
tests biochimiques nouveaux pour le diag- 
nostic, le traitement et le controle des ma- 
ladies, tout cela etait inconnu il y a vingt 
ans. 

Pour celles d'entre nous, de I'hygiene 
publique, qui avons eu notre experience a 
I'hopital il y a plus de dix ans, les deve- 
loppements survenus dans le nursing et la 
formation en nursing peuvent nous sembler 
bien differents et mcme intrigants. Le nur- 



Prepare par L'Ecole des Infirmieres 
hygienistes de I'Universite de Montreal. 

Mattison, Berwyn F., American 
Journal of Nursing, aout, 1954, p. 986. 



sing d'hygiene publique fut egalement sujet 
a des changements de techniques et eut a 
subir des contraintes pour ces changements, 
comme le nursing en medecine clinique, 
quoique, peut-etre a un degre moindre. Nous 
avons ete surement moins conscientes du 
changement car nous avons vecu au jour 
le jour avec la marche des progres. Con- 
siderons, cependant, quelques-unes de ces 
nouvelles tendances du nursing en hygiene 
publique qui se sont developpees depuis les 
dernieres annees et qui semblent importantes 
a I'avenir de I'hygiene publique. 

Maladies Chroniques 

II y a plus de vingt ans, alors que les 
maladies devastatrices etaient les maladies 
contagieuses aigues, personne ne croyait que 
le controle des maladies chroniques put oc- 
cuper une place preponderante, dans un 
programme de sante communautaire. L'im- 
pression etait "que rien de plus ne pouvait 
etre fait," pourquoi alors perdre du temps? 
Durant ces dernieres annees. nous avons 
constate que plusieurs choses pouvaient 
etre faites sans "perdre notre temps." Un 
depistage des le debut est maintenant le 
facteur clef dans le controle de plusieurs 
maladies chroniques. Nous n'attendons plus 
que revolution soit avancee a un point tel 
que des sj'mptomes alarmants ou des com- 
plications surgissent avant que le patient ne 
demande I'assistance medicale. Comme exem- 
ple : par I'education de la population au 
sujet des dangers du diabete et des groupes 



206 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




SKIN needs NIVEA 

The Cream of Many Uses 

Nivea Creme is diflFerent from other Creams because it contains 
Eucerite — a substance that replaces the skin's natural oils, so frequently 
lost through washing, wind and weather. 

Aided by Eucerite, Nivea penetrates into the underlying tissues and 
nourishes the skin, helping to keep it smooth and soft. 

For your own skin care — and that of your patients — use Nivea 
Creme daily. 

Manufactured by NIVEA PHARMACEUTICALS LIMITED — TORONTO 
Diitributed by SMITH & NEPHEW LTD., 2285 PAPINEAU AVE., MONTREAL 24. 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



207 



qui peuvent tout particulierement en souf- 
frir, par I'acces facile des services dispo- 
nibles qu'offre la communaute pour uti 
diagnostic precoce de la maladie, une attitude 
entierement nouvelle est apparue. 

L'infirmiere hygieniste, par sa part active 
dans les campagnes de depistage des cas, 
par sa connaissance des types de diabete et 
encore plus, par sa fonction traditionnelle 
d'educatrice du diabetique et de sa famille 
quant aux moyens a prendre pour vivre 
d'une maniere satisfaisante avec cette ma- 
ladie, a contribue grandement a la preven- 
tion, non de la maladie elle-meme, mais des 
mortalites et des incapacites qui autrement 
auraient pu en resulter. 

Avec I'accroissement dc la longevite de la 
population et I'elimination des maladies 
aigues qui habituellement causaient la mort 
a I'age miir, le cancer, comme le diabete, 
a pris une place de plus en plus importante 
dans les cadres de la sante. Ici aussi, I'une 
des approches les plus nouvelles est de se 
baser sur des enquctes epidemiologiques. Une 
connaissance des formes de cancer les plus 
frequentes, la possibilite de depister les in- 
dividus les plus predisposes a souflfrir des 
types de cancers malins, et I'opinion du public 
a ce sujet, tout cela contribue a la solution 
du probleme. 

Un autre exemple d'un precede preventif, 
de grande envergure developpe durant les 
dix dernieres annees, est le depistage des tu- 
meurs pulmonaires, des maladies du coeur 
aussi bien que de la tuberculose, par des 
radiographics en masse, des poumons, c'est- 
a-dire par des programmes organises sur une 
haute echelle. Ici encore, il y a de nouvelles 
techniques qui supposent une interpretation 
difFerente et beaucoup de comprehension de 
la part de l'infirmiere afin qu'elle puisse 
tenir les gens de sa localite au courant de 
ces developpements. 

Hygiene mentale 

Cette sphere a pris une importance nou- 
velle dans les cadres du nursing en hygiene 
publique au cours des dernieres annees. 

Tout comme le psychiatre moderne qui 
dispose maintenant d'un ensemble de me- 
thodes therapeutiques efiicaces dans le traite- 
ment des maladies mentales, de mcme le 
praticien d'hygiene publique a en mains de 
nouvelles armes pour la prevention de plu- 
sieurs troubles emotifs et des mesadapta- 
tions. Les modes "d'introduction de I'agent 
immunisateur" contre les troubles emotifs 
peuvent etre : la consultation pour enfants 
sains, la consultation psychologue-parents- 



enfants, I'education sur les origines habi- 
tuelles des troubles emotifs et des mesadap- 
tations ou, tout simplement, le contact 
personnel et les discussions de l'infirmiere 
visitant un domicile, un parent ou un enfant. 
Mais si ce sont la les modes d'application 
vous devez vous demander : qu'est-ce done 
que I'agent immunisateur ? En un mot, c'est 
la comprehension. 

Comprendre pourquoi les gens reagissent 
de la fagon dont ils le font ; comprendre de 
quelle maniere les divers comportements se 
developpent durant I'enfance ; comprendre 
comment, dans nos contacts avec les patients, 
nous reagissons envers eux et, ensuite, com- 
ment ces reactions peuvent affecter le patient. 

Toutefois, comprendre les developpements 
emotifs et les reactions n'est pas chose facile. 
Quelques-uns peuvent y parvenir naturelle- 
ment ; d'autre, avec de I'interet et de la 
sympathie peuvent y reussir ; et d'autres, 
fort probablement n'y parviendront jamais. 
Mais dans le champ du nursing en hygiene 
publique, il est stirement desirable, que nous 
nous efTorcions d'y parvenir. 

Chaque fois que nous avons une ent revue 
avec un patient, chaque fois que nous visi- 
tons un domicile, chaque fois que nous 
dirigeons une clinique, I'application de cette 
comprehension des reactions personnelles des 
individus ne fera que rehausser la valeur de 
toutes les autres choses que nous faisons. 

Et ceci ne s'applique pas seulement a I'en- 
fant. Persuader un tuberculeux d'accepter 
I'hospitalisation, I'encourager a rester a I'ho- 
pital meme a la suite d'un sejour prolonge, 
inciter le patient atteint de poliomyelite a 
travailler fort afin de parvenir a redonner 
la vigueur a ses muscles, ou bien redonner 
I'espoir et le desir de vivre a la personne 
atteinte d'une maladie chronique serieuse, 
dans tout cela nous avons bcsoin de com- 
prendre les reactions personnelles des indi- 
vidus. 

Peu importe si oui ou non nous designons 
ce procede sous le nom de "relations interper- 
sonnelles," pourvu que nous employions ces 
techniques regulicrement chaque jour, de 
part et d'autre. 

L'approbation des mesures par lesquelles 
nous pouvons etablir un systeme determine 
pour classifier ces connaissances et les trois 
moyens de pouvoir les employer plus fre- 
cjuemment, est I'un des nouveaux develop- 
pements, mais non les methodes proprement 
dites. 

Defense Civile 

Ceci est un champ d'action tout a fait 
nouveau, dans un programme de sante com- 



208 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




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MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



209 



munautaire avec lequel le nursing en hygiene 
publique est deja intimement lie. 

La part du nursing dans tout programme 
de defense civile quel qu'il soit est naturel- 
lement une des plus importantes. Des cas 
sinistres semblables et differents de ceux que 
nous sommes habituees de trailer vont nous 
etre presentes en nombre incroyable. A I'ho- 
pital. rimprovisation d'installations medicales 
et le traitement de ces cas sinistres seront 
etablis d'une maniere orthodoxe. Mais tout 
le probleme concernant le nombre et I'orga- 
nisation d'installations medicales et I'entrai- 
nement du personnel de maniere a ce qu'il 
soit present et puisse collaborer au moment 
d'une urgence est un probleme conmiunau- 
taire. 

Cest Tun de ces problemes communau- 
taires que les infirmieres hygienistes ont tres 
bien solutionne dans le passe. Cela ne dif- 
fere pas tellement des programmes com- 
munautaires organises pour I'immunisation 
antidiphterique ou les improvisations con- 
nues des infirmieres des centres ruraux qui 
consistent a etablir des cliniques a des 
endroits qui ne furent jamais destines a une 
telle installation ; c'est le meme genre de 
probleme dans I'education des groupes que 
I'infirmiere hygieniste a resolu au moyen 
de classes aux meres et a d'autres groupes. 
C'est maintenant une part de la responsabi- 
lite de la collectivite aussi bien que Test 
le controle de la tubrculose et I'hygiene 
scolaire. 

II y a une participation specifique de la 
part des infirmieres hygienistes lors d'un 
desastre civil. Des les premiers instants, il 
est probable que leurs premieres fonctions 
seraient d'appliquer les principes fondamen- 
taux du nursing. Alais, plus tard, elles 
seraient appelees a etablir des unites d'infir- 
meries dans les centres d'evacuation, a orga- 
niser des cliniques si une grande partie de 
la population devait etre protegee contre la 
typhoi'de ou le tetanos, et fournir des centres 
pour le soin des enfants afin d'eviter la perte 
inutile de centaines de bebes. 

Education des GuotjPES 

L'education des groupes est aussi un nou- 
veau champ d'action dans le nursing en 
hygiene publique, du moins, en ce qui con- 
cerne revolution de ses applications. Avec 
I'accroissement de la population et les besoins 
grandissants de certains groupes speciaux 
en matiere de sante, et avec le territoire 
bien defini qu'a a desservir I'infirmiere 
hygieniste, I'edncation des groupes est de 



plus en plus employee. Ccrlainement, que 
l'education de groupe n'est chose nouvelle 
pour les infirmieres hygienistes, mais il y a 
quelque chose de plus que l'education du 
groupe dans le progres de ce processus. 

Auparavant, une infirmiere ou un medicin 
faisait une conference devant un groupe de 
parents au sujet des problemes de leur 
enfants ou encore, des conferences a un 
groupe d'adultes sur les risques de cancer, etc. 
Recemment on a demontre qu'en ce qui con- 
cerne particulierement les maladies emotives, 
il est important de creer I'interet chez les 
participants afin de leur faire une part active 
au programme d'education de leur groupe. 
C'est un besoin pour les individus de discuter 
leurs problemes, dc parler de leur inquietudes 
et d'entendre d'autres qui sont dans la meme 
situation faire de la sorte. 

Cette participation personnelle aide un 
individu a realiser que ses problemes et 
reactions ne different pas tellement des pro- 
blemes et des reactions de nombre de per- 
sonnes qui sont dans ia meme situation. Et 
peut-etre qu'une grande part du succes de 
la participation de I'individu a l'education 
d'un groupe vient du desir d'aider autrui : 
cela semble etre le facteur principal qui 
ressort d'un tel procede. Ceci et probable- 
ment nombre d'autres facteurs se greffent 
a une toute nouvelle technique pour les tra- 
vailleurs en hygiene publique, celle-ci reque- 
rant un entrainement special mais pouvant 
produire des resultats incroyables si elle est 
em])loyee d'une maniere satisfaisante. 

QuELyUE.S PKOGRES RF.CENTS 

La necessite ])our i'infirmiere scolaire ou 
industrielle de s'interesser a ia sante indivi- 
duelle au foyer aussi bien qu'a I'ecole et a 
I'industrie n'a pas a etre discutee de nouveau. 

En correlation, il existe une seconde ten- 
dance qui est certainement tres bonne: c'est 
la cooperation entre les hopitaux et les ser- 
vices communautaires. Pendant trop d'annees, 
I'infirmiere en service a I'hopital ne devait 
s'occuper que du patient lorsqu'il etait hos- 
pitalise. Depuis longtemps. on a accepte le 
])rincipe que le patient devrait etre considere 
comme un individu, et son sejour a I'hopital, 
simplement comme un incident survenu dans 
les cadres de sa vie habituelle. En maintes 
circonstances cependant, les infirmieres n'e- 
taient pas informees sur la maniere de relier 
les problemes du patient hospitalise a ceux 
de son foyer ; elles n'etaient pas au courant 
non plus des ressources communautaires qui 
peuvent aider a resoudre ces problemes une 
fois retourne chez lui. 



210 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




The Doctor s Office Nurse 



Being "gal Friday" to a busy M.D. is 
enough to keep any girl on her toes. It's 
a tribute to nurses that they still find time 
to keep well informed on the many 
subjects pertinent to their profession. 

And that's where the Lederle Representa- 
tive can be of help — by keeping the office 
nurse up to date on products she's often 
called upon to handle. Ask the Lederle 
man about these next time he calls! 

TRI-IMMUNOL * Diphtheria and 
Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine 
Combined Aluminum Phosphate- 
Adsorbed PUROGENATED*, Lederle's 
famous, widely-used, triple immunizing 
agent. 



ACHROMYCIN* Tetracycline Pedi- 
atric Drops and Oral Suspension, two 
special pediatric forms of the foremost 
antibiotic, both cherry flavored. 

LEDERPLEX* Vitamin B Compound 
Liquid, a complete formula, derived 
from pure beef liver. 

RHULICREAM * Analgesic - Anes- 
thetic, a soothing, cooling cream for poi- 
son ivy, poison oak, insect bitesand minor 
skin irritations. 



TRADE-MAR 



LEDERLE LABORATORIES DIVISION 

NORTH AMERICAN Cyanamid LIMITED 

MONTREAl, QUEBEC 



MCOrCAL RCPflCSCNTATIVC 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



211 



Mainteiiam que des infirmieres hygienistes 
coordonnatrices font partie du personnel du 
nursing de I'hopital on veut que le per- 
sonnel administratif ait de I'experience dans 
les organisations de sante communautaires, 
cette facheuse conception de considerer le 
patient hospitalise comme une personne a 
compartiments est pres de sa fin. Beaucoup 
reste a faire, mais un commencement a ete 
fait. 

Une autre experience interessante pour 
plusieurs infirmieres hygienistes est "I'e- 
change mondial" des idees sur la pratique 
du nursing, experience rendue possible par 
I'echange d'infirmieres venant d'autre pays. 
Ce programme a ete seconde par I'Organisa- 
tion Mondiale de la Sante, par le Conseil 
International des Infirmieres, I'Association 



des Infirmieres canadiennes et des organi- 
sations privees. 

De cette maniere, nous pouvons peut-etre 
aider certains peuples moins privilegies a 
ameliorer leur sante par de meilleurs soins, 
et nous pouvons certainement apprendre de 
celles qui viennent de pays ou certains ser- 
vices du nursing sont hautement developpes. 
Mais le plus important pour nous est que 
nous y gagnons une nouvelle faqon d'appre- 
cier ces progres que nous considerons comme 
octroyes. C'est seulement en entendant ra- 
conter de vive voix les conditions de sante 
des pays moins fortunes et le manque de 
facilites modernes pour les services medicaux 
et ceux du nursing en ces pays, que nous 
pouvons situer clairement notre contribution 
a la sante de la population de notre pays. 



Alberta S.N.A. 



The Student Nurses' .Association of this 
province has developed a program of activ- 
ities which should produce a group of well- 
informed young women. Their interests 
range through citizenship, professional duties 
and responsibilities, student recruitment and 
promotion of interest in professional organ- 
izations. 

A film strip and booklet 6n nursing are 
currently being considered as projects in 
providing material for recruitment. A study 
of provincial association and C.N. A. ob- 
jectives is contemplated. It is especially in- 
teresting to note that, in connection with 
this study, the possibility of dominion regis- 
tration examinations is to be explored. 
In these days of extensive travel, Canadian 
nurses are constantly seeking information 
regarding registration and working condi- 
tions in other provinces and countries. The 
association plans to make such information 
available to its members through the eflforts 
of its Graduate Nurse Activities committee. 

The question of financial support, often 
a problem to nursing students, may be 
partially solved by a projected survey of 
the bursaries and scholarships presently 
available through governmental and other 
sources. An interest is also being taken in 
increasing the eflfectiveness and uniformity 
of student government. Professional duties 
and responsibilities are best discharged when 
the individual nurse has a proper perspective 
of herself as a citizen of a community. With 
ihat object in mind, students are being 
encouraged to get to know each other better 



on a provincial and national level. They are 
given the opportunity to participate in ac- 
tivities affecting the profession as a whole 
rather than just the individual school. The 
Inter-Hospital Relations Committee directs 
its efforts solely toward this goal. A news- 
letter committee has undertaken the respon- 
sibility of publishing three or four editions 
annually so that all students may be kept 
aware of developments in the various schools 
of nursing. 

The association plans to hold its annual 
convention in May, 1956. The progress of 
this ambitious group should be an inspiration 
to similar organizations across Canada. 



In many parts of the world, the most 
severe limitation upon improved medical 
care is the woefully inadequate numbers 
of trained doctors and nurses and the scar- 
city of facilities for high quality medical 
education. Although there are many fellow- 
ship opportunities . . . which can be used 
for medical training abroad and although 
many are studying abroad at their own ex- 
pense, the number of doctors and nurses 
who can be trained outside their own coun- 
tries is pitifully small in relation to the 
need. Good medical schools are needed . . . 
both to assist in training the medical personne! 
required and to bring the resources of scien- 
tific medicine specifically to bear upon the 
diseases and other health problems of the 
local environment. 

— The Rockefeller Foundation, 
Annual Report, 19.^4 



212 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



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Extra Strength Costs made from Gypsona Extra are harder 

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X-Rays Gypsona Extra costs ore thinner and give 

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For further details please write to: — 

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Standard Gypsona is still available for use in those cases when the special qualities 
of Gypsona Extra are not required. 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 213 



Convention Personalities 



Adelaide (Macdonald) Sinclair, O.B.E., 
who is executive assistant to the Deputy 
Minister of National Welfare, Department 
of National Health and Welfare, is verj' 
well known to hundreds of Canadian women 
who served with the Royal Canadian Navy 
during World War II. As director of the 
W.R.C.N.S., with the rank of captain, Mrs. 
Sinclair played a major role in the develop- 
ment and over-all supervision of this efficient 
service. 




(Bradford Brachrach, Ottawa) 

Dr. Adelaide Sinclair 

Following the organization of the United 
Nations, Mrs. Sinclair became the Canadian 
delegate to UNICEF, a post she still holds. 
She was chairman of UNICEF's program 
committee from 1948 to 1950 and chairman 
of the Executive Board in 1951 and 1952. 
She was delegate to the UNESCO meetings 
in 1947 and alternate delegate to the UN 
General Assembly in 1950. 

Mrs. Sinclair's interest in the problems 
currently facing the nursing profession has 
a solid foundation in her long years of study 
and work in the field of social work and 
political science. In tribute to her leadership 
in these fields, two universities have awarded 
her honorary degrees. Her own alma mater, 
the University of Toronto, where she se- 
cured her M.A. in 1925, presented her with 
an honorary LL.D. in 1946. Six years later, 
Laval University at Quebec made Mrs. 
Sinclair an honorary Doctor of Social 
Science. 



Another outstanding speaker during the 
convention this year will be Margaret G. 
Arnstein, chief of the Division of Nursing 
Resources of the United States Public 
Health Service. Graduating from Pres- 
byterian Hospital, New York City, in 1928, 
Miss Arnstein turned immediately to public 
health nursing, the field wherein she has 
given such conspicuous leadership over the 
years. She secured her M.A. from Teachers 
College, adding later her M.P.H. from Johns 
Hopkins University. When she had com- 
pleted the work for the latter degree, major- 
ing in epidemiology. Miss Arnstein became 
communicable disease consultant in the New 
York State Department of Health. She 
moved on to become director of the program 
for public health nurses at the University 
of Minnesota. During the three years she 
was there she collaborated with Dr. Gaylord 
Anderson in writing a textbook entitled 
"Communicable Disease Control." 

Miss Arnstein returned to New York 
City as district consultant of the State 
Health Department. In 1941, she was loaned 
to the U.S.P.H.S. to set up the first program 
of federal grants to schools of nur.sing — 
the precursor of the Cadet Nurse Corps 
program. She was also state nurse in the 
Office of Civil Defence at that time. Given 
leave of absence to join UNRRA, Miss 
Arnstein spent 15 months in the Middle 




Margaret G. Arnstein 



214 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




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MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



215 



East organizing refugee camps in Greece 
and Jugoslavia. 

Entering the U.S. Public Health Service 
in 1946 as assistant to the chief of the Divi- 
sion of nursing, Miss Arnstein moved into 
her present position three years later. She 
was loaned to the World Health Organiza- 



tion for two months during the winter of 
1950-51, during which time she prepared a 
manual entitled "Guide for National Studies 
of Nursing Resources." The purpose of this 
manual was to assist nations to study their 
own nursing services in iheir broadest 
aspects. 



'So<^ '^euceoui^ 



Babies are Human Beings, by C. Ander- 
son Aldrich, M.D. and Mary M. Aldrich. 
122 pages. The Macmillan Co. of Canada 
Ltd., 70 Bond Street, Toronto 2, Ont. 
2nd Ed. 1954. Price $2.95. 
Rev'xezved by Miss Nancy Pearson, Infant 
Clinical Supervisor, Montreal Children's 
Hospital, Montreal. 

Dr. and Mrs. Aldrich have for many 
years studied child growth and development 
and its implications for the better under- 
standing care of children. The revised edition 
of "Babies are Human Beings" follows the 
same theme as the original book. It is even 
more fascinating, useful and practical. Dr. 
Aldrich has delved into the fields of medi- 
cine, physiology, psychology, philosophy and 
education in order to gain some insight 
into the phenomenon of growth and its im- 
portance in understanding the behavior of 
children. In the early years of childhood, 
mental and physical functions cannot be 
separated. To the degree to which the in- 
fant's early needs are considered rests his 
future ability to feel secure in a changing 
world. 

In the early chapters the physical ap- 
pearance and behavior of the newborn infant 
is described. All babies are diflferent and 
variations in behavior call for individual 
management. Dr. Aldrich endeavors to in- 
terpret the reasons for such wide differences 
in each baby's feeding habits, sleeping pat- 
terns, elimination and social responses. Fin- 
ally the eflfect of this early understanding 
on the older child are mentioned briefly 
because "to leave the infant high and 
dry at two years of age would ignore 
growth's ultimate purpose, the attainment of 
maturity." 

"Babies are Human Beings" is written 
primarily for parents but nurses and all 
others dealing with infants and young chil- 
dren should find this book full of common 
sense and useful information. It will help 



to further their understanding of these young 
human beings. 

Gynecology for Senior Students of 
Nursing, by John Cairney, D.Sc, F.R.A. 
C.S. 211 pages. N. M. Peryer Ltd., Christ- 
church, New Zealand. 1954. 
Reviewed by Mrs. Jean Baker, Clinical 
Instructor, Western Hospital, Toronto, 
Ont. 

The author states in the preface that his 
aim is to present a reasonably complete sur- 
vey of modern gynecology with sufficient 
explanation to make it intelligible to the 
senior student or graduate nurse. At the 
same time he wished to restrict the volume 
to modest dimensions. 

Since Dr. Cairney is in Australia, there 
is bound to be a diversity in the manner of 
treatment of certain conditions. For example, 
while he infers that the treatment of car- 
cinoma of the uterus is open to controversy, 
he makes little reference to the possible 
value of irradiation. In the chapter on gen- 
eral postoperative treatment, some differ- 
ences are striking. Ambulation is remark- 
ably late when compared to our present 
practices. Treatment and nursing care of a 
patient following vaginal surgery is so gen- 
eral as to be almost valueless. The chapter 
"Carcinoma of the Reproductive Tract," 
proved quite disappointing. It appears to be 
an incomplete outline. Primary carcinoma 
of the ovary is omitted entirely. 

Otherwise the material seems complete 
and lucid. The chapters appear in good 
sequence. His presentation is clear and 
forceful. The explanation of meanings and 
derivatives of names of organs and associ- 
ated terms are particularly enjoyable. Dr. 
Cairney has dealt with each of them logically 
when the term first appears. Another feature 
of special interest is the chapter on "Preg- 
nancy, Labor and the Puerperium." Its in- 
clusion seems quite reasonable since many 



216 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




Our Nayy 
Needs Your 
Nursing Skill 




/ 



V 



4L-^ 



> 






Sr 





A Naval Nurse is an imporfant nurse — caring for the health of 
Canada's fighting sailors. 

She leads an eventful life — with opportunities to engage in special 
fields, both medical and surgical and others — to travel — to serve 
her country — to enjoy the status and privileges of on Officer in 
Canada's senior service. 

Our expanding Navy has openings now in its Nursing 
Service — for provincially-registered graduate nurses who 
are Canadian citizens or British subjects, single and under 
35 years of age. 

Apply today! Upon entry you will be offered a permanent or short 
service commission with officer pay, allowance for uniforms, full 
maintenance and other benefits including 30 days annual leave with 
pay and full medical and dental care. 

As a Naval Nurse, you'll find real opportunity to advance in your 
profession! For full information apply to: 

MATRON-IN-CHIEF, 

NAVAL HEADQUARTERS, OTTAWA 

or 

YOUR NEAREST NAVAL RECRUITING OFFICE 



Royal Canadian Nov 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



21- 



gynecologic disorders occur as a result of 
or in conjunction with pregnancy. 

As methods of training diflfer from coun- 
try to country, his book might be suited to 
the Australian student or graduate. That it 
would be of special value to our advanced 
students is doubtful. He has, however, suc- 
ceeded in producing a more complete account 
of the subject than is usually found in text- 
books of surgery for nurses. For this reason, 
this book would be of value in a general 
reference library for students and graduates. 

Demonstrations of Operative Surgery, 

A Manual for General Practitioners, 
Medical Students and Nurses, by Hamilton 
Bailey, F.R.C.S.. F.A.C.S. 387 pages. The 
Macmillan Company of Canada Ltd., 70 
Bond Street, Toronto 2, Ont. 2nd Ed. 1954. 
Price $4.10. 

Reviewed by Sister Paul of the Cross, 
Surgical Superznsor, Charlottctozm Hos- 
pital, Charlottetown, P.E.I. 
This second edition consists of artistically 
written and beautifully illustrated material. 
The work is divided into eleven sections. 
The first is entitled "General Principles" 
and deals with description of instruments 
and surgical equipment, their proper use, 
care and sterilization. The following ten 
sections, divided according to body systems, 
consist of description and illustration of 
more than 70 common operative procedures. 
The descriptions are prefaced by very 
interesting clinical summaries which answer 
the question : " Why is this operation being 
done?" The descriptions are given in a 
"living narrative" which paints a very vivid 
mental picture of the various procedures 
carried out by the surgeon. These are re- 
enforced by conveniently placed and clearly 
demonstrative illustrations in black and 
white as well as color where indicated. The 
most amazing feature of this work lies in 
the enormous amount of detail possible in 
such a comparatively small volume. Nothing 
is left in doubt regarding the reasons for 
doing even the simplest procedure. 

One cannot fail to highly recommend this 
text for reading and repeated reference 
by general practitioners, medical students 
and nurses for whom it was so capably 
prepared. 

Tlie Birth of Industrial Nursing, by Irene 
H. Charley, S.R.N. 224 pages. The Mac- 
millan Company of Canada Ltd., 70 Bond 
Street, Toronto, Ont. 1954. Price $1.80. 
Revieived by Miss Theresa Greville, Can- 
ada Packers Ltd.. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 



Here is a book primarily intended to be 
of use to those concerned with occupational 
health services. The book is replete with 
well documented information on the growth 
and expansion of nursing services to men 
and women on the job, particularly in Eng- 
land. Phillippa Flowerday is given the honor 
of being the first industrial nurse — ac- 
cording to the modern concept. 

Nursing services in England are de- 
scribed : In the mines, in the civil service, 
in air transport, on British railways, in the 
hopfields and among the fisher girls, etc. 

This book is international in outlook and 
information. It should prove to industrial 
nurses everywhere that their problems to 
obtain the best care for men and women 
at their place of work are common basic 
ones which have to be met with wide 
knowledge and understanding. Above all, a 
brand of courage and integrity not always 
demanded in other branches of nursing is 
required. It would be false optimism to as- 
sume that industrial nursing service has 
reached its Golden Age. Nurses everywhere 
have to keep up the services started under 
difficult conditions and improve and adapt 
their nursing skills to changing needs. This 
book should be an inspiration to all nurses. 

Essentials of Pediatrics, by Philip C. 

Jeans. A.B., E. Howell Wright, B.S., and 

Florence G. Blake, M.A. 808 pages. J. B. 

Lippincott Co., 2083 Guy St., Montreal. 

5th Ed. Price $4.75. 

Reviewed by Jean A. Cummins, Head 

Nurse and Clinical Inst^ructor, Holy Cross 

Hospital, Calgary, Alta. 

The present co-authors have preserved 
the wi.sdom of the late Dr. Jean's long ex- 
perience in the field of pediatrics while 
making the changes necessary to bring the 
contents up-to-date. Care has been taken 
to include all of the subject matter suggested 
in the curriculum for schools of nursing 
prepared by the National League of Nursing. 

This new edition carries much new ma- 
terial on the psychologic development of the 
child from birth through adolescence. This 
is dealt with in Unit Two, under the head- 
ings of growth, development, care and 
guidance. 

Unit Three discusses in detail the nurse- 
child and nurse-parent relationship. The 
authors have made an exceptionally good 
effort to view illness through the eyes of 
the child and his parents, that the nurse 
may better understand their reactions. A 
new chapter pertaining to fluid and drug 



218 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



administration in a variety of common 
cliildhood illnesses has been included. Fluid 
balance and electrolyte therapy are clearly 
presented. Unit Four is confined to the dis- 
orders of the newborn. It is designed to 
help the nurse recognize the more significant 
factors with which she must concern herself. 
The more common conditions found in chil- 
dren are discussed under various body 
systems. 

Unit Five deals with modern, up-to-date 
information on nutrition and nutritional 
diseases. 

This fifth edition of a nursing classic 
maintains the high quality we have come to 
expect of this book. Its information is still 
sound, scientifically accurate and complete. 
Its thinking is adjusted to the changing 
concepts of pediatric care. It offers the 
graduate and student nurse a comprehensive 
coverage of the entire field of pediatric 
nursing. 



Curriculum Study in Basic Nursing 

Education, by Ole Sand, Ph.D. 225 pages. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 2 West 45th St., 

New York City. 1955. Price $3.75. 

Reviewed by Miss M. Jean Wilson, Asst. 

Professor, School of Nursing, University, 

of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. 

A five year curriculum research project 
is being conducted at the University of 
Washington School of Nursing. The objec- 
tive is to determine the kind of curriculum, 
and the length of time required to educate 
an effective professional nurse in terms of 
what is best for society. Dr. Sand, the direc- 
tor of the project, presents this report on 
the developments during the first year and 
a half. 

The ten chapters present, in a well or- 
ganized form, methodology, formulation of 
objectives, a philosophy and theory of learn- 
ing, and selection of learning experiences 
in the clinical area. The relationship of gen- 
eral and professional education and the 
social and natural sciences with clinical 
nursing is discussed. A theory of evaluation 
and a description of how the faculty works 
together follows. Next steps to be taken are 
outlined. 

The major purposes of the report "are to 
describe the tasks upon which one faculty 
is working, and how the faculty is working 
together to accomplish these tasks in the 
hope that other schools of nursing, both 
collegiate and hospital, may find suggestions 
for the study of their own curriculum." 
Instructors and administrators of nursing 




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MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



education will find the concise, step-by-step 
presentation of material and the detailed 
exhibits in the appendix of assistance toward 
this end. The reader will wish to see ensuing 
reports. It will be of great interest to follow 
the further developments in this five year 
research project. 

Patterns of Patient Care, Some Studies 
of the Utilization of Nursing Service 
Personnel. 266 pages. The Macmillan Co. 
of Canada, Ltd., 70 Bond St., Toronto 2, 
Ont. 1955. Price $4.50. 
Reviezved by Miss Ida Johnson, Director 
of Nursing, Royal Alexandra Hospital, 
Edmonton, Alta. 

This is a very realistic presentation of 
the nursing needs — psychosocial and 
physical — of the patient and the supportive 
care that is given to meet these needs as 
they arise. 

The data given on studies made to date 
in relation to patient care and nursing per- 
sonnel is very informative. The chapter 
entitled "The Ward, The Patients and The 
Workers," serves as an introduction for the 
designing of the group pattern. The respon- 



sibilities of the professional nurse, the prac- 
tical nurse, the nurse's aide and the ward 
clerk are indicated also. 

Nine patterns of patient care are described 
and evaluated. These give a basis for the 
construction of a master staffing pattern. 
Tables showing the average number of 
minutes of nursing care required by medical 
and surgical patients plus the formula for 
obtaining the number of persons — profes- 
sional and non-professional — required of- 
fers constructive assistance to those planning 
nursing service coverage. 

The authors, in the chapter "The Way 
Ahead," give labor-saving devices and im- 
plications for the hospital administrator, the 
director of nursing service and the head 
nurse. The appendix contains valuable statis- 
tics obtained from the study of nursing 
activities, personnel policies and orientation 
programs. 

In the words of the authors "This blue- 
print for patient care will require develop- 
ment of new patterns of nursing service." 
The material presented will be invaluable 
for planning patterns of patient care in the 
challenging and promising future. 



In the Good Old Days 

{The Canadian Nurse — March, 1916) 



As the library in the nurses' home was 
meagre an arrangement was made with the 
city public library that the nurses' home 
would be a sub-station of the library. It 
was opened with 100 new books of fiction 
which are replaced each month with a fresh 
supply. This arrangement has made the 
library a mecca for tired student nurses. 

* * * 

Particular attention should be paid to 
providing suitable outdoor exercise for night 
nurses. They are apparently less inclined 
to make the effort than those on day shifts. 

* * * 

The papers for registration examinations 
in Manitoba and Nova Scotia are included 
in this issue. The questions reflect the dif- 
ferences in the demands made on nurses 40 
years ago and today. How would you answer 
these questions? 

"A person is found unconscious, to what 
may the condition be due?" 

"How would you decide that a patient 
was pregnant about the fifth month?" 

"What are the symptoms of typhoid 



hemorrhage? What is the result? What is 
the treatment?" 

"Give full directions for making beef tea 
with exact reasons for each step." 

* * * 

The attack rate of typhoid fever among 
nurses has been calculated to be from eight 
to twenty times as great as among the 
civilians living in the same community. By 
the use of vaccine the typhoid rate can be 
reduced at least 75 per cent. Inoculation 
should be compulsory for every nurse in all 
general hospitals. 

* * * 

Myopia or short sight is rarely present 
at the beginning of school life but it gradu- 
ally increases so that at the age of 16 almost 
half the children have some degree of 

myopia. 

* * * 

Until the last few years the general age 
requirement for admission to training was 
23. It Is a grave question whether the ad- 
mission of young, immature girls of 18 or 
19 to hospital wards and to the heavy phys- 



220 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ical demands and the overwhelming respon- 
sibilities and anxieties of such work as 
inevitably awaits them there by day or by 
night, should be considered. 

* * * 

A survey has shown that public health 
work is still in its infancy. A fifth of the 
communities make no provision for inspec- 
tion of school children ; over a fourth make 
no effort to educate in health matters ; nearly 
three-fourths have no housing laws; over 
six-sevenths have no program against the 
venereal diseases ; over a half have no proper 
organization to combat infant mortality ; and 
less than a quarter have a coherent program 
for the control of tuberculosis. 

* * * 

Care of hypodermic needles — Keep the 
needles in equal parts of almond oil and 
alcohol in wide-mouthed bottles. 



ONTARIO 

The following are staff changes in the 
Ontario Public Health Services : 

Appointments — Jean Thomson (Toron- 
to Western Hosp., Univ. of Toronto gen. 
course) to the Lambton Health Unit. Jean 
McLaren (Royal Vic. Hosp., McGill Univ. 
Montreal) to the Porcupine H.U. Henriette 
Ducharme (St. Luc Hosp., Montreal, Univ. 
of Montreal) to the Prescott and Russell 
H.U. Jessie Rent on (Stobhill Hospital, 
Glasgow, Scotland, U. of T. gen. course) to 
the Sault Ste. Marie B.H. Ruby (Irvine) 
Graham (Toronto Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. 
gen. course) to the Scarborough Township 
B.H. Winnijred Crockett (Health Visitor 
and Queen's Institute of District Nursing) 
to the Toronto Dept. of P.H. Lyla (Groat) 
Kendall (T.G.H., U. of T. gen. course) 
to the Welland and District H.U. 

Resignations — Lois (Leeson) McCon- 
nell from the Elgin-St. Thomas H.U. June 
McKay and Florence (Sparling) Graham- 
Smith from the Kent Co. H.U. Ann Cowan 
and Catherine Murray from the Lambton 
H.U. Jean (Lloyd) Lorimer and Jean Sugg 
from the Leeds and Grenville H.U. Isabel 
(Taylor) Oliver from the Middlesex Co. 
School Health Service. Marilyn Bushnell, 
Violet (Sam) Joe, Beulah Mann and Gisele 
(Meloche) Mercantini from the Ottawa 
B.H. Mabel Bourne, Madeleine des Landes, 
Madonna (Hurtubise) Richer from the 
Porcupine H.U. Mary Harbic and Mary 
Shelter from the Stormont, Dundas and 
Glengarry H.U. 





pain 
banishes beauty 

bganin 

the tablet with thi "V" 

brings relief 

No woman can maintain her poise and 
beauty when pain occurs. Veganin will 
help you to prompt, welcome relief, not 
just at specially difficult times, but 
every time pain occurs. 

Veganin contains no caffeine . . . there 
is no attendant drowsiness. 

Veganin provides "Stronger" relief 
since it contains approximately 8 grains 
of anti-pain medication. Recommended 
by pliysicians and dentists. Available in 
handy tubes of lO's and 20*s for pocket 
or purse. 




WARNER-CHILCOTT 

o^xi^ora/ortjeA. div wm r warner a CO ltd. 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



221 



So much more 

than merely 

a mouth rinse 

Lavoris acts both chemically 
and mechanically to break up 
and flush out the germ-harbor- 
ing, odor-producing mucus ac- 
cumulations from mouth and 
throat. It stimulates capillary 
circulation with attending im- 
provement of tissue tone and 
resistance. 




Pleasing, spicy taste 

makes it 

easy to use. 



The^mouthwash that tastes good and does good 




It's not the Alcohol, it's the Toothpick 



COCKTAIL PARTIES are more dangerous than 
you think. Mix alcohol, an upper den- 
ture, canapes and club sandwiches and the 
chances are that a potentialh' lethal weapon 
will be swallowed before the evening is over. 
A New York physician describes the com- 
mon wooden toothpick — so commonly used 
in canapes and cocktails and to hold a club 
sandwich together — as a dangerous missile. 
Though the human digestive tract seems 
capable of dealing with almost anything — 
people can swallow toys, shoe buckles and 
whole dentures and nothing happens — a 
toothpick is a diflferent matter. It is extra- 
ordinarily dangerous because besides being 
long and sharp at both ends, indigestible 
and unable to turn corners, it is also invisible 
to x-rays. Once swallowed it has a fairly 
good chance of impaling some part of the 
digestive tract on its way through. No one 
is able to diagnose the trouble until the 
patient is on the operating table. People 
with upper dentures should be especially 
careful since the denture covers the part 
of the mouth most apt to pick up the pre- 



sence of foreign objects. Alcohol can also 
anesthetize the oral mucosa. 

— Ne7v York State Journal 
of Medicine 

* * * 

Dramatic results are being achieved in 
the treatment of tension-produced pain 
through use of a new drug, Equanil. Tension 
headache, psychosomatic pain associated with 
gastric distress and other nervous disorders 
have all been successfully treated. 

No evidence of habit formation nor drug 
tolerance has developed. An interesting 
feature is the lack of drowsiness the mor- 
ning following the previous night's dosage. 
Long-time users have not required increased 
doses to gain effects but have even reduced 
the amounts. The drug has also been found 
useful in keeping alcoholics sober after with- 
drawal treatment and has much value in 
accomplishing withdrawal with a minimum 
of discomfort. 

— Bureau of Industrial Service 
(Canada) Ltd. 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Fatigue Factor in Peptic Ulcers 

FATIGUE MAY BE the key to a baffling 
aspect of one of man's commonest ail- 
ments, the peptic ulcer. Physicians have 
known for years that ulcers follow a 
seasonal pattern but they have never been 
able to decide on an exact reason. Now, a 
noted Scottish surgeon reports that there 
is a weekly, even a daily cycle in ulcer 
cases, and he believes the best explanation 
may be overwork. 

Reporting in the British Medical Journal 
on a study made of more than 2,000,000 
people, Dr. R. A. Jamieson, of the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, states that the pains and 
other symptoms of peptic ulcers increase 
on Friday and decline on Sunday. He also 
found that serious complications, sucii as 
internal bleeding and perforation of the 
walls of the stomach or duodenum, are 
more likely to occur late in the day when 
a person is tired than in the morning or 
during the night. Supporting the fatigue 
theorj'. Dr. Jamieson points out, is the fact 
that the highest incidence of perforation in 
western Scotland occurs in December when 
"many of the artisan class work overtime 
in the week or two before Christmas in 
order to earn extra \v;!ges to cover Christ- 
mas expenses." The lowest incidence, Dr. 
Jamieson notes, is during the month of July 
when Scots get more rest and recreation. 
The incidence begins to rise again in the 
fall and after the December peak maintains 
a fairly consistent level from Januarv to 
July. 

A slightly different pattern of seasonal 
incidence is reported by two U.S. doctors, 
R. S. Boles and M. P. Westerman, who 
made a five-year study in Philadelphia. 
They, toc). found that ulcer incidence was 
lowest in the summer. However, they also 
report that incidence of stomach ulcers is 
highest from January to July while that 
of duodenal ulcers hits two peaks, one in 
March, the other in November. Most au- 
thorities agree that 85 per cent of all peptic 
ulcers are duodenal. 

Fatigue also figures in a study made of 
English aircraft workers by Dr. J. A. 
Smiley. In a report of the Royal College 
of Physicians, Dr. Smiley pointed out that 
workers who have the most accidents "are 
far more liable to peptic ulceration than 
their fellows" and are absent more often 
for a variety of reasons including fatigue 
neurasthenia. However. Dr. Smilev inclines 






IW 



rii^ 




MBLETS 




Relieve 

HEADACHES 

NEURALGIA 
^ RHEUMATIC 

and 

ARTHRITIC 
>. PAIN 

and 

;COLDS i 



REGULAR 



You can guard against pain affecting 
your work ... or off-duty relaxation 
. . . by keeping "217 Tablets" handy 
for fast protection. Ask your druggist 
for "217 Tablets" . . . Regular or 
Strong ... in tubes of 1 2 for pocket 
or purse, and economy sizes of 40 and 
100 for home use. 




g.^tOddt&a?. 



!ai:;;,j;W£:;i*HC»a < 1 ^^w tf-0-< <- 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



223 




EXPORT 

CANADA'S FINEST 
CIGARETTE 



to the belief that emotional stress is respon- 
sible for the fatigue as well as the ulcers 
and accident proneness. 

Although fatigue, stress, emotional dis- 
turbances and bad diet may be involved in 
the development of an ulcer, the single direct 
culprit is hydrochloric acid. When this acid 
is present in excessive quantities, far greater 
that those required to digest food, it tends 
to attack the lining of the stomach or the 
duodenum. The resulting open sore is the 
ulcer. 

Medical scientists have developed a num- 
ber of approaches to cope with excessive 
quantities of hydrochloric acid in the diges- 
tive system. Surgery or so-called anti- 
cholinergic drugs may be employed to act 
on the nerves that stimulate its secretion. 
However, such measures may be too radical. 
The more rational and widely accepted ap- 
proach is treatment with antacid drugs. 
While some of these antacids may do more 
harm than good by causing "acid rebound" 
i.e. only more acid production, others such 
as Gelusil, effectively control excess acid, 
through direct neutralization and absorption, 
within the natural limits of stomach acidity. 
— Medical & Pharmaceutical 
Information Bureau, Inc. 




EXCLUSIVE CANADIAN 
SOURCE FOR 

NURSE'S SURGERY CAP 

ELASTIC OR DRAWSTRING 
SNOOD STYLE 



SEVEN WAYS SUPERIOR! 



Le sage songe avant que de parler a ce 
qu'il doit dire ; le fou parle et ensuite songe 
a ce qu'il a dit. 



ALBERTA 

District 2 

PONOKA 

Officers elected for 1956 are as follows : 
Mrs. E. Coombes, president; Mrs. L. Clapp, 
vice-president; E. Cook, secretary-treasurer; 
Miss E. Baker, representative to The Cana- 
dian Nurse. Guest speakers at recent meet- 
ings have been D. Percy, Chief Nursing 
Consultant to the Dept. of National Health 
and Welfare and Dr. Hutton, University 
Hospital, Edmonton. 



District 3 



Banff 



The question of the chapter name was dis- 
cussed at the January meeting. In line with 
the work done in other areas, proposed 



224 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




SCHOOL for GRADUATE NURSES 

McGILL UNIVERSITY 



PROGRAM LEADING TO THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF NURSING 

Two-year prograrr for graduate nurses holding McGill Senior Matriculation (or 
its equivalent) or three-year program for candidates holding McGill Junior 
Matriculation. Students may elect to do the major part of their work in one of 
the following areas: 

Teaching & Supervision in Hospitals t Schools of Nursing 
Administration in Hospitals & Schools of Nursing 
Supervision & Administration in Public Health Nursing 

Students who elect Teaching and Supervision may specialize in one of the 
following: 

Medical-Surgical Nursing, Psychiatric Nursing, 
Teaching of Sciences, Maternal t Child Health (Students 
may choose either Pediatric or Obstetric Nursing as a 
major field of interest). 

PROGRAM LEADING TO A DIPLOMA 

Candidates who possess McGill Junior or Senior Matriculation or equivalents 
may be granted a diploma at the completion of one year of study in the 
School. Candidates working for a diploma may elect to study Public Health 
Nursing or Teaching and Supervision in any one of the above clinical areas. 

For further information write to: 

Director, McGill School for Graduate Nurses, 
1266 Pine Ave. W., Montreal 25, Que. 



revisions of bylaws were studied and sugges- 
tions made. The importance of obtaining 
compulsory registration was once more 
emphasized. 

Calgary 

The third meeting of the year was held at 
the Associate Clinic in January with 27 
members present. Plans for a Bursary Tea 
in February are under the direction of D. 
Pechiulis. 

The guest speaker was Mrs. Selby- 
Walker. She gave an interesting compari.son 
of the nursing profession with teaching, 
secretarial work, dietetics and library science. 
Her first experiences as a probationer 
brought back many memories to all present. 

High River 

The annual meeting of the chapter had an 
attendance of 14 with Mrs. Goodwin pre- 
siding. An invitation has been extended to 
the nurses of Turner Valley to join this 
chapter following the disbanding of their 
own organization. 

The following slate of officers will serve 
for the year : Mrs. K. Irving, pres. ; Mrs. 
K. White, vice-pres : ; Mrs. J. Dougherty, 
sec. ; R. Sarsons, treas. 



District 8 

Taber 

At the last meeting of the chapter a nom- 
inating committee was selected to draw up 
a slate of officers for the coming year. A 
resume of proposed bylaw revisions was 
given by Aliss Jorgensen. Nursing aides 
attended as honored guests on this occasion 
and participated in the Christmas program 
that followed the business session. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 

Penticton 

The slate of officers for the coming year 
is as follows : Mrs. A. Mason, president ; 
Mrs. E. Rainbow, past president ; Mrs. G. 
Hatson and Mrs. I. Browne, vice-presidents ; 
Mrs. B. Wethered and S. Marak, secretar- 
ies ; K. Leask, treasurer. The annual Valen- 
tine dance is to be held on board S.S. 
Sicamous. M. Delaney is in charge of ar- 
rangements. 

Trail 

The following slate of officers has been 
elected for this year : Mrs. Ross, pres. ; Mrs. 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



225 




DRUGS IN 
CURRENT USE, 1956 

Edited by Walter Modell, Associate 
Professor, Clinical Pharmacology, 
Cornell University Medical College. 
An alphabetical listing of drugs in 
common use, giving the principal 
characteristics of each, major uses, 
absorption, actions, administration, 
dosage, antidotes against poisoning, 
etc., 1956. $2.25. 

THE USE OF DRUGS 

By Walter Modell, and Doris J. 
Place, Instructor in Medical Nursing, 
Cornell University — New York Hos- 
pital School of Nursing. A textbook 
of pharmacology and therapeutics 
for nurses. The materia medica section 
has been greatly enlarged. Second 
edition, 1955. $5.50. 

THE RYERSON PRESS 

299 QUEEN STREET WEST 
TORONTO 2-B 



THE CENTRAL REGISTRY 

OF GRADUATE NURSES 

TORONTO 

Furnish Nurses 

• at any hour • 

DAY or NIGHT 

TELEPHONE WAInut 2-2136 

427 Avenue Road, TORONTO 5. 

Jean C. Brown, Reg. N. 




THAT ALL UNIFORMS 
CLOTHING AND 
OTHER BELONGINGS 
ARE MARKED WITH 

CASH'S Loomwoven NAMES 

Parmanent, ftaty Identlflcation. Easily sewn on, or oltaclMd 
with N»-So Cement. From dealers or 
CASH'S Belleville 5, Onl. 

CASH'S: 3 Doz. $1.80; 9 Doz. $3.06; NO-SO 
NAMES: 6 Doz. $2.40; 12 Doz. $3.50; 25c per tube 



Wilson, 1st vice-pres. ; Miss Caplette, corr. 
sec. ; Mrs. Miller, rec. sec. ; Mrs. Oxley, 
treas. The annual dinner meeting is to be 
held late in March at the Rossland High 
School. 

Suggested new bylaws are to be studied 
by a committee under the leadership of 
Mrs. Morris, and presented to the members 
at a subsequent meeting. A report from the 
public health committee indicated that no 
further progress had been made in procuring 
polio vaccine. The appointment of Miss 
Oliver to the public health staff was an- 
nounced. It was reported with regret that 
doctors' lectures had been discontinued due 
to poor attendance. 

Following the business session, the film 
"Zinc Die Casting" was presented by Mr. 
Beinder of Cominco. He explained its con- 
nection with industry in Trail and provided 
the members with an excellent opportunity 
to see this facet of industrial life. 

Vancouver 

St. Paul's Hospital 

The final report of the bazaar held late 
in December is a tale of both social and 
financial success. It is expected that there 
will be a clear profit of over $600. The 
January meeting was both interesting and 
original. Dr. Gladys Cunningham who has 
spent many years in China was the guest 
speaker. Her topic was "Medical Experi- 
ences in the Orient." In keeping with the 
theme, the refreshments consisted of Chinese 
delicacies as well as American dishes. Grad- 
uates of other hospitals, presently on staff, 
attended as guests. 

S. P. Kolehmainen and I. M. Konrad 
were the recipients of the silver trophies 
and orchid corsages offered by the associa- 
tion to fhe outstanding member of each divi- 
sion of the graduating class. 



MANITOBA 



Brandon 



Salk polio vaccine — its safety and effec- 
tiveness — was discussed by Dr. James T. 
Lunn, director of public health, as guest 
speaker of the Graduate Nurses' Associa- 
tion. Statistics and verifying statements all 
point to the advisability of polio vaccination 
programs. One million Canadian children 
received the injections without a single 
mishap. The greatest degree of immunity 
was achieved by giving two injections a 
month apart and a third, seven to twelve 
months later. Future plans for Canada's 
vaccine program are already well-advanced 
under the direction of the Department of 
National Health and Welfare. Members of 
the nursing profession were urged to be as 
influential as possible in educating the public 
regarding the advantages of polio vaccina- 
tion. The care in preparation exercised by 
the Connaught Laboratories, Toronto has 
ensured a safe supply of vaccine for Cana- 
dian users. 

Prenatal lectures are being sponsored by 



226 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



the Health Unit of the city. Interested per- 
sons are to apply to the unit at City Hall. 
Dr. G. Coghlin, acting medical director of 
the sanitorium, was guest speaker at a subse- 
quent meeting. He showed slides pertaining 
to his work which were enjoyed by all. 



Winnipeg 
General Hospital 

The library in the new nurses' residence, 
which will shortly be completed, is to be 
furnished by the members of the alumnae 
association as their project for the coming 
year. Plans have been made for a permanent 
office for the association in the present 
residence and a part-time stenographer has 
been appointed. 

Graduates from other schools presently 
on staff have been extended a guest mem- 
bership. They were welcomed at the annual 
Christmas meeting. The following officers 
have been elected for the coming year : J. 
Whiteford, president; Mrs. G. Kent, first 
vice-pres. ; E. Henderson, recording sec. ; 
Mrs. G. Maclean, corresponding sec. ; A. C. 
Foster, treas. 

NEW BRUNSWICK 

Edmundston 

"S.O.S. — Same Old Service" was the 
very original topic chosen by Sr. St. Joseph 
as the theme of her address at a recent 
chapter meeting. She stressed the patient- 
nurse relationship and the necessary qualities 
of good nurses. M. Archibald, provincial 
secretary-registrar, also participated in the 
program. She gave detailed information in 
regard to the new type of registration cards. 
B. Seamen who extended greetings from the 
national office of the V.O.N, was an honored 
guest. C. Pichette reported on the annual 
meeting held in Moncton. 

The December meeting took the form of a 
Christmas party. C Pichette was the hostess 
on this occasion. Several members canvassed 
for and assisted with the Red Cross blood 
donor clinic. 

ONTARIO 

District 1 

Chatham 

Public General Hospital 

In December, a cheque for $1,092 was 
presented to Mr. Proctor Dick, chairman of 
the hospital board, as the final payment of 
the alumnae association's pledge to the build- 
ing fund. The nurses of Chapter one, Blen- 
heim, Ontario donated $600 towards the 
$5,000 pledge. The money has been used to 
completely furnish a case room in the new 
maternity wing. Officers elected for the year 
are : Mrs. G. Brisley. pres., Mrs. H. Reid, 
Miss Winnifred Fair, vice-pres. ; M, Camp- 
bell, recording sec. ; Mrs. G. Pritchard, 
corresponding sec. ; Mrs. C. Wm. Case, 
treasurer. 




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these principles ore a musf 
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Wril* for your BUA SKINNCK UNIFORM 
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MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 



227 



WILLS EYE HOSPITAL 

Philadelphia, Penna. 

The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month course 
in Nursing Care of the Eye to Grad- 
uates of Accredited Nursing Schools. 
Operating Room Training is scheduled 
in the course. 

• Maintenance and Stipend: $165 
per month for four months and $175 
per month for the next two months. 

• Registration Fee is $15 which 
takes care of pin and certificate. 

• Classes start March 15th and Sept. 
15th. Ophthalmic nurses are in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms, and ophthalmologists' 
offices. 

For information write to 

Director of Nurses, 

Wills Eye Hospital, 

1601 Spring Garden Street 

Philadelphia 30, Penna. 



District 2 



Woodstock 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS 
HOSPITRL 

SCHOOL of NURSING 

Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16-week supplementary course in 

OPERATIVE ASEPTIC TECHNIC 

with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic, 
orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic and 
ear, nose and throat operating room 
services. Maintenance and stipend are 
provided. 

For information unite to : 

Director, School of Nursing 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital 

Baltimore 5, Maryland, U.S.A. 



A general meeting held at the new St. 
Paul's church was attended by 115 members. 
Canon J. H. Geoghagan, rector, gave the 
invocation. Mayor Bernadette Smith brought 
greetings from civic authorities and Dr. H. 
Baker extended a welcome from the Ontario 
Medical Association. 

The guest speaker, Miss A. Reid, president 
of the R.N.A.O., outlined the historical 
development of nursing education. She stres- 
sed the self-sacrifice and toil which had 
been necessary to achieve present goals and 
which would be required in making further 
progress. I. Lawson, public relations sec- 
retary with the R.N.A.O., outlined the new 
bylaws for the members. Plans were made 
to send a delegate from the district to the 
biennial convention in Winnipeg. 

Tom Patterson of the Stratford Shakes- 
pearean Festival was the guest speaker fol- 
lowing the dinner. He spoke especially of the 
contribution that the festival has already 
made to Canadian culture. 



District 5 



Toronto 



Women's College Hospital 

The annual meeting and election of officers 
was held early in January. Late in the same 
month a January Nite was held at the Royal 
York Hotel with a drawing for a hope chest 
as a special feature. A student loan fund has 
been established as an alumnae project and 
members are being asked to contribute to- 
wards this. 



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 

SUMMERSIDE 

Prince County Hospital 

Miss Mildred Slackford has been appoin- 
ted supervisor of the Old Prince County 
Hospital. This unit has been opened for the 
accommodation and care of patients with 
chronic illness, and is a division of the 
present general hospital. 



QUEBEC 



SlIERBROOKE 



A regular meeting of the English chapter 
was held in the Norton residence of the 
hospital in December. The students joined 
the members in viewing two very interesting 
films following the business session. 

Sherbrookc Hospital 

The annual fall dance of the alumnae as- 
sociation was held at the New Sherbrooke 
Hotel in November with a good attendance. 



228 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



In December a choir of forty graduates and 
students carrying lighted candles, sang 
Christmas carols for the patients and then 
gathered in Norton residence with friends 
for a Christmas party. Graduates of 1954 
and 1955 presented a very fine television 
set for use in the residence. 

A Christmas tea and sale sponsored by 
the Students Council helped to swell the 
funds needed to send three students to the 
biennial convention in Winnipeg this year. 
H. Parnell was a recent visitor to the hos- 
pital. 



SASKATCHEWAN 

Saskatoon 

The annual chapter banquet was held in 
December. A delicate arrangement of yellow 
mums and tall tapers formed the centrepiece 
for the head table. The banquet room itself 
was illuminated only by soft candlelight. 

Miss Edith Shepperd, Centralized Teach- 
ing Program, introduced Miss Hazel Keeler, 
professor of nursing at the University of 
Saskatchewan, as guest speaker. Her inter- 
esting comments and movie reels of her 
recent trip to Europe were enjoyed by all. 

City Hospital 

The student Nurses' Association with the 
graduate nursing staff held their annual 
Christmas party in mid-December in the 
Residence. During the evening Mr. and Mrs. 
J. E. Armstrong showed colored movie 
reels of recent events around the hospital, 
including graduation and capping. The high- 
light of the evening was the arrival of Santa 
Claus who presented gifts to many of those 
present. 

Regina 

In December of the past year Miss Myrtle 
Wilkins and Miss Lillian Lynch brought 
27 years of service to a close with their 
retirement from the staff of the city health 
department. Miss Wilkins obtained her pro- 
fessional education at the Regina General 
Hospital. In 1928 she joined the immuniza- 
tion branch of the city health services. Miss 
Lynch is a graduate of the Winnipeg Gen- 
eral Hospital. During the first World War 
she served in France and Belgium. In 1928 
she, too, joined Regina's health staff serving 
first on the staff of the public school board 
before her transfer to the city health depart- 
ment. 



In 1895, Charles D. Seeberger coined the 
word "escalator" to describe his moving 
stairway. The word was likely derived from 
the Latin word "scala" meaning ladder. In 
1898 the first moving stairway was set up 
and when it was moved to France to be 
exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1900, it 
w^as labelled "escalator." 



VICTORIAN ORDER OF 
NURSES FOR CANADA . . . 

requires 

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 

for Staff and Supervisory positions in 
various parts of Canada. 

Applications will be considered from 
Registered Nurses without Public 
Health training but with University 
entrance qualifications. 



SALARY, STATUS AND PROMOTIONS 
ARK DETERMINED IN RELATION I 
TO THE QUALIFICATIONS OF THE I 
APPLICANT. I 

I 

Apply to: 

Director in Chief, 

Victorian Order of Nurses 
for Canada, 

193 SPARKS STREET, 
Ottawa 4, Ont. 



TEST POOL EXAMINATIONS 

FOR 

REGISTRATION OF NURSES 

IN 

NOVA SCOTIA 

To take place on May 16, 17 and 
18, 1956 at Halifax, Yarmouth, Am- 
herst, Sydney and Antigonish. Re- 
quests for application forms should be 
made at once and forms MUST BE 
returned to the Registered Nurses' 
Association of Nova Scotia by April 
16, 1956, together with : — 

(1) Diploma of School of Nursing 

(2) Fee of Ten Dollars ($10.00) 

No undergraduate may write unless 
he or slie has passed successfully all 
final School of Nursing examinations 
and is within six (6) weeks of comple- 
tion of the course of Nursing. 

NANCY H. WATSON, R.N. REGISTRAR 

THE REGISTERED NURSES' ASSOCIATION 

OF NOVA SCOTIA 

301 BARRINGTON STREET, HALIFAX, N.S. 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 



229 



Calling All 

Canadian 

Graduate Nurses 

• How would you like to 
work and live in the 
heart of Manhattan? 

The Roosevelt Hospital, a 
voluntary, general hospital, 
offers you this opportunity. 

• Why not enjoy these 
benefits offered by 
Roosevelt ? 

Base Salary — Begins at 
$260 per month, without ex- 
perience. Experience quali- 
fies for higher starting salary. 

Increments — ■ Start after 
first 6 months and continue 
annually. 

Bonuses — $40 for evening 
and $20 for night duty. 

Vacation — 4 weeks annu- 
ally. 

Holidays — 10 annually. 

Laundry Service 

Hospitalization 

Health Service 

Social Security 

For further information ivrite to: 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 

DEPARTMENT NS, 

ROOSEVELT HOSPITAL 

59th Street West, 
New York City 



EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR 

for 

SCHOOL OF NURSING 

Saint John General Hospital 

DUTIES TO COMMENCE JULY 1, 1956. 

Degree in nursing education with 
experience required. 

New Educational Department 
opening in March, 1956. 

Expected registration 200 students. 

APPLY: DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 

SAINT JOHN GENERAL HOSPITAL, 

SAINT JOHN, N.B. 



Know your China Better 

The world is indebted to the Chinese for 
the origin of chinaware. Historical records 
show that it was produced extensively in 
China as early as 87 B.C. That explains the 
origin of the name "China". In Italy, it was 
called "porcelaine" because of its resem- 
blance to porcellana, a lustrous sea shell. 

Four fundamental raw materials are used 
today. First, china clay or kaolin, the orig- 
inal substance is used. In early times a large 
deposit of this material was found in China 
and was known to the Chinese as "Kaoling" 
meaning high hill. Hence kaolin today 
designates all pure clays which are white 
when burned ... A smaller proportion 
of a more plastic clay, called ball clay, is 
added to facilitate the forming of the ware. 
Feldspar combines with the other substances 
and fuses together in the firing process. 
Quartz holds up the body structure of the 
china and gives it unusual strength. 

— Canadian Hospital, February, 1955 



The world's largest orthopedic hospital for 
children is operated by the Canadian Red 
Cross in Calgary. 



230 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



REGISTERED HOSPITAL NURSES, 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 

and 

Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses 

required for 

^eden^ ^kcUclk ^ecUt^ Sen^cc^ 

HOSPITAL POSITIONS 

Oshweken, Manitowaning, Moose Factory and Sioux Lookout, Ont. ; 
Hodgson, Pine Falls and Norway House, Man. ; Fort Qu'Appelle, North 
Battleford, Sask. ; Edmonton, Hobbema, Gleichen, Cardston, Morley 
and Brocket, Alta. ; Sardis, Prince Rupert and Nanaimo, B.C. 

PUBLIC HEALTH POSITIONS 

Outpost Nursing Stations, Health Centres and field positions in Provin- 
ces, Eastern Arctic, and North-West Territories. 

SALARIES 

(1) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $3,300 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 

(2) Hospital Staff Nurses : up to $3,120 per year depending upon quali- 
fications and location. 

(3) Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses: up to $185 per month, 
depending upon qualifications. 

• Room and board in hospitals — $30 per month. Statutory holidays. 
Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sick leave credits. Hos- 
pital-medical and superannuation plans available. Assistance may be 
provided to help cover cost of transportation. 

• Special compensatory leave for those posted to isolated areas. 

For interesting, challenging, satisfying ivork, apply to: 
Indian and Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses : 

(1) 4824 Eraser St., Vancouver 10, B.C.; 

(2) Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta ; 

(3) 10 Travellers Building, Regina, Sask. ; 

(4) 522 Dominion Public Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba ; 

(5) Box 292, North Bay, Ontario; 

(6) 55 "B" St. Joseph Street, Quebec, P.Q. ; 

(7) Moose Factory Indian Hospital, Moosonee, Ontario. 



Chief, Personnel Division, 

Department of National Health and Welfare, 

Ottawa, Ontario, 



MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 231 



Positions Vacant 

Advertising Rates — $5.00 for 3 lines or less; $1.00 jar each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign — $7.50 for 3 lines or less; $1.50 for each additional line. 

Closing date for copy and cancellations: 10th of the month preceding the month of 
publication. All letters should be addressed to: The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Director of Nursing & Nursing Education for 160-bed General Hospital. Postgraduate 
course in administration or equivalent experience required. Salary open. Applications 
should give details of education, qualifications & experience. Apply Administrator, 
The Victoria Public Hospital, Fredericton, N.B. 

Matron (Registered Nurse) for private nursing home, please write Dr. Francis' Private 
Hospital, Ganges, B.C. 

Supt. of Nurses immediately for 67-bed hospital. Salary open depending on training & 
experience. Gen. Duty Nurses also required. Good salary & personnel policies. New 
80-bed hospital opening in 1956. Apply M. M. Barber, R.N., Administrator, Portage Hospital, 
Dist. No. 18, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. 

Operating Room Supervisor for operating suite — 4 rooms. 1 80-bed hospital. Good 
salary and personnel policies. Postgraduate course and experience preferred. Apply 
Miss B. A. Beattie, Director of Nursing, Public General Hospital, Chatham, Ont. 

Operating Room Supervisor. Night Supervisor & Staff Nurses. Good salary & personnel 
policies. Living accommodations available. Apply Director of Nurses, General Hospital, 
Parry Sound, Ontario. 

Psychiatric Nurse to assume position as Head Nurse 5c Clinical Supervisor of new 
38-bed Psychiatric Unit in a 500-bed General Hospital. An excellent opportunity for 
a Psychiatric Nurse who wishes to assume leadership in developing the policies, pro- 
cedures & teaching program of this new Psychiatric Unit. Patients treated only by 
psychiatrists. The most modern facilities & treatment methods. Cooperative administra- 
tion. Bachelor's Degree required plus Psychiatric experience. Salary commensurate with 
experience & abilities. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Supervisor of Nursing (Dept. of Public Health) to supervise the activities of a group of 
nurses engaged in a well-rounded public & school nursing 6. education program. Appli- 
cants should possess certificate in Public Health Nursing, a background of successful 
experience & supervisory ability. Current salary: $295-$315 per mo. Employee benefits 
include 5-day wk., 3 wk. vacation, sick leave, pension plan, etc. Forward detailed appli- 
cations to Personnel Office, City Hall, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 

Central Supply Room Supervisor to organize & direct dept. in new 250-bed hospital. 
Experience in operating room &/or central supply desirable. Salary according to education 
<5c experience. Apply Supt., Children's Hospital, Winnipeg 4, Manitoba. 

Obstetrical Supervisor (1) preierably with postgraduate course, Day Supervisor (1) with 
experience, Operaiing Room Scrub Nurse (1). General Duty Nurses (2) for new 144- 
adult bed plus 32-bassinette hospital. Good salary & personnel policies. Apply Director 
of Nurses, Plummer Memorial Public Hospital, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Obstetrical Supervisor (Experienced) for night duty, 11-7. Salary: $230 with board, 
room & laundry. Write to Director of Nurses, Misericordia Hospital, Haileybury, Ont. 

General Supervisors, Operating Room Nurses and General Duty Nurses for new 150-bed 
hospital. Starting salary for Registered General Duty Nurses $230 with annual increases 
to $40. 11/2 days per mo. cumulative sick leave; 40-hr. wk; 28 days vacation; 10 statu- 
tory holidays. Apply: Supt. of Nurses, Trail-Tadanac Hospital, Trail, B.C. 

Obstetrical Supervisor (experienced) for modern, fully accredited 117-bed General 
Hospital with university-affiliated school of nursing. Postgraduate education desirable. 
Salary dependent on qualifications. Location 45 miles from Buffalo <S Rochester. 40-hr. 
wk. Retirement plan. Educational aid. Apply Director of Nursing, Wyoming County 
Community Hospital, Warsaw, N.Y. 

232 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

Due to the opening of a new wing in a well-equipped, new 1 25-bed hospital in 
Suburban Toronto. Enjoy the congenial working conditions of a smaller institution with 
the advantages of locating in metropolitan Toronto. Residence accommodation optional. 

SALARY RANGES 

GENERAL DUTY $205 - $275 monthly 

HEAD NURSES $225 - $295 monthly 

SUPERVISORS $240 -$310 monthly 

Apply. 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, HUMBER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 

200 CHURCH ST., WESTON, TORONTO, ONTARIO 



Operating Room Supervisor for Ontario active surgical unit of 100-bed hospital. Approx. 
1,800 cases annually. Vacation after 1 yr. of service. Sick leave, statutory holidays & 
Blue Cross Plan. Postgraduate diploma desirous but not necessary if experience is 
adequate. Apply The Director of Nursing, Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, Ont. 

Operating Room Supervisor (1) & Nursing Arts Instructor (1) for 110-bed hospital. Apply 

Supt., The Charlotte County Hospital, St. Stephen, N.B. 

Assistant Evening Supervisor for hospital with School of Nursing. Moving to new 250-bed 
hospital shortly. Apply Director of Nursing, Children's Hospital, Winnipeg 4, Man. 

Head Instructor for Training School to teach Sciences. 86-bed hospital; 30 students. 

Complete maintenance provided in comfortable suite. Apply, stating qualifications & 
salary expected, A. J. Schmiedl, Sec. Manager, General Hospital, Dauphin, Man. 

Clinical or Nursing Arts Instructor for university-affiliated school of nursing in modern 
hospital, pleasantly located 45 miles from Buffalo & Rochester. Starting salary: $3,900. 
40-hr. wk. Retirement plan. Apply Director, School of Nursing, Wyoming County Com- 
munity Hospital, Warsaw, N.Y. 

Instructor for school of nursing — Applications are invited for 138-bed hospital. This 
school is affiliated with Montreal hospitals, the teaching schools associated with McGill 
University. For particulars apply Matron, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 

Instructor to teach anatomy and physiology, microbiology first term, followed by sur- 
gical nursing lectures and clinical supervision on surgical wards. Starting salary: $255; 
$10 for 2 yrs. experience; $10 yearly increments; I'/a days sick leave, cumulative; 
10 statutory holidays; 40-hr. wk; 1 class per yr. in September. Apply to: Director of 
Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, B.C. 

Obstetrical Clinical Instructor for School of Nursing with capacity 195 students attached 
to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or at 
least 3 yrs. experience & working towards degree. Located in "all American City" of 
120,000 in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural 
primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, 
Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Nursing Arts Instructor for School of Nursing, with capacity 195 students, attached to 
expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or ot least 
3 yrs. experience & working toward degree. Located in "All American City" of 120,000 
in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural primary 
interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman 
Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Clinical Instructor (2) for 222-bed hospital. Beautiful new nurses' residence combined 
with teaching unit. Present enrollment 57 students. For further inform.ation apply Direc- 
tor of Nursing, St. Joseph's General Hospital, Port Arthur, Ontario. 

Clinical Coordinator to be responsible for rotation of student nurses. Applications to be 
made to The Director of Nursing, Miss Ida Johnson, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Ed- 
monton, Alta. 

Assistant Head Nurses for children's orthopedic hospital. Good personnel policies. Pen- 
sion plan available. Apply Director, Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, 1529 
Cedar Ave., Montreal. 

MARCH. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 3 233 



UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 

SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 

Requires 

General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric Services. 

Forty-four hour week. Salary $210 to $260 gross per month. Differential 

for evening and night duty. Residence Accommodation if desired. 

Apply fo: 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, 

SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 



Assistant Head Nurses. Surgical, Obstetrical & General Duty Nurses for 355-bed General 
Hospital. Starting salary: $260, $270 for afternoons & nights. Apply Director of Nursing 
Service, St. Vincent's Hospital, 2447 N.W. Westover, Portland 10, Oregon. 

Supervisor of Public Health Nursing for generalized program in city ot 43,000. 5-day wk., 
1 mo. vacation with extra time at Christmas or Easter. Cumulative sick leave. Pension 
plan, Blue Cross & P.S.I., Workmen's Compensation. Transportation provided or allow- 
ance. For further information please write supplying details of training & experience 
to Dr. J. P. Wells, M.O.H., Peterborough, Ont. 

Supervisor & Public Health Nurses (qualified) for Porcupine Health Unit, 5-day wk. 
4 wk. vacation. 18 days sick leave annually. Car provided. Good working conditions. 
Apply Secretary, Porcupine Health Unit, 164 Algonquin Blvd. E., Timmins, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse Grade 1. British Columbia Civil Service, Dept. of Health & Welfare. 
Starting Salary $255, $260, $266 per mo., depending on experience, rising to $298. per mo. 
Promotional opportunities available. Qualifications: Candidate must be eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia & have completed a University degree or Certificate course in 
Public Health Nursing. (Successful candidates may be required to serve in any part of 
the Province.) Cars are provided. 5-day wk. in most districts. Uniform allowance. Candi- 
dates must be British subjects; preference is given to ex-service women. Application forms 
obtainable from all Government Agencies, the Civil Service Commission, 544 Michigan 
St., Victoria, or 411 Dunsmuir St., Vancouver 3, to be completed & returned to the Chairman, 
Civil Service Commission, Victoria. Further information may be obtained from the Director, 
Public Health Nursing, Dept. of Health & Welfare, Parliament Bldgs., Victoria, B.C. 

Public Health Nurses with Certificate, permanent. Nurses with R.N. temporary for Polio 
Program. Apply Mr. J. Silvester, Personnel Officer, York Township Health Dept., 2700 
Eglinton Ave. W., Toronto 9, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse for the Peace River Health Unit. Duties to commence April 1/56. Salary 
in accordance with Provincial schedule. Apply Sec. Health Unit, Peace River, Alta. 

Public Health Nurses for generalized program in Seaway Development Area. Minimum 
salary: $2,700 with allowance for experience. Group insurance & Blue Cross available. 
Good transportation policy. Apply R. S. Peat, M.D., Medical Officer of Health, S. D. & 
G. Health Unit, 104 Second St. W., Cornwall, Ont. 

Registered Staff Nurses, immediate appointments, in 511-bed newly enlarged and finely 
equipped general hospital. Duty assignments in medical, surgical, pediatrics, psychi- 
atric, obstetrics, or contagion units. Northeastern Ohio stable "All-American City" of 
120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial, and educational friendly activities. 
Living costs reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance advantages of metropolitan 
Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly, cooperative work relations 
and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel policies. Starting salary: $240 per 
mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, recognized holidays, premium 
pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, retirement. Contact: Director of 
Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or collect telephone 4-5673. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty. Initial salary: $200 per mo.; with 6 or more months 
Psychiatric experience, $210 per mo. Salary increase at end of 1 yr. 44-hr. wk.; 8 statu- 
tory holidays, annual vacation with pay. Living accom.modation if desired. For further 
information apply Supt. of Nurses, Homewood Sanitarium, Guelph, Ont. 

2S4 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISOR 

Required by 

UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 

To organize a surgical unit of 1 00 beds. Good personnel policies. 

Salary: $240 to $300 per month. 

Apply to: 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, 

SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 



Registered Graduate Nurses for General Duty for 650-bed Tuberculosis Hospital, 10 mi. 
from downtown Toronto. Gross starting salary: $93 bi-weekly, less $15.23 for room, 
meals & laundry. 3 annual increments. 44-hr. wk., 8 hr. day, broken hrs. 3 wk. vacation 
after 1 yr., 9 statutory holidays. Hospital bus service to & from city. Apply Supt. of 
Nurses, Toronto Hospital, Weston, Ont. 

Registered or Graduate Nurses for General Duty (2) for modern 20-bed hospital. Salary 
& increments in accordance with S.R.N. A. recommendations. 1 mo. vacation & sick time 
with pay after 1 yr. service. Separate staff residence. Apply Sec-Man. Riverside 
Memorial Hospital, Turtleford, Sask. 

Registered Nurses (3) immediately for 36-bed General Hospital in southern Manitoba. 
Starting salary: $210 per mo. with 3 wk. vacation with pay 1st. yr. employment; 4-wk. 
vacation thereafter. All statutory holidays. Regular sick leave, 50% Blue Cross payments. 
Apply Supt. of Nurses, Hospital Dist. No. 24, Box 330, Altona, Manitoba. 

Registered <S Non-Registered Nurses, X-Ray & Lab. Technician for General Hospital. 
Gross salary for nurses registered in Ont. equivalent to $233.85 per mo. Good personnel 
policies, new facilities. 8-hr. rotating shifts; 44-hr. wk.; 1-day off 1 wk. & 2 the next. 
IV2 days holiday & sick leave per mo.; 8 legal holidays per year. Up to $40 travelling 
expenses & increase paid after 1 yr. service. Semi-private Blue Cross with M.O.S. 
coverage. Full maintenance is provided including room, board & laundering of uniforms. 
Apply Supt., Lady Minto Hospital, Cochrane, Ont. 

Registered General Duty Nurses for 18-bed hospital. Salary: $240 less $30 perquisities with 
yearly increase of $10 per mo. 44-hr. wk. Vacation with pay, all statutory holidays, liberal 
sick leave. For further information please telephone collect to Miss H. Moore, Matron, 
Union Hospital, Oxbow, Sask. 

Registered Nurses. Salary: $225 per mo. gross. 5-day wk. Single room residence. 20 
miles east of Toronto. Apply Supt., Ajax & Pickering General Hosp., Ajax, Ont. 

Registered Nurses (2) for new 30-bed hospital. Apply Matron, Creston Valley Hospital, 
Creston, British Colunabia. 

Registered Nurses for Psychiatry. Student affiliation or postgraduate work preferred. 
For information apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ont. 

Registered Nurses for 82-bed accredited hospital. Gross Salary: $210-$230 per mo. 44-hr. 

5V2-day wk. with no split shifts. 30 days vacation with pay after 1 yr. of service plus 
statutory holidays. Room in a comfortable residence & laundry of uniforms provided 
at $10-$12 per mo. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Union Hosp., Canora, Sask. 

Registered Nurses — General Staff, Operating Room, Psychiatric for 300-bed General 
Hospital with new wing opening in April. Starting salary: $220 per mo. with annual 
increment for 3 years. For further particulars apply Director of Nursing Services, Metro- 
politan General Hospital, Windsor, Ont. 

Graduate Registered Nurses for general duty for 1 18-bed General Hospital along the 
shores of Lake Michigan, 25 mi. from Chicago. Base salary $300. Good personal policies. 
Apply Highland Park Hosp., Foundation, 718 Glenview Ave., Highland Park, 111. 

General Duty Nurses for 40-bed hospital. Salary $250, full maintenance $45. 42-hr. wk., 28 
days annual vacation plus 10 statutory holidays. Rotating shifts, cum.ulative sick leave, 
self-contained residence. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Princeton, B.C. 

MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 * 235 



University of Alberta Hospital 

Edmonton, Alberta. 

Requires General Duty Nurses. Salary range: $190-$215 per mo. plus 2 meals 
& laundry. 40-hr. wk. to be instituted not later than March 31st, 1956. 
Rotating shifts, 21 days vacation, statutory holidays, other benefits. 

For further information apply 

ASSOC. DIRECTOR OF NURSING (SERVICE), UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA HOSPITAL, 
EDMONTON, ALBERTA. 



General Duty Registered Nurses & Certified Nursing Assistants for 50-bed hospital. 
44 hr. wk. For further information apply Supt. of Nurses, General Hospital, Cobourg, Ont. 

General Duty & Surgical Nurses for 64-bed acute treatment, fully accredited hospital 
in Northern California. Excellent living conditions. Close proximity to vacation areas 
for leisure time. Full details at once on salaries, working conditions, paid holidays, 
paid vacations, paid sick leave & other benefits. Please apply DirectT of Nursing 
Services, Clinic Hospital, Woodland, California. 

General Duty Nurses for 30-bed General Hospital. Excellent working conditions, per- 
sonnel policies & recreational facilities. Apply Miss M. I. Baker, Supervisor of Nurses, 
Joyce Memorial Hospital, Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

General Duty Nurses for 114-bed hospital. Salary: $220-$250 with $5.00 increments every 
6 mo. 44-hr. wk., 3-wk. annual vacation, statutory holidays etc. For further particulars 
please apply to Director of Nurses, Union Hosp., Swift Current, Sask. 

General Duty Nurses for small hospital. Salary: $200 per mo. plus maintenance. 8-hr. day, 
44-hr. wk., statutory holidays as outlined by R.N.A.O. Travelling expenses refunded after 
12 mo. service. New nurses' residence under construction. Apply Lady Minto Hospital, 
Chapleau, Ontario. 

General Duty Graduate Nurses for well equipped 72-bed hospital on B.C. coast. Salary: 
$222 per mo. less $25 full maintenance. Semi-annual increments. 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays after 1 yr. Apply Matron, St. George's Hospital, Alert Bay, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Pediatrics, Obstetrics. Good salary & per- 
sonnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses for all departments. Gross salary: $210 per mo. if registered in 
Ontario $200 per mo. until registration has been established. $20 per mo. bonus for 
evening or night duty; annual increment of $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 44-hr. wk., 8 statutory 
holidays, 21 days vacation & 14 days leave for illness with pay after 1 yr. of employ- 

ment. Apply: Director of Nursing. General Hospital, Qshawa, Ont. 

General Duty Nurse for well equipped 30-bed General Hospital in beautiful inland valley 
adjacent Lake Kathlyn. Boating, fishing, sv,rimming, golfing, curling, skiing. Initial salary: 
$240, full maintenance, $40. 44-hr. wk. vacation with pay. Comfortable, attractive nurses' 
residence on grounds. Rail fare advanced if necessary, refunded following 1 yr. service. 
References required. Apply Bulkley Valley Dist. Hospital, Smithers, B.C. 



REGISTERED NURSES 

$2,430 - $3,120 

ACCORDING TO QUALIFICATIONS 

for 

SUNNYBROOK HOSPITAL, TORONTO 

and 
WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, LONDON 

Applicaflon forms, available at your nearest Civil Service Commission OfFice, National Em- 
ployment Service & Post OfTice, should be forwarded to the Civil Service Commission, 
25 St. Clair Ave., E., Toronto 7, Ontario. 



236 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



GRENFELL LABRADOR MEDICAL MISSION 

The Grenfell Mission operates four Hospitals & seven Nursing Stations in 
northern Newfoundland & on the Labrador. Here is a wonderful opportunity 
for valuable experience & an adventurous life. If you are making plans for 
next year, why not consider this splendid service still carried on in the name 
of a great man? 

For full information please write 

MISS DOROTHY A. PLANT, SECRETARY, GRENFELL LABRADOR MEDICAL MISSION 
48 SPARKS ST., OTTAWA 4, ONTARIO 



General Duty Nurses. Salary: $230-270, $10 increment for experience. 40-hr. wk. U/z days 
sick leave per mo. cumulative; 10 statutory holidays, (1) mo. vacation. Must be eligible 
for B.C. registration. Apply Director of Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, B.C. 

General Duty Nurse (1) immediately. Salary: $220 per mo. less $45 for full maintenance 
in new modern nurses' home. 40-hr. wk. 28 days vacation after 1 yr. service. 10 statutory 
holidays. Fare refunded after 1 yr. Apply V. H. Collins, Sec.-Treas., General Hospital, 
Golden, British Columbia. 

General Duty Nurses for 165-bed Sanatorium. 44-hr. wk. 4-wk. vacation, statutory holidays. 
Apply Director of Nursing, Niagara Peninsula Sanatorium, St. Catharines, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses. All shifts, no rotation. Starting salary $290, increases to $349 plus 
shift differential of $10. Specialty services, Ob-Peds-Tb-Isol $10-$15 extra. 5 day wk. 3-wk. 
vacation end of 1st yr. 11 statutory holidays each yr. Nurses' home available at $15 per 
mo. Ideal location, short distance from San Francisco or mountain resort areas. Apply 
Director of Nurses, Stanislaus County Hosp., 830 Scenic Drive, Modesto, California. 

Graduate Nurses for 29-bed General Hospital — 2 positions open. Beginning salary: $250 
per mo. 2-wk. vacation with pay. Sick benefits, Blue Cross Hospitalization <& Social 
Security Benefits. Apply Business Manager, Otis Hosp., Inc., 441 E. Market St., Celina, Ohio. 

Operating Room Supervisor. Starting Salary: $300 per mo.. Graduate Nurses for 100-bed 
West Coast General Hospital. Salary: $250 per mo. less $40 for board, residence, laundry. 
3 annual increments; $10 per mo. night duty bonus. 1 mo. vacation with full salary after 
1 yr. service. 1% days sick leave per mo. cumulative to 36 days. Transportation allowance 
up to $60 refunded after 1 yr. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Prince Rupert, 
B.C. 

Graduate Nurses (3) for 24-bed hospital. Salary: $230 per mo. if B.C. registered; less 
$40 board, lodging, laundry. 1 mo. vacation after 1 yr. on full pay. U/z days sick leave 
per mo. cumulative. Apply, stating experience to Matron, Terrace & District Hospital, 
Terrace, British Columbia. 

Graduate Nurses (2) for 64-bed hospital 250 mi. northwest Edmonton. Good train & mail 
service. Salary as recommended by R.N. A. of Alberta, increments of $5.00 every 6 mo. 
for 2 yrs. $30 room & board. Transportation allowance up to $50 after 1 yr. service. 
28 days paid vacation after 1 yr. plus 10 statutory holidays. IV2 days sick leave per 
mo. Apply Sr. Superior, Providence Hospital, High Prairie, Alta. 



DIRECTOR 

SCHOOL OF NURSING 

Position vacant August 1956. Modern classrooms & facilities. Present student 
enrolment 54. New 85-bed nurses' residence to be opened in fall. Salary 
commensurate to qualifications. Liberal personnel policies. 

Apply: 

PERSONNEL DIRECTOR, GENERAL HOSPITAL, SARNIA, ONTARIO. 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 237 



See Quebec With EmploYment Rather Than A Tourist Visit 

OPERATrNG ROOM SUPERVISOR 
GRADUATE NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY 

Where? Jeffery Hale's Hospital 

Why Unique? Only English speaking hospital & training school in 
Quebec City 

For information write: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSES, JEFFERY HALE'S HOSPITAL, 1250 ST. FOY, QUEBEC, P.O. 



Graduate Nurses for duty on Obstetrical, Medical & Surgical Wards. Personnel policies 
as recommended by the Assoc, of Nurses of the Prov. of Quebec. Please apply Director 
of Nursing, Queen Elizabeth Hospital of Montreal, 2100 Marlowe Ave., Montreal 2 8, Que. 

Staff Nurses for 600-bed General & Tuberculosis Hospitals with School of Nursing. 

Salary: $288-$341. Shift, special service & educational differentials, $10. 40-hr. wk; 3-wk. 
vacation; 1 1 holidays; accumulative sick leave. Apply Associate Director of Nursing 
Service, County General Hospital, Fresno, California. 

Staff Nurses & Operating Room Scrub Nurses for 225-bed General Hospital, 20 mi. north 
of New York City. Salary: $240-$280. $20 extra for O.R. duty & permanent evening 
duty; $15 for permanent night duty. Apply Director of Nursing, St. John's Riverside 
Hospital, Yonkers, N.Y. 

General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation & postgraduate program. Full maintenance. Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after 1 yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk. 
For further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentvi lle, N.S. 

General Staff Nurses for fully accredited, private teaching hospital located on Lake 
Michigan, just north of Chicago. Salary range: $3Q3-$328.70. Shift bonus, $26 after- 
noons & $17 nights. 5-day, 40-hr. wk. Progressive personnel policies. Excellent cafeteria 
& attractive rooms at reasonable rates. Please indicate type of service preferred. 
Apply Director of Nursing, Evanston Hospital, 2650 Ridge Ave., Evanston, Illino is. 

Operating Room Nurses, immediate appointments, for 511-bed newly enlarged and 
finely equipped hospital; 10 operating rooms now completed. Northeastern Ohio stable 
"All-American City" of 120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial and educa- 
tional friendly activities; living cost reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance 
advantages of metropolitan Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly 
and considerate working associates and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel 
policies. Starting salary: $240 per mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, 
recognized holidays, premium jDay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, 
retirement. Contact Director of Personnel, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or 
collect telephone 4-5673. 

Operating Room Nurses, preferably with experience, for 75-bed hospital. Operating unit 
consists of 2 theatres, emergency treatment & recovery room. Apply Supt., Carleton 
Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, N.B. 



McKELLAR GENERAL HOSPITAL, FORT WILLIAM, ONT. 

Requires 

CLINICAL INSTRUCTOR IN OPERATING ROOM 

Gross salary commensurate with experience, 28 days vacation after one 
year, 8 statutory holidays, sick leave accumulative to 60 days; Residence 
accommodation available at reasonable rates. Hospital has recently completed 
a vfeW equipped and staffed wing with extensive renovation program pro- 
gressing in the old section. 

APPLY DIRECTOR OF NURSING 



238 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



CANADIAN RED CROSS SOCIETY 

invites applications for Staff and Administrative positions in Hospital, Public Health 
Nursing Services, and Blood Transfusion Service lor various parts of Canada. 

• The majority of opportunities are in Outpost Services in British Coliimbia, 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 

• Commensurate salaries for experience and qualifications. Transportation arrange- 
ments under certain circumstances. Bursaries are available for post-graduate 
study. 

For fur/her par/icuiors apply: 

National Director, Nursing Services, Canaduk Red Cross Soctett, 
95 Wellesley St., Toronto 5, Ontario. 



Baker Memorial Sanatorium, Calgary, Alberta, offers to Graduate Nurses a 6-mo. post- 
graduate course in Tuberculosis. Maintenance & salary as for general staff nurses. 
Opportunity for permanent employment if desired. Spring & Fall Classes. Further 
information on request. 

Operating Room Scrub Nurses with experience for new operating suite near completion, 
finely equipped. Salary open depending upon preparation or experience. Desirable 
working conditions. Travel expenses if necessary. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Union Hospital, 
Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. 

Operating Room Nurses (2) for 60-bed General Hospital. Apply Superintendent, Leam- 
ington District Memorial Hospital, Leamington, Ontario. 

Nursing Arts Instructor to direct teaching program & teach nursing arts. Clinical Instruc- 
tor (1) to teach psychiatric nursing on male wards. Clinical Inslraclor (1) to teach 
psychiatric nursing on female wards. Instructor to be responsible for psychiatric nursing 
affiliation program. Salary; $290 to $345 per mo. Graduate Nurses preferably with 
psychiatric preparation. Salary: $235 to $275 per mo. 1450-bed active treatment hospital 
conducting an accredited school of nursing. 44-hr. wk. Residence with board, if desired, 
$30 per mo. Excellent holiday, sick leave & pension benefits. Apply, stating qualifica- 
tions & experience, Supt. of Nurses, Provincial Mental Hospital, Ponoka, Alta. 

Public Health Nurses (qualified). Generalized program in urban area. Starting salary: 
$2,900-$3,200 depending on experience. Annual increment $150. Transportation provided. 
5-day wk. Pension Plan. Hospitalization & sickness insurance available. Apply A. F. 
Mackay, Board of Health, City of Oshawa, Ont. 

Registered Nurse for 10-bed hospital. Duties to commence March 17. Salary: $175 plus 
full maintenance. Regular increments in salary. Attractive living accommodation. Apply 
Miss Ivy Buckley, Matron, North Norfolk-MacGregor Medical Nursing Unit, Dist. No. 18A, 
Macgregor, Man. 

Staff Nurses for 100-bed hospital. Gross salary commences at $2,100. Apply Supt. of 
Nurses, Western Memorial Hospital, Corner Brook, Newfoundland. 

General Duty Nurses. Good personnel policies. Apply The Superintendent, Espanola 
General Hospital, Espanola, Ont. 



GENERAL STAFF NURSES 

Required for All Departments in 

NEW 300-BED GENERAL HOSPITAL 

INITIAL SALARY: $225 PER MONTH, PLUS LAUNDRY 

EXCELLENT PERSONNEL POLICIES 

For further information apply to 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, SUDBURY MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 

REGENT STREET SOUTH, SUDBURY, ONTARIO 



MARCH, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 3 239 



Official Directory 

CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 
270 Laurier Ave., W., Ottawa 

President Miss Gladys J. Sharpe, Western Hospital, Toronto 2B, Ont. 

Past President Miss Helen G. McArthur, 95 V/ellesley St. E., Toronto 5, Ont. 

First Vice-President Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Second Vice-President Miss Alice Girard, Hopital St. Luc, Lagauchetiere St., Montreal, Que. 

Third V'ice-President Miss Muriel Hunter. Provincial Health Dept., Fredericton, N.B. 

General Secretary Miss M. Pearl Stiver, 270 Laurier Ave. W., Ottawa. 

OTHER MEMBERS OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Presidents of Provincial Associations — 

Alberta , Miss Elizabeth Bietsch, General Hospital, Medicine Hat. 

British Columbia Miss Alberta Creasor, 1645 West 10th Ave., Vancouver 9. 

Manitoba Miss Mary Wilson, Ste. 18. Lenore Apts., Lenore St., Winnipeg. 

New Brunswick Miss Grace Stevens, Box 970, Edmundston. 

Newfoundland Miss Elizabeth Summers, 55 Miitary Rd., St. John's. 

Nova Scotia Mrs. Dorothy McKeown, 79% Allen St., Halifax. 

Ontario Miss Alma Reid, McMaster University, Hamilton. 

Prince Edward Island Sister Mary Irene, Charlottetovvn Hospital, Charlottetovvn. 

Quebec Mile Eve Merleau, Apt. 52, 3201 Forest Hill, Montreal 26. 

Saskatchewan Miss Mary MacKenzie, St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon. 

Religious Sisters (Regional Representation) — 

Maritimes Rev. Sister Helen Marie, St. Joseph's Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 

Quebec Rev. Sister Denise Lefebvre, Institut Marguerite d'Youville, 

1185 St. Matthew St.. Montreal 25. 

Ontario Rev. Sister M. de Sales, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto 2. 

Western Canada Rev. Sister Mary Lucita, St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, B.C. 

Chairmen of National Committees — 

Nursing Service Miss Alice Girard, Hopital St. Luc, Lagauchetiere St., Montreal, Que. 

Nursing Education Miss Evelyn Mallory, School of Nursing, University of British 

Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C. 

Publicity & Public 

Relations Miss Evelyn Pepper, Rm. 726, Jackson Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Legislation & By-Laws. .. . Miss Helen Carpenter. 50 St. George St., Toronto 5, Ont. 
Finance Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 

Alberta Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen, Ste. 5, 10129-102nd St., Edmonton. 

Registered Nurses' Ass'n of British Columbia, Miss Alice L. Wright, 2524 Cypress St., Van- 
couver, 9. 

Manitoba Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Lillian E. Pettigrew, 247 Balmoral St., Winnipeg. 

New Brunswick Ass'n of Registered Nurses. Miss Muriel Archibald, P.O. Box 846, Fredericton. 

Ass'n of Registered Nurses of Newfoundland, Miss Pauline Laracy, Cabot Bldg., Duckworth St., 
St. John's. 

Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Nova Scotia, Miss Nancy H. Watson, 301 Barrington St., Halifax. 

Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Ontario, Miss Florence H. Walker, 515 Jarvis St., Toronto 5. 

Ass'n of Nurses of Prince Edward Island, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 Prince St., Charlottetown. 

Asociation of Nurses of the Province of Quebec, Miss Winonah Lindsay, 506 Medical Arts Bldg., 
Montreal 25. 

Saskatchewan Registered Nurses' Ass'n, Miss Lola Wilson, 401 Northern Crown Bldg., Regina. 

ASSOCIATION OFFICERS 

Canadian Nurses' Asociation: 270 Laurier Ave. West, Ottawa. General Secretary-Treasurer. Miss 
M. Pearl Stiver. Secretary of Nursing Education. Miss Frances U. McQuarrie. Secretary of Nursing 
Service, Miss F. Lillian Campion. Assistant Secretary, Miss Rita Maclsaac. 

International Council of Nurses: 1, Dean Trench St., Westminster, London S.W. 1, England. 
Executive Secretary, Miss Daisy C. Bridges. 

240 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



CONDENSED VERSION 




Pleasantly-flavoured, fat-free, Avater- 
soluble Infantol Drops is a concentrated 
form of the well-known Infantol 
Liquid. Both afford complete 
protection against vitamin deficiencies 
in infants and children. 



Supplies vitamins A, D, C, Bi, B2, and niacinamide. 










Daily dose: 5-10 drops. 










15 and 30 cc. dropper bottles. 










JFRANK W. HORNE 


R 


L 1 


M 


1 T E D 


J MONTREAL 








CANADA 


APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 








241 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



VOLUME 52 



NUMBER 4 



APRIL 1956 



246 New Products 

265 Why Attend the 

CNA Convention? Sr. Theresa Carmel 

257 Saskatchewan and Its People Christian Smith 

262 Fluid Balance „ C. N. Partington 

263 The Ethical Religious Needs 

OF the Patient Robert M. Frumkin 

264 In Memoriam 

266 Bandl's Ring P. Foster, A. McLeod, J. Paljraman 

and D. Shouldice 

268 Le Service Social et le Cancer Ghislaine Chamard 

271 Adventures in Science 

Teaching Henrietta J. Alderson 

276 A Venture in Field Experience 

for Graduate Nurses Moyra Allen 

280 Nursing Across the Nation 

281 Le Nursing a travers le pays 

284 Tentative Program, 28th Biennial Meeting 
288 Report of the Arrangement Committee 
288 Book Reviews 

298 Selection 

299 News Notes 
309 Positions Vacant 



Editor and Business Manager 
MARGARET E. KERR, M.A., R.N. 

Assistant Editor 
JEAN E. MacGREGOR, B.N., R.N. 



Subscription Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 

Student nurses — one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. U.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 

In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $7.00. 

Single copies, 35 cents. 

Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian Nurse. 

Detailed Official Directory appears in June & December. 

Please give one month's notice of Change of Address. 

Authorized as Second-Class Mail. Post Office Department. Ottawa. 

National Advertising Representatives: W. F. L. Edwards & Co. Ltd., 34 King St. E., Toronto 1, Ont. 

Member of Canadian Circulations Audit Board. 

1522 Sherbrooke Street, West, Montreal 25, Quebec 



The views expressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
represent the policy 
or views of 

The Canadian Nurse 
nor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association. 



242 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




YOUR 
HANDS 

need NIVEA 



- to keep them soft and smooth 



Frequent washing and contact with strong anti- 
septic solutions can dry out your sl<in, — rob it 
of its natural oils, so essential to skin health. 
Nivea Creme contains a substance called 
Eucerite that replaces the skin's natural oils — 
helps keep your hands smooth, soft, supple and 
protected from the drying effects of frequent 
washing. Nivea is an ideal "all-purpose" cream 
to soothe, protect and condition the skin against 
chafing and irritation. Keep your skin, and that 
of your patients in good condition with Nivea. 




Available in 7 oz. and 2 oz. fubes 
and 4 oz. and 15 oz. Jars 



Manufactured by NIVEA PHARMACEUTICALS LTD., TORONTO 
Distributed by SMITH & NEPHEW LTD., 2285 PAPINEAU AVENUE, MONTREAL 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol, 52, No. 4 



243 



Setti/tecH' Oufuelf^e^ 



Have 3011 put a ring around the 1956 
CNA convention dates on your calendar? 
That last week in June is going to be an 
interesting, invigorating and satisfying expe- 
rience for the hundreds of nurses who join 
the trek to Winnipeg. Our guest editor this 
month, Sister Theresa Carmel, who is pedi- 
atric supervisor at St. Joseph's Hospital, 
Saint John, N.B. gives us some of the 
answers to the question "Why do nurses 
go to conventions?" 

Very direct and convincing reasons are 
also contained in the tentative program that 
will be found on page 283. You were intro- 
duced last month to two of the guest speak- 
ers. Well known names of other prominent 
participants will convince you that you can- 
not afford to miss this outstanding event of 
the biennium. 

As everyone knows, the nurses of Sas- 
katchewan and Manitoba are joint hostesses 
for the convention this year. Christian Smith 
has written the first of three stories that 
will appear in consecutive issues to acquaint 
you with the people, the progress and the 
promising destiny of these flourishing mid- 
western provinces. Next month Manitoba's 
story will be unfolded followed in June by 
a description of one of the friendliest cities 
on the continent — Winnipeg. Remembering 
that the convention dates coincide with the 
longest days in the year, we are looking 
forward with you to the glories of the sun- 
sets, the long, lovely twilights, the pleasures 
that just being in Winnipeg will bring. 

Those of you who have read and received 
thoughtful encouragement from the articles 
that have been published in recent months 
discussing aspects of religion in the life of 
the nurse, will be pleased to learn that the 
second non-denominational conference for 
nurses is being held April 27-29 at Five 
Oaks Christian Workers Center near Paris, 
Ont. This conference is open to all nurses 
who are interested in learning how their 
personal lives may be enriched, how they 
may face their problems with a more real- 
istic appreciation of their Christian steward- 
ship. Sixty-five people can be accommodated 
overnight but last year the residence was 
filled to capacity so application must be 
made immediately. 

* * * 

At the spring meeting of the Executive 



Committee of the CNA, some time was 
devoted to the question of the present prac- 
tice of holding special church services for 
nurses early in May each year. We were 
reminded that they were instituted originally 
as a memorial to our colleagues whose lives 
were lost in the wars in which our country 
has engaged. Their primary purpose was to 
give each of us an opportunity to rededicate 
ourselves to the service of humanity. 

Somewhere along the road since the first 
such special church services were organized, 
some of the original intent seems to have 
been side-tracked by recurrent eulogies of 
the early founders of our profession. Per- 
haps the fault has been with the committees 
that have made the arrangements for the 
services with the clergy. Perhaps the prox- 
imity of the anniversary of the birth of 
Florence Nightingale to the date selected 
for the service has been a factor. 

Let us, this year, place the emphasis where 
it belongs. If the nurses in each community, 
who are making the arrangements for the 
church services, will give their clergymen 
the definite theme : rededication, they will 
find him sympathetic and cooperative. 
* * * 

Last month you read the interesting ac- 
count of the way in which the new course 
for teachers of science subjects evolved at 
McMaster University. In this issue Henrietta 
Alderson gives us the inside story on how 
the new pattern of teaching has developed. 
Can you imagine starting your course in 
anatomy and physiology with a study of the 
central nervous system? 

Requests are received fairly frequently 
from schools of nursing for back issues that 
they require to complete certain year's copies 
for binding. As often as we can we fill these 
orders from our reserve supply. Periodically, 
we get requests for certain issues of which 
our supply is exhausted. Just now, we can- 
not fill the order received for the January 
and June, 1945 issues. Unless you are treas- 
uring them, will some of you share these 
issues with these schools? Please send the 
copies to the Journal office: 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. West, Montreal 25, Que. 



He who has not forgiven an enemy has 
not yet tasted one of the most sublime en- 
joyments of life. 

— JOHANN K. LaVATER 



244 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




^^Meat protein as well retained 
as milk protein...'' 



EVEN premature infants digested, utilized 
and retained the proteins and fat in 
specially prepared Meats for Babies according 
to Sisson, Emmel & Filer, "Meat in the Diet 
of Prematures", Pediatrics, 7, 89 (1951). 

The authors state, in part: "Meat protein is 
as well retained and utilized as milk protein 
by the premature infant and is therefore as 
safe and efficient a source of protein as milk. 
The fat absorption of the premature infant is 
not significantly altered when the milk in 
the diet is partly or wholly replaced by meat 
fat or meat fat and olive oil." 

Swift^s Meats for Babies was the original 
product of this kind placed on the market. 
Prepared from only fine, lean meat, the food is 



cooked and milled to a fine puree. The texture is 
soft, moist and easily fed in formula or for initial 
spoon feeding just as it comes from the can. There 
are seven kinds for variety and special conditions: 
Beef, Lamb, Pork, Veal, Liver, Heart, Liver and 
Bacon, and also Swift^s Egg Yolks for Babies, 
Salmon Seafood for Babies and the chopped 
Swift's Meats for Juniors. 



Meats for Babies 

SWIFT'S 

most precious product 



Swift 



Swifts 

Meats'-Babies 



SWIFT CANADIAN CO., LIMITED. 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



245 



Edited hy DEAN F. N. HUGHES 

Published Through Courtesy of Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal 

COLFOROS 

Manufacturer — H. Powell Chemical Company Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Each tablet contains: Bone flour 0.5 gm. (Containing: Calcium 33.7%, 
phosphorus 15.16%, fluorine 0.05%), vitamin D 500 I.U. 

Indications — For the prevention and correction of calcium and phosphorus defi- 
ciencies. Indicated in prenatal care, lactation, convalescence, malnutrition and as a 
dietary supplement for growing children. 

Administration — 3 to 6 tablets daily. Tablets may be chewed if desired. 

COROSERP 

Manufacturer — Mowatt & Moore Limited, Montreal, Que. 

Description — Each compressed and scored tablet contains: Corophyllin-N (hydroxy- 
ethyl theophylline) 100.0 mg., pentaerythritol tetranitrate 10.0 mg., rauserpen-alk. (reser- 
pine) 0.25 mg. 

Indications — For the symptomatic and prophylactic treatment of angina pectoris, 
especially where high blood pressure, anxiety and tension are important therapeutic 
considerations. 

Administration — One tablet 3 to 4 times daily or as directed. 

DIAPARENE LOTION 

Manufacturer — Homemakers' Products Corp., Toronto. Distributor — John A. Huston 
Co. Ltd., Toronto. 

Description — Contains: Di isobuiyl cresoxy ethoxy ethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium 
chloride 0.067%- 

Indications — A medicated lotion to eliminate and prevent ammonia dermatitis. 

Administration — Apply at every diaper change and after bath. 

DOLORUB 

Manufacturer — Herdt & Charton, Inc., Montreal. 

Description — Powerful pain sedative containing 10% ethylene diamine salicylate, 
1.25% methyl salicylate, camphor and chloroform. 

Indications — Rheumatic, arthritic, muscular and neuralgic pains. Pulmonary and 
broncho-pulmonary action. 

Administration — Apply ointment on affected area several times a day. 

" ENTEROBIOTIC TABLETS 

Manufacturer — Pfizer Canada Division of Pfizer Corporation, Montreal 9, Que. 
Description — Each tablet contains 50 mg. of terramycin and 250 mg. of neomycin 
sulfate. 

Indications — For preoperative bowel steril ization. 

EQUANIL 

Manufacturer — John Wyeth & Brother (Canada) Ltd., Walkerville, Ont. 

Description — -Each scored tablet contains 400 mg. Equanil (2-Methyl-2-n-propyl-l, 
3-propanediol dicarbamate) (Meprobamate), an anti-anxiety agent with muscle-relaxing 
properties, acting on the central nervous system. 

Indications — Anxiety and tension states, neurological conditions where muscle spasm 
is a factor, muscle spasm due to rheumatic conditions, certain convulsive disorders. 

Administration — One tablet (400 mg.) 3 times daily and, if indicated, one hour 
before retiring. 

RITALIN 

Manufacturer — Ciba Company Limited, Montreal. 

Description — Methyl-phenidyl acetate, a mild central nervous stimulant and anti- 
depressant of a chemical type, unrelated to either caffeine or the amphetamines. In its 
mode of action it occupies an intermediate position between them. It brightens the 
patient's mood gently, alleviating depression and increasing mental performance, thus 
giving the patient more confidence and self-assurance. Has no significant effect on 
either blood pressure or pulse rate and produces no excessive central nervous system 
stimulation. It does not produce euphoria, depress the appetite or produce reflex let- 
down on cessation of therapy. 

Indications — Depression, apathy, anxiety states, discouragement, chronic fatigue, 
weakness, postpartum depression, depression after infectious illness, after effects of 
alcoholic abuse, convalescent or geriatric depressive psychoses and where the am- 
phetamines are contraindicated. 

Administration — Average dose is 5 to 10 mg. 2 to 3 times a day. This may be in- 
creased or decreased depending upon the individual response. 

The Journal presents pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses understand that only a physician may prescribe. 
246 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



seasoned 

for 

accuracy 

and 

dependability 




B-D THERMOMETERS 



B-D 



Since glass, like wood, changes with age, thermometers 
need to be "seasoned" before release. Every B-D Thermometer 
is kept for four to six months in seasoning vaults before final 
rechecking. This eliminates the possibility of inaccurate 
calibration, and assures accuracy and dependability. 

Each B-D Thermometer undergoes 70 operations, including 
36 inspections and tests, before final certification. 



BD REG. CAN. T.M. OFF. 



Becton, Dickinson and Company, Rutherford, nj. 

in Canada 

Becton, Dickinson & Co., Canada, Ltd., Toronto id, ont. 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



247 




McMASTER UNIVERSITY 

School of Nursing 

1956-1957 



DEGREE COURSE IN BASIC NURSING 

A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepare students for all 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.). It includes studies in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 

DEGREE COURSE IN SCIENCE TEACHING FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

A Two-Year Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree. Bachelor of 
Education in Nursing (B.Ed.N.). It includes studies in the humanities, the 
physical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 
Bursaries are available in both years of this course. 

For additional information, write to: 

School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 



TRIETHYLENE MELAMINE TABLETS 

Manufacturer — Lederle Laboratories Division, North American Cyanamid Limited, 
Montreal, Que. 

Description — 2,4,6,-tris-(ethylenimino)-S-triazine, an ethylenimine derivative. Its reac- 
tive groups are closely related to the nitrogen mustards. Grooved tablets 5 mg. 

Indications— Similar to those for nitrogen mustard therapy. Indicated in the treat- 
ment of chronic lymphatic leukemia, leukolymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease and 
chronic myelogenous leukemia. Has advantages over nitrogen mustard in that it can 
be given by mouth. It causes only occasional nausea or vomiting. Patients can, in 
most cases, be treated adequately on an ambulatory basis. 

Administration — Should be taken in the morning with plain water on an empty 
stomach. Food should be withheld for 1 hour afterwards, since the drug tends to be 
inactivated in an acid medium and is reactive with organic materials. The usual initial 
single dose of the drug is 2.5 mg. Some patients, especially those with chronic leukemia, 
may be especially sensitive and require not more than I or 2 mg. weekly. Complete 
blood count, including platelet estimation, should be taken weekly or more frequently 
for all patients receiving the drug. 

Caution — Physicians should give the drug personally to the patients and should 
not dispense more than 1 week's supply at a time. This drug is highly toxic. 

UROSULFA 

Manufacturer — Frank W. Horner Ltd., Montreal. 

Description — Each tablet contains: Sulfamethylthiadiazole 0.25 gm., sulfacetamide 
0.25 gm. 

Indications— For urinary tract infections, amenable to sulphonamides. This combina- 
tion provides high solubility, prompt urinary levels and low acetylation. 

Administration — Adults, 1 or 2 tablets 3 or 4 times daily. Children, according to age. 

The Journal presents pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses understand that only a physician may prescribe. 
348 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
COURSES FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

1. Leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N.): 

An integrated programme which includes preparation for staff positions 
in public health nursing as well as the fundamentals of teaching, super- 
vision and administration and their application to clinical nursing. Students 
are required to select one advanced clinical nursing course — i.e., Medical- 
Surgical, Obstetric, Pediatric, or Psychiatric Nursing. 

Students with an appropriate Senior Matriculation can complete the 
Course in approximately two years. Those with Junior Matriculation require 
approximately three years. 

2. Leading to a Diploma in Public Health Nursing: 

A ten-month course which prepares for staff positions in public health 
nursing. 

3. Leading to a Diploma in Clinical Supervision: 

A ten-month course which prepares for hospital positions that entail 
teaching, supervisory and administrative activities. Students are required 
to select one of the advanced clinical nursing courses listed above. 

N.B.: The School of Nursing also offers, for high school graduates with University Entrance, a 
Basic Professional Course leading to the degree of B.S.N. 

For further informatior) write to the 

DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 
VANCOUVER 8, BRITISH COLUMBIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 

SCHOOL OF NURSING 

I. Basic Degree Course in Nursing (B.Sc): 

This course provides study in the 
humanities, basic sciences and nursing, 
and prepares the graduate for com- 
munity and hospital nursing practice. 

11. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
(B.Sc): 

A two-year program designed to pre- 
pare the nurse for positions in Nursing 
Education and Public Health Nursing. 
The program includes courses in the 
humanities, basic sciences, supervision, 
teaching and public health nursing. 

III. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses: 

One year diploma courses are available 
to registered nurses who wish to pre- 
pare for positions in Nursing Educa- 
tion and Public Health Nursing. 

IV. Certificate Course in Advanced Practi- 
cal Obstetrics: 

A four and one half month course of 
study and supervised clinical ex- 
perience in the care of the mother and 
the newborn infant. 

For information apply to: 

THE DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 

UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 

EDMONTON, ALBERTA 



UNIVERSITY OF 
MANITOBA 

COURSES 
FOR GRADUATE NURSES 

The following one-year certificate 
courses are offered : 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

For information apply to: 

Director 

School of Nursing Education 

University of Manitoba 

Winnipeg, Man. 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



249 



ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY 
OF WINDSOR 

COURSES FOR NURSES 

1 -DEGREE COURSE 

Leading to B.Sc.N. with special- 
ization in the final year. 

2-DIPLOMA COURSE 

Nursing Education 

For informafion apply fo 

DEAN OF NURSING EDUCATION, 

ESSEX COLLEGE, 

ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR 

WINDSOR, ONTARIO 



DALHOUSIE 
UNIVERSITY 

Courses for Graduate Nurses 

Term 1955-56 

The School of Nursing offers one-year 
diploma Courses in the following fields : 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision in 
Schools of Nursing. 

The Director, 

School of Nursing 

Dalhousie University 

Halifax, N.S. 



PSYCHIATRIC COURSE 

for 

GRADUATE NURSES 

The Nova Scotia Hospital offers to 
qualified Graduate Nurses a six- 
month certificate course in Psychiatric 
Nursing. 

' Classes in June and December. 
* Remuneration and maintenance. 

For further information apply to: 

Superintendent of Nurses 
Nova Scotia Hospital 
Drawer 350 
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia 



NOVA SCOTIA SANATORIUM 

KENTVILLE N.S. 

Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 

1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 

2. Demonstrations and CHnics. 

3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit. 

4. Full maintenance, salary & all staff 
privileges. 

5. Classes start May 1st and Novem- 
ber 1st. 

For information apply to: 

SUPT. OF NURSES, NOVA SCOTIA 
SANATORIUM, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



250 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ROYAL VICTORIA 
HOSPITAL 

School of Nursing, Montreal 

COURSES FOR GRADUATE 
NURSES 

1. A four-month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nursing. 

2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological Nursing. 

Salary — After second month at 
General Staff rates. 

For information apply to : 

Director of Nursing 

Royal Victoria Hospital 

Montreal 2, Que. 



PSYCHIATRIC 
NURSING COURSE 

The Allan Memorial Institute of 
Psychiatry of the Royal Victoeia 
Hospital offers six-month courses in 
Theory and Practice in Psychiatric 
Nursing to Graduate Nurses in good 
standing in their own province. 

Classes — Spring and Fall. 

Complete maintenance or living-out 
allowance, meals in hospital and uni- 
form laundry for the first three months. 
General duty rates the second three 
months. 

For further information write to : 

Miss H. M. Lamont, Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 2, Que. 
or Miss Kathleeen Marshall, Supervisor of 
Nurses, Allan Memorial Institute of Psy- 
chiatry, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 
2, Que. 



PSYCHIATRIC 

NURSING COURSE 

The Hospital for Mental Diseases, 
Brandon, Manitoba, offers a 6-month 
Diploma Course in Psychiatric Nursing 
to Registered Nurses. 

Applicants accepted in September of 
each year. Salary while taking course : 
$205 per mo. less $25 per mo. for full 
maintenance. 

Upon completion of course nurses are 
eligible for positions on Permanent 
Staff. 

For further information apply: 

Superintendent of Nurses, 

Hospital for Mental Diseases, 

Brandon. Manitoba. 



THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 

Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities for advanced preparation: 

1. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Obstetrics. 

2. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Operating Room Principles and 
Advanced Practice. 

These courses commence in January 
and September of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is given after the first month. 
Enrolment is limited to a maximum of 
six students in each course. 

For further information please write to : 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING 

GENERAL HOSPITAL 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



251 



THE NEW YORK POLYCLINIC 

Medical School and Hospital (Organized 1881) 



The Pioneer Postgraduate Medical Institution in America 



We announce the follounng Courses (Six Months' Duration) for Qualified 
Graduate Nurses: 

No. 1. Operating-Room Management and Technic. 

No. 2. Medical-Surgical Nursing — Supervision and Teaching. 

No. 3. Organization and Management of Out-Patient Department 

(Clinics in all branches of Medicine, Surgery — including Industrial 
Nursing — and Allied Specialties). 

Courses include : lectures by the Faculty of the Medical School and 
Nursing School; principles of teaching ward management; principles of 
supervision; teaching and management of the specialty selected. Positions 
available to graduates of these courses. Full maintenance is provided. 

For information address: 
The Directress of Nurses, 343 West 50th Street, Nev*^ York City 19 



WILLS EYE HOSPITAL 

Philadelphia^ Penna. 

The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month course 
in Nursing Care of the Eye to Grad- 
uates of Accredited Nursing Schools. 
Operating Room Training is scheduled 
in the course. 

• Maintenance and Stipend : $165 
per month for four months and $175 
per month for the next two months. 

• Registration Fee is $15 which 
takes care of pin and certificate. 

• Classes start March 15th and Sept. 
15th. Ophthalmic nurses are in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms, and ophthalmologists' 
offices. 

For information write to 

Director of Nurses, 

Wills Eye Hospital, 

1601 Spring Garden Street 

Philadelphia 30, Penna. 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS 
HOSPITAL 

SCHOOL of NURSING 

Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16- week supplementary course in 

OPERATIVE ASEPTIC TECHNIC 

with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic, 
orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic and 
ear, nose and throat operating room 
services. Maintenance and stipend are 
provided. 

For information write to: 

Director, School of Nursing 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital 

Baltimore 5, Maryland, U.S.A. 



252 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



SOUTHWEST REGIONAL HOSPITAL COUNCIL 

In the southwest corner of Saskatchewan, known as the "chinook 
belt", there are nursing vacancies at the following hospitals: — 



CABRI UNION 

2 G.D. Nurses $230-260 

MAPLE CREEK UNION 

2 G.D. Nurses 
Salary under review 



PRELATE UNION 

Matron $280 

G.D. Nurse $255 

SHAUNAVON UNION 

O.R. Nurse $250-280 
G.D. Nurse $230-260 



Further details of excellent conditions of service may be obtained from the 
Director of Nursing at the individual hospital or from the undersigned: — 

PHILIP RICKARD 

REGIONAL HOSPITAL CO-ORDINATOR, SWIFT CURRENT, SASKATCHEWAN 



SCHOLARSHIP AWARD 

The Alumnae Association 
of the Kingston General Hos- 
pital, Kingston, Ontario, is 

pleased to announce that a $500 
Scholarship will be awarded this 
year to a member who has had at 
least one year's experience and 
who wishes to take post-graduate 
study. 

Please state course desired and 
make application, before May 21, 
to: 

Miss Marion Dealy 
Nurses' Alumnae 
General Hospital 
Kingston, Ontario 



SASKATCHEWAN 
UNIVERSITY 

Courses for Graduate Nurses 
Term 1956-1957 

The School of Nursing offers 

Diploma Courses in the 

following fields : 

(1) Public Health Nursing. 

(2) Teaching and Supervision 
in Schools of Nursing. 

For infortuction write to: 

The Director 

School of Nursing 

University of Saskatchewan 

Saskatoon, Sask. 



APRI-L. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



253 



•^^^ 






They^ve heard 
the call for 



Miilure o( Vitamins 
A. 0. B,. 8... B„. C and 
Nicotinamide, AbbotU 




Each 

delirinn^ 
5-cc. teaspoon f II 
ofVI.DAYLL\ 
contains: 





If youngsters freeze up at vitamin time, melt away 
their resistance with Vi-Daylin. 

Every lip-smacking spoonful of Vi-Daylin carries a 
full day's serving of seven important vitamins — including 
3 meg. of body-building B12. And with synthetic vitamin 
A, there's not a trace of fish oil to dampen its delicious 
taste. 

Vi-Daylin needs no pre-mixing, no droppers, no re- 
frigeration. Mother can pour it as is — serve it with milk, 
juices or cereal — and store it where she wishes. Won't 
you compare the taste ? You'll see why Vi-Daylin lures 
the little patients (and their Mommas) at one sight of 
the spoon. In 90-cc. and 8-fluid ounce bottles. 



Abbott Laboratories Ltd., Montreal 



( UM^ 



254 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



m cflofloiflo nuRSf 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL FOR THE NURSES OF CANADA 
PUBLISHED BY THE CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 



VOLUME 52 



NUMBER 4 



MONTREAL, APRIL, 1956 



Why Attend the CNA Convention? 



WHY ATTEND the CNA Convention? 
Does that sound as if we were 
questioning the value of the national 
convention ? Far from it ! It is merely 
an invitation to weigh once more those 
values to be derived from membership 
in the CNA and attendance at the 
meetings. 

As Canadians we ha\"e every reason 
to be proud of our heritage. We rejoice 
in the solidarity and the wholesome 
character of our nation. From union 
our country derives its strength. So 
too from union on a national basis our 
profession will be consolidated. It is 
not a question of attempting to fit all 
to one mould, but rather of gaining 
from the complex composition of our 
associations that richness of character 
that will make the Canadian contribu- 
tion to our profession worthy of our 
Canadian ideals. 

How is this to be accom]:»lished ." 
In these davs with so many facilities 
for communication it is not difficult to 
disseminate ideas once they have been 
conceived, applied, and proven to be 



of worth. For their initiation there 
is no greater stimulus than contact 
with other minds who, recognizing 
needs and intent on making progress, 
are ready to sacrifice, to venture, to 
give adequate leadership. That minds 
of such calibre be given opportunity to 
influence others through published ar- 
ticles and national conventions is one 
function of our national associations. 

\Miere the seed may fall and fruit may 
be produced is not to be anticipated, 



Sister Theresa Carmel is Clinical 
Supervisor of Pediatrics at St. Joseph's 
Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 




Sr. Theresa Car.mki. 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



255 



but whenever and wherever growth of 
new ideas is evident, the national 
association can arrange for, or even 
provide, facilities for research. At least 
it can offer a common ground where 
the discussion of possibilities may be 
examined from all angles and where 
discriminating minds may suggest, 
show up weaknesses, point out diffi- 
culties, emphasize possibilities and 
probabilities. Here the enrichment of 
any project may have its beginning. 
Here the recognition of the contribu- 
tions of member associations, or those 
of the various fields of nursing may 
prove an incentive to others to take the 
initiative. Here provision for the soli- 
darity of our progress is assured. 

A strong national body is a safe- 
guard for the profession. Through it, 
wrongs may be righted, rights main- 
tained, and progress directed. The 
authority of the many is deferred to, 
and the voice of the national body 
prevails. 

After these considerations do we 
need to ask why we should attend the 
CNA meeting? Tt is evident that such 
attendance will give us : 
(1) A sense of belonging to a profes- 



sion that is serving our Canadian 
nation according to our Canadian 
ideals, and pride in its accomplish- 
ments. 

(2) A knowledge of new ideas of 
value that are focusing the attention 
of those who are studying the results 
of research in our field. 

(3) Constructive criticism of the prob- 
lems confronting us in our progress. 

(4) Stimulation to rouse us to make 
our contribution to this progress and 
to consolidation of our profession in 
our individual spheres and through our 
association. 

(5) Valuable contacts with those who 
serve in various capacities similar to 
our own. There are those who feel 
that as much is to be gained in these 
meetings as in formal assembly and 
that casual comparisons and contrasts 
are productive of great results. 

(6) A broadening of our outlook with 
greater maturity and solidarity in our 
convictions and hence a greater power 
to influence and control. 

Ordinarily we reap what we sow. 
We get from conventions in propor- 
tion to what we bring to them — old 
adages worthy of consideration. 



A Thought for Spring 



The Flower Growers Twenty-Third Psalm 

The Lord is the grower of my flowers ; 

I shall not want ; 

He rests my tired muscles through the very color of his green lawns ; 

He leads me, rested to the setting out of larkspur ; 

He restoreth my soul while I plant columbine and phlox. 

Though the shadow of despair fall upon my garden path, 

I shall not fear. 

Thou art with me in sunshine and in shadow ; 

In my gardening tools I sense Thy comforting rod and Thy staff ; 

Thou preparest a feast of beauty for me in the presence of a too mechanized world ; 

From season to season my cup overflows 

Its wealth of daffodils and tulips, of pansies and roses, of marigolds, delphinium, asters, 

chrysanthemums 
Hold the balm of Thy goodness and of Thy mercy ; 
Sharing Thy love and the flowers of the garden with others 
I find myself already dwelling in Thy boundless and eternal gardens ! 

M.\RY DiCKERSON BaNGHAM 



256 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Saskatchewan and Its People 



Christian Smith 



ONE DAY ill Toronto a man telephoned 
the all-knowing T.T.C., which oper- 
ates the trams and buses. He said : 
"My wife and 1 haven't seen a sunset 
since we left Saskatchewan. Can you 
tell us how to get to one?" 

"Just a minute," said the girl who 
answered. A man came on the tele- 
phone. He was understanding and 
sympathetic. 

"There's nothing to it," he assured 
the westerner. "Take a car going north 
on Yonge, get ofif at Lawrence Park, 
take a bus going east. Just tell the bus 
driver what you want and he'll let you 
off at the right place." 

This once the T.T.C. was wrong. 
The Lawrence Park bus driver left 
the westerners off at a certain inter- 
section. Darkness was settling in. In 
a few minutes the little expedition was 
smack up against the seven-foot brick 
wall of some bigwig's estate. It was 
evident that no sunset could be wit- 
nessed here and they returned home 
sadly. 

Later, excursions out of Toronto 
led them to open country, limited sky- 
lines, and nothing in the way of the 
sunsets one experiences evening after 
evening in wide-open Saskatchewan. 
There they light up the whole horizon 
and high into the sky, a glorious blaze 
of color, which persists even after the 
sun has disappeared over the edge of 
the earth. 

Nostalgia led the prairie folk back to 
the great flat prairie province, but it 
wasn't only the geography that tugged 
at their hearts. "It was also the cli- 
mate," the man explained. "You can 
cope with cold weather, dry cold 
weather, such as we have in Saskat- 
chewan. Provided there's no brisk 
wind, 35 below in Saskatchewan is 
pleasant compared with zero weather 
in Toronto or Vancouver. And it's 
infinitelv better than the hot humid 



weeks in summer when Toronto sweats 
under a leaden sky which seems like 
a hot, steaming blanket." 

"Most of all, it's the people," his 
wife added. "Not that we found To- 
ronto and other eastern places un- 
friendly. Canadians are Canadians any- 
w^here. But westerners have a special 
quality of friendliness. 

"And they have a way of getting 
things done," her husband went on. 
"That's why our boys and girls have 
no difficulty finding jobs when they go 
either east or west from the prairies." 

Geography, climate, and people — 
Satkatchewan. But principally people ! 

One can get nostalgic for the long 
cool evenings and cooler nights, when 
it never really gets pitch dark, or for 
the crisp lovely mornings when the 
meadow larks sing their songs bril- 
liantly for the motorist speeding by at 
60 m.p.h. 

One can have fond memories of the 
short winter afternoons, too, the quiet, 
cold Sunday afternoons, when the light 
fails early and there are long shadows 
on the snowdrifts. 

There is longing, too, for the seem- 
ingly endless gravelled roads, straight 
as a bricklayer's plumbline, with dis- 
tant elevators poking over the horizon 
to mark another little town. Not very 
good roads, reall3% but so very much 
the Saskatchewan for which the exile 
vearns. 



Air. Smith is Director of Health Edu- 
cation. Saskatchewan Department of 
Public Health. 




(i (/(/n'ct/c/i J i iiu.\. ^ it^i^ iilcll CZ\.'Ull. 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



257 



Heaven knows why people live in so 
many of the little towns except for 
sheer necessity to earn a living. Or is 
it that they find there other satisfac- 
tions? What keeps a doctor in some 
shabb}^ little place, a druggist, a nurse, 
teachers, merchants, and others ? Water 
so often comes from wells. The plumb- 
ing generally is outdoors. Until just 
yesterday many of the towns had no 
electricity. 

The answer is, of course, that it's 
people that make a community, and 
when it comes to people, the folks in 
Saskatchewan make up for all the 
shortcomings and crudities of the en- 
vironment. 

\\ hite people came to this part of 
Canada more than 200 years ago, 
attracted originally by the wealth in 
furs. Last year Saskatchewan cele- 
brated its golden anniversary, marking 
50 years of membership in the Cana- 
dian confederacy as a full-fledged prov- 
ince. But the footings and foundation 
of Saskatchewan were in place long 
before 1905. There is a tendency to 
regard Saskatchewan as one of the 
youngest of the provinces. Actually, 
the trading post of Cumberland House, 
today the site of an outpost hospital 
and of educational facilities for north- 
ern residents, was established by the 
Hudson's Bay Company in 1774. It is 
said that this was before there was 
a white person living in what is now 
Toronto ! 

The fur traders came on the scene 
early in the eighteenth century — 
daring, adventurous men representing 
rival interests, and competing for the 
furs the Indians harvested by the tens 
of thousands. The country was peopled 
by various Indian tribes — intelligent, 
friendly, proud. It was the Indians who 
often kept the white traders from 
perishing. There was plenty of food on 
the prairies, where the great buffalo 
herds roamed. There was little food in 
the chief fur country, the rocky north, 
where traders often lived through 
winter on fish and nothing else, unless 
som.e wandering Indians could be per- 
suaded to hunt for them. 

From the traders the Indians ob- 
tained weapons and tools, blankets and 
tobacco, and they also got rum and 
disease. The earliest of four devastating 
epidemics of smallpox occurred in 1 734 
and it was attributed variouslv to 



English traders from Hudson Bay, 
Canadian traders from French Quebec, 
and to Indians who moved north from 
the Mississippi river system, where 
they had been in contact with white 
settlers. 

Smallpox played havoc with the 
Indian people. The fourth of the epi- 
demics, lasting from 1868 to 1870, was 
estimated to have killed some 2,500 
people — Indians and whites. It was 
stopped with the help of vaccine 
brought in by the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany and strict quarantine measures 
introduced in 1870 by the Northwest 
Territorial Council appointed that year. 
The explorer Palliser, who traversed 
this country three times, noted on his 
final expedition in 1854 that smallpox 
was common among the Indians. 

Tuberculosis, likewise given the 
Indian people by the invaders, ap- 
peared in three great epidemics and 
helped further to decimate the natives. 
What disease had not done, hunger 
helped to finish, when in 1882 the last 
of the great bufl:'alo herds moved south 
never to return. Wanton slaughter at 
the instance of greedy white traders 
finished off^ the one staple supply of 
food, clothing and shelter on which the 
prairie people could depend. 

Although our western Indians were 
not brutally dispossessed and extermin- 
ated in the way that so many of their 
brothers were in the south, the end 
results were similar : very few Indians 
were left. Only in recent years has an 
awakened national consciousness led 
to a rehabilitation of the Indian, and 
today his numbers are increasing. 

Although increasing numbers of 
hardy settlers began to take up land 
in Saskatchewan earlier, it was not 
until after the Saskatchewan Rebellion 
of 1885 that the peopling of the prov- 
ince-to-be took on the nature of a rush. 
Settlers came from eastern Canada, 
from northern areas of the United 
States, and from the British Isles and 
every ]iart of Europe. 

It has been interesting to live 
through the ]X'riod since the first gene- 
ration immigrants arrived here until 
today when their sons and grandsons 
are in every way Canadian in outlook, 
feeling, and performances, accepting 
community responsibility, adorning the 
learned professions. 

Among the immigrants were people 



258 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 





i^Cy i-iiOi ll L iJ It itu I ny , ivtyi/iu, Oii.)«i 



from the teeming industrial centres of 
the British Isles, peasants from Central 
Europe, Germans from town and farm, 
Doukhobors and Mennonites from 
European Russia, and folks from all 
the Scandinavian countries. 

The central Europeans were dififer- 
ent. and it was thought at first that 
they would never assimilate. But they 
did, nevertheless, through their sons 
and daughters. The last vestiges of 
feelings against them seemed to dis- 
appear during World War II when it 
was common to read that some 
squadron leader with the name of 
Kowalsky or Hrynk had gone down in 
flames to keep Canada free. 

Today it is hard to find more Cana- 
dian, more loyal citizens than some of 
the sons and daughters of central 
European immigrants, loyal, that is, to 
the ideals and values which Canadians 
hold in common as a heritage from the 
two nations that originally settled this 
country. Loyal to the crown, too, as 
evidenced when the late King George 
\T and Queen Elizabeth visited Sas- 
katchewan in 1939. 

The people who settled Saskat- 
chewan had before them a tremendous 
undertaking, fraught with hardships 
and disappointments. \\'ithout a dream 



of what could be and faith in their own 
abilities to bring it about, these people 
could never have founded here in so 
short a time the modern society now 
existing. 

Many an early pioneer lived in a sod 
hut until he could afiford lumber for 
a frame dwelling. Life was primitive 
and hard in many ways. It is difficult 
to picture w^hat it was like only a 
generation ago, when one realizes 
that today 30,000 of Saskatchewan's 
112,018 farms, with a total cultivated 
acreage of 40 million, have electrical 
power. 

As the people filled in the great 
rolling prairie, families became less 
isolated. Schools and churches became 
a necessity, and people had to be found 
or trained to preach and to teach. Such 
needs led to the founding of the Uni- 
versity of Saskatchewan, only three 
years after this area became a province 
Moreover, there are today 4.500 
schools and 7,345 qualified active 
teachers. 

Roads and communications were 



All photographs used in this article 
are through the courtesy of the Saskat- 
chewan Government Photographic Ser- 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



259 




Saskatchewan Air Ambulance over Regina. 



essential. Today there are some 120,000 
system-owned telephones in the prov- 
ince. Indeed, the first automatic dial 
telephones in Canada were installed in 
Saskatoon in 1907. Saskatchewan still 
has a highway and market road prob- 
lem, but today there is the longest 
highway system in the world, with 
1,230 miles paved and 6,400 gravelled. 

These roads were a marketing neces- 
sity, enabling the rural population to 
dispose of produce and buy necessities. 
Over these roads they travel to Sas- 
katchewan's eight cities, 97 towns, 378 
villages. Distances are a factor in the 
high ratio of motor vehicles. This last 
year there were more than 160,000 
passenger cars and almost 80,000 farm 
trucks in the province. 

All this is indicative of the tre- 
mendous development that has taken 
place in a relatively short time, in spite 
of the frustrations and delays of bad 
years. Mostly it has been made pos- 
sible because Saskatchewan people are 
men and women of prompt action for 
the common good and with a highly 
developed sense of mutuality — a fam- 
ily feeling, as it were. 

Out of this came Saskatchewan's 



highly developed marketing and con- 
sumer cooperatives. Thirty years ago 
the farmers learned that there was 
strength in union and set up their 
marketing pools, with a present total 
membership of more than 300.000. 
A little later they began to organize 
consumer cooperatives, of which there 
are now 422 with 160,000 members. 
At the same time the people thought 
that the chartered banks were good as 
far as they went, but they wanted to 
own banks and control credit facilities ; 
therefore they have set up 281 credit 
unions. 

In the earlier years farmers were 
urged to diversify rather than depend 
solely on grain production. An in- 
teresting sideshow was the develop- 
ment of Saskatchewan's honey indus- 
try. Saskatchewan's white honey is 
highly popular in eastern Canada and 
in Europe. In 1955 the honev crop 
totalled 3,315,000 pounds. 

Even a certain diversification in 
agriculture did not give the province 
the economic stability it needed. The 
remedies have come along lately in the 
exploitation of natural resources — 
minerals, such as natural sodium sul- 



260 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



phate, potash, and uranium, and the 
spectacular growth of the oil and gas 
industry. Today there are about 5,000 
oil wells under license and last October 
the average daily production was well 
over 40,000 barrels of crude oil. 

It is interesting to observe how. 
along with all this growth, the health 
and vigor of the people have been 
maintained and improved. In the early 
days there were smallpox, typhoid, 
diphtheria to contend w'ith, and the 
primitive environmental conditions 
which were conducive to the spread of 
epidemic diseases. All three diseases 
are virtually non-existent today. The 
early emphasis in public health work 
was on safe food, including milk, safe 
water, safe disposal of wastes. 

Among the many fields in which 
Saskatchewan has given leadership is 
that of public health. The guiding 
principle has been to share one 
another's burdens for the common 
good. Out of this came the legislation 
to provide for the diagnosis and treat- 
ment of all tuberculosis patients at 
public expense, a, step taken just as 
the great depression of the thirties 
settled down on the province. A year 
later there were the first steps toward 
treatment of cancer at public expense, 
which became an actuality in 1944. 

In 1944, too, the care and treatment 
of the mentally ill and of the mentally 
retarded became a provincial respon- 
sibility, and early in 1945 the province 
undertook to pay all the medical, sur- 
gical, hospital, dental, and pharma- 
ceutical bills of those least able to do 
so for themselves — the old age and 
blind pensioners and their dependents, 
widows and deserted families, or fam- 
ilies of incapacitated breadwinners, the 
province's dependent children, and 
finally, indigents — then numbering 
25,000. now'close to 35,000. 

In 1946 legislation enabled the erec- 
tion of public health imits, (known as 
health regions, probably because of 
their large areas) to include the ne- 
cessary population. There are eight 



such health regions serving 380,598 
persons in an area totalling 75,574 
square miles. Considering this develop- 
ment and the municipal health depart- 
ments of Saskatoon and Regina, about 
half of the population now has fulltime 
modern public health service. 

While instituting a program of hos- 
pital construction grants which have 
resulted in the province having the 
highest ratio of beds per 1,000 popula- 
tion on the continent, the province 
took steps to overcome the disadvan- 
tages of maldistribution of medical 
and hospital care by launching the 
first public air ambulance service in 
the world. This service which takes 
emergency patients to treatment facil- 
ities has so far carried more than 
7,300 patients without a mishap. 

On January 1, 1947, the Department 
of Public Health instituted its com- 
pulsory Hospital Services Plan, which 
removed the financial barrier faced by 
many people needing hospital care. It 
has been widely popular. One impor- 
tant effect has been the freeing of 
Saskatchewan hospitals from burdens 
of debt and deficit. Hospital financing 
has been stabilized. 

There have been many other im- 
portant health developments, the most 
notable of which has been the intro- 
duction of a rehabilitation program. 
This grew out of previously provided 
care for poliomyelitis patients with 
paralysis. 

A noteworthy feature of all these 
developments, as in other areas of 
endeavor, has been the part taken by 
voluntary societies and individuals. In 
their efforts to overcome problems and 
give their children and themselves as 
much of the good life as they can, 
Saskatchewan people have a way of 
ignoring diflrerences of politics, religion 
and other divisive conditions. 

Saskatchewan's population is grow- 
ing, its economy continues to expand 
and the future is as roseate as the 
famous sunsets. 



.A.nimal and vegetable oils oxidize readily. 
Rags, waste, excelsior and similar materials 
containing as little as five per cent of some 
of these oils will ignite spontaneously under 
favorable conditions. 

— Safety Netvs Letter 



Anger is the most impotent passion that 
accompanies the mind of man; it effects 
nothing it goes about ; and hurts the man 
who is possessed by it more than any other 
against whom it is directed. 

— Clarendon 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



261 



Fluid Balance 



C. N. Partington, M.D., C.H.B., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 



IN DISCUSSING the changes hi fluid 
balance as it appHes to the human 
body it is essential that we know the 
fundamentals of the various fluid sys- 
tems. Furthermore, we must learn that 
all the constituents of the blood as a 
whole bear an intimate relationship one 
to another. Each mineral in the blood 
stream bears either a positive or nega- 
tive charge and each set of minerals 
must balance — it is of the imbalance 
of these minerals that we are thinking 
today. In the following tabulation I 
have shown the value of both negative 
and positive charges for each of the 
minerals found in the bodv 



Sodium 


Na + 


Potassium 


K + 


Chloride 


Cl — 


Bicarbonate 


HCO.— 


Protein 


Pr — 


Calcium 


Ca-f- + 


Magnesium 


Mg-f 4- 


Phosphate 


PO, 


Sulphate 


SO. 




Intracellular 




Fluid 











Plasma 




K 
157 


Fr 7 


5 
5 

4-^ 


H 




Interstitial 


la 


HCO^ 




Fluid 






Na 
138 


CI 
^r 2 




CI 
103 


K 


PO,, 


K 


sq 


Ca 


\'a 


f/a 


Id 


■!fl 




l>4» — 1 



Milliequivalents per litre 

The first sketch, labelled "Milli- 
equivalents per litre," shows the equi- 

Dr. Partington is Director of Labor- 
atory Services at Sarnia General Hos- 
pital. 



valents of the constituents of normal 
plasma, interstitial fluid and intracel- 
lular fluid. These three fluids are not 
at all similar as the diagram shows, 
and a 2 per cent difference in any one 
constituent makes a great difference to 
the individual — in the potassium 
balance of the intracellular fluid, for 
instance, 2 per cent of intracellular 
potassium loss in plasma would mean 
death ! Milliequivalents are merely 
gauges by which all fluid constituents 
are compared — as we do in algebra 
— bringing various quantities to an 
X or y value. 

The minimum fluid output require- 
ments both in health and in disease 
varies considerably. Urine is of various 
specific gravities. It is important that 
all fluid output be measured accurately 
where fluid balance is to be maintained. 

Minimuin Output Necessary for 35 gms. 

Spec. Gr. Vols. 

fl.032- 1.029 473 cc. 

Normal ] 1.019-1.015 605 cc. 

Disease 1.014-1.010 1439 cc. 



As the blood travels back and forth 
to the heart, it is the pressure of the 
arterial flow that forces all the fluids 
and their mineral constituents — ex- 
cept the red blood cells and proteins 
— out of the arterioles and into the 
tissues. It is the osmotic power of the 
retained proteins in the venioles that 
drazvs back the excess and waste fluids 



Kilos or Litres 



Lean Average 



H'^ 












T3 


TB 
"2° 




IB 
wgt 




'■2° 








rpTi l^M 



Tii U?.i 

»5 L LS I. 



262 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



out of the tissues and into the venioles 
whence they flow back to the heart, 
completing the circulation. 

Now take a look at the second sketch 
where a scale of kilos or litres is 
shown. The first group of pillars re- 
presents an average lean man, the 
second group a fat man. Notice that 
the quantity of plasma and extra- 
cellular fluid are much the same re- 
gardless of the size of the patient, but 
the comparative H2O content of the 
two men is totally different. A lean 
man contains 43 litres of water which, 



for his size, is 73 per cent of this 
whole fluid system, while a fat man, 
though his fluid content is 48 litres, 
it makes up only 42 per cent of the 
whole system. This shows the neces- 
sity of extremely careful adjustment in 
disease and also why no two people 
can be classed as similar fluid balance 
problems. 

In burns, for instance, where much 
tissue is denuded of skin, the loss of 
fluids would mean a great deal more 
to a fat person because he has rela- 
tively less fluid to spare. 



The Ethical Religious Needs 

of the Patient 



Robert M. Frumkix 



IX EVERY CULTURE there is some 
higher power, whether it be a tree, 
a cow, a man, or some ethereal being 
usually called God, which is worship- 
ped and through which man attempts 
to gain strength of mind, body and 
soul. This kind of religion represents 
religion in the church sense. There is 
also religion in another sense, a more 
universal sense. This kind of religion 
might be called religion in the ethical 
sense. The religious person in the 
ethical sense would be the altruistic 
])erson. This is the person who is be- 
loved of his fellow men because he 
believes in and practises brotherhood, 
because he is unselfishly devoted to the 
interests of others. This kind of person 
is also the symbol of the perfect social 
being, of Homo socius a person who 
is supercooperative, who does always 
more than his share toward helping his 
fellow men. In short, the truly reli- 
gious man in the ethical sense is the 
good man, in all languages and all 
cultures. Whereas the religion of the 
church is a religion of worship, the 
religion in the ethical sense is a reli- 
gion of altruism. 

The role of the nurse is essentially 



Mr. Frumkin is an instructor in soci- 
ology and the sociology of nursing at 
the University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y. 



a religious role in this sense, in the 
ethical sense ; especially when this role 
is played with all one's heart, because 
then it is an altruistic and cooperative 
role. Florence Nightingale, Dorothea 
Dix, and Margaret Sanger are but 
three, among many, nurses who were 
supremely religious in this universal 
ethical sense. 

When nurses are severely criticized 
by patients and their families it is not 
because they are felt to lack nursing 
skills, in the old sense with which we 
associate such skills, but because they 
lack this universal religious quality 
that every good and successful nurse 
must have. This religious quality in 
the nurse is shown in her genuine con- 
cern for the patient above all other 
interests when the nurse is ministering 
to the patient's needs. The patient is 
keenly aware of the presence or ab- 
sence of this quality, for it shines warm 
and bright when it is there and man- 
ifests itself by darkness and coldness 
when it is absent. 

The religious needs of the patient 
centre most in the need for this kind 
of religious experience and not for the 
religious experience that we associate 
with religion in the church sense. 
There is no greater strength of mind, 
body and soul a patient can gain than 
that which comes from a nurse, or any 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol 52, No. 4 



263 



other person, who shows that he or she 
is genuinely and unselfishly concerned 
for his welfare and does everything 
in his or her power to see that the 
best can and is being done. Only when 
the nurse, or some other person acting 
in the capacity of a nurse, fails to pro- 
vide this genuine need of the patient, 
does the church functionary — the 
minister, priest or rabbi — become 
indispensable. For now the fear of 
death looms large and only faith in a 
higher power, in God, with the aid 
of the church functionary, can bring 
some peace of mind, some peace and 
strength of soul. 

Therefore, the religious needs of the 
patient centre in the need to be in fel- 
lowship with one or more human 
beings who have the patient's health 
and welfare uppermost in mind. When 
the nurse manifests this religious 
quality the patient feels that there is 
at least one person in the world to 
whom he means something, and upon 
whom he can count to help him. 



When the patient lacks this faith in 
the nurse and his fellow-men, he then 
will most likely turn or return to reli- 
gion in the church sense. For when 
everyone and everything else have 
failed, the higher power, God, can 
always be counted on, and God may 
be reached with or without the aid of 
the church functionary. It is here that 
faith in God takes over the unfinished 
task of the nurse. Of course, when the 
nurse (and the physician) has done 
all that could be done for the patient, 
faith in God is indispensable. Like 
medicine, praying to God, putting 
one's faith in God, can help to release 
and stimulate the healing powers of 
the body. 

The patient, consequently, has two 
sources from which to seek spiritual 
strength — from the religious person 
in the ethical sense, or from God in 
the church sense. Both are important, 
and both supplement the work of each 
other. 



3n iHemoriam 



Loila (Marshall) Allison, who gradu- 
ated from the Ottawa Civic Hospital in 
1928, died on September 25, 1955 after a 
long illness. 

* * * 

Annie Armstrong, a retired nurse who 
resided in Penticton, B.C., died there on 
January 6, 1956 at the age of 70. 

* * * 

Anne Bradley, who graduated from St. 
Michael's Hospital, Toronto, in 1901, died 
at Kingston, Ont., on December 25, 1955. 
After practising in the United States for 
many years, Miss Bradley joined the staff 
of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, 

in 1920. She retired in 1943. 

* * * 

Barbara Cecilia Day, a graduate of a 
Calgary Hospital, was killed in an accident 
in Italy on December 23, 1955. She had 
worked in Leader, Sask., for two years prior 
to going to Europe. 

* * * 

Mary Ann (Haire) Garrett, who grad- 
uated from the Sarnia General Hospital in 
1903, died there on December 3, 1955 at the 
age of 77. At one time Mrs. Garrett was 
superintendent of nurses at S.G.H. 



Evelyn (Beatty) Hanna, who graduated 
from Toronto General Hospital in 1907, 
died last winter. 

* * * 

Grace Margaret Hogg, who graduated 
from Toronto General Hospital in 1923, died 
suddenly in England on November 30, 1955. 

* * * 

Laura Holland, C.B.E., A.R.R.C, LL.D., 
who graduated from The Montreal General 
Hospital in 1914, died at Victoria on January 
15, 1956 at the age of 72. Enlisting with 
the C.A.M.C. in 1915, Miss Holland was 
awarded the A.R.R.C. for her meritorious 
service in France and Salonika. Returned 
home, she qualified in social work then 
served as manager of the Welfare Division 
of the Toronto Department of Public 
Health. She moved to Vancouver in 1928 
to reorganize the Children's Aid Society, 
becoming provincial superintendent of neg- 
lected children three years later. In 1934 she 
was made a Commander of the British 
Empire. Prior to her retirement in 1945 
she became adviser to the minister of health 
and welfare. Miss Holland was regarded 
by all who knew her as a wise counsellor, 
an unselfish worker in the service of others, 



264 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




Laura Holland 

a warm friend and, to the end, a serene and 

gallant person. 

* * * 

Annie Jackson, a graduate of a Cleve- 
land hospital, died at Kitchener, Ont., where 
she had resided for the past 50 years, on 
December 29. 1955. She was 81 years of age. 

* * * 

Louisia Lagiie, infirmiere graduee de 
I'Hotel-Dien de Montreal, est decedee le 11 
decembre. \%5. Graduee en 1921, elle fut a 
Femploi de la Cnmpagnie Assurance- Vie 
Metropoliiaine. En 1923, elle entre a I'As- 
sistance Matcrnelle et en 1924 se qualifia en 
dietetique a I'Universite de Montreal mais, 
son interet pour I'obstetrique la reprit et 
pour deux ans elle fut en service a I'Hopital 
de la Misericorde. L'Hopital St-Luc lui 
confie en 1931, la fonction de dieteticienne ; 
elle resta a ce poste jusqu'en 1952, date de 

sa retraite. 

* * * 

Flora Liggett, who graduated from To- 
ronto General Hospital in 1909 died sudden- 
ly recently. 

* * * 

Elizabeth Jean Martin, who graduated 
from Ontario Hospital, Kingston, in 1942 
died on December 29, 1955, in her 35th year. 
Holding her degree in psychiatric nursing 
from Queen's University, Miss Martin had 
worked at Sunn\brook Hospital, Toronto, 



Westminster Hospital, London and the Allan 

Memorial Institute, Montreal. 

* . * * 

Myrtle McElroy, wIk; graduated from 
the Ottawa Civic Hospital in 1928, died 
suddenly on December 12. 1955. She had 
worked in the United States for the past 

10 years. 

* * * 

Frances Milligan, a graduate of a Buf- 
falo, X.Y., hospital before the turn of the 
century, died at Toronto on December 31, 
1955 following a brief illness. Over 90 years 
of age, Miss Milligan had returned to Toron- 
to to live in 1924 when she retired from 
active nursing in tlie United States. 

* * * 

Barbara (Booth) Morrison, formerly of 
Fort William, Ont., died at Portage la Prai- 
rie, Man., on January 10, 1956, a few months 

after she had retired. 

* * * 

Jean (Webster) Morrison, who gradu- 
ated from the Winnipeg General Hospital 
in 1904, died there on January 11, 1955 at 
the age of 88. Mrs. Morrison had been an 
active member of the alumnae association 

since 1907. 

* * * 

Lillian (Bolin) Probert, who graduated 
from the Moose Jaw General Hospital in 
1944, died there on December 27, 1955 at 

the age of 34. 

* * * 

Sister Jeanne d'Arc (Almida The- 
riault), who graduated in 1942 from Hotel- 
Dieu Hospital, St. Basile. N.B. died at 
Perth, N.B., in August. 1955. 

* * * 

Mary Natalie (McAulay) Taylor, a 

graduate of Halifax Infirmary, was killed in 
an automobile collision on January 4. 1956. 

Doretta Mae (Minchin) Traquair, who 

graduated from Prince Edward Island Hos- 
pital, Charlottetown, in 1918, died at Moos- 
omin. Sask.. on November 8, 1955. 

* * * 

Hilda Willis, who graduated from the 
Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, Ont., in 1940, 
died at Ottawa in January, 1955 following 
a lengthy illness. For some years she was 
employed in the radiology department of 
the Ottawa Civic Hospital. 



Celui-l:i est le mieux servi. qui n'a pas Ce qui fait qu'on n'est pas content de sa 

besoin de mettre les mains des autres au condition, c'est I'idee chimerique que Ton 
bout de ses bras. se forme du bonheur d'autrui. 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



265 



UllS 



SfRVICf 



Bandl's Ring 



p. Foster, A. McLeod, J. Palframan and D. Shouldice 



MRS. Smith, a 20-year-old patient, 
appeared quite healthy and well 
nourished. She was a very pleasant 
and happy individual, married for 
three years to a well-built, healthy, 
happy chap who is a C.N.R. employee. 
Mrs. Smith has had an appendectomy 
done, a breast tumor removed. There 
is also history of rheumatic fever in 
1943, and of an incomplete abortion 
with resulting dilatation and curettage 
in October, 1954. The complications 
of this pregnancy were : bronchitis, 
breech presentation of babe, Caesarean 
section due to Bandl's Ring, postoper- 
ative paralytic ileus. 

The prenatal period was normal 
throughout. Labor began at home 
about 12 :00 noon on September 27, 
1955, with irregular contractions every 
15-30 minutes that gradually became 
more frequent. 

On admission to hospital at 4 :25 
p.m. contractions were €very five min- 
utes, fair in quality, lasting 20 seconds 
and causing no distress. The uterus 
appeared to be relaxing normally be- 
tween contractions. The membranes 
were intact on admission — there was 
no evident "show". T.P.R. 98-80-20 
and blood pressure 110/60. Fetal heart 
was 140 and good quality. Urinalysis 
showed a trace of albumin in a voided 
specimen. The patient was suffering 
from a coryza so was ordered on 
Wycillin 600,000 units daily and 
ephedrine nose drops q. 4 h. p.r.n. 
After twelve hours of non-progressive 
labor she was given Pitocin minims 
1 for 2 doses, 2 hours apart. The con- 
tractions subsided, then started up 

This is another of the interesting 
clinics prepared by a group of nurses 
at the Sarnia General Hospital. 



266 



again irregularly at first, then every 
5 minutes. They were fair in quality. 
The fetal heart varied within normal 
range 120-160, but was of good quality. 

Another 12 hours passed with no 
satisfactory progress, so a consultant 
was called. On examination the fetus 
was found to be in breech position, 
right sacro-transverse, and engaged in 
the inlet. The fetal heart was on the 
right side lateral to the umbilicus but 
varied greatly as to both rate, rhythm 
and force — 170-180. A continuous 
induction of 500 cc. normal saline with 
1.2 cc. Pitocin was started running at 
30 drops per minute. A better labor 
was established with stronger and 
more frequent contractions. In spite 
of this improvement, satisfactory pro- 
gress was still not being made. 

On September 30, 1955, at 8:00 a.m. 
an x-ray of the pelvis was taken. It 
showed a pelvis within normal limits 
with some possible marginal dispro- 
portion of the brim. At 9:15 mem- 
branes were surgically ruptured in 
hopes of helping to speed up labor. 
The patient was found to be very 
tense, so Nisentil 60 mgm. was given 
p.r.n. as sedation. At 3 :00 p.m. large 
quantities of meconium were passed 
and the cervix, by rectal examination, 
was thought to be fully dilated. At 
9 :00 p.m. Mrs. Smith was taken to the 
case room to be examined vaginally to 
determine the degree of dilatation and 
with the hope of breaking down the 
breech and terminating labor. The pa- 
tient was found to be still very tense 
and the examination was unsatisfac- 
tory. A spinal anesthetic of 6 mgm. 
of Pontocaine and glucose was given 
and a vaginal examination carried out 
revealing the cervix almost completely 
out of the way. A hand, introduced 

THE CANADIAN NURSE 



into the uterus to attempt to bring 
down a leg, ran into a strong contrac- 
tion ring, or "Bandl's Ring," about 
the child's "middle." This ring was 
very firm and about the size of a fruit 
jar. Adrenalin was given in an attempt 
to relax it but to no avail. 

During labor the uterus becomes 
differentiated into upper and lower 
segments. The part immediately above 
the internal os is weaker in structure 
than the rest of the uterus. As a result 
of the gradual retraction of muscles 
of the upper two-thirds, this part be- 
comes progressively thinned out and 
is known as the lower uterine segment. 
This differentiation goes on through- 
out the first and second stages of labor, 
the upper segment becoming progres- 
sively smaller and thicker as a result 
of the contraction and retraction, while 
the lower segment becomes corres- 
pondingly larger and thinner as a 
result of the pull on it by the upper 
segment. Ultimately there is a clear 
line of demarcation between the two 
segments which is called the retraction 
ring or Bandl's Ring. In normal labor 
this is not so marked as to be recogniz- 
able clinically. When labor is obstruc- 
ted this ring is inclined to contract 
around the baby causing fetal distress. 
If labor is allowed to go on, this ring 
can be seen on the abdomen as a ridge 
or depression above the symphysis. 
The higher it is the more serious the 
condition. 

It was realized that a deep ether 
anesthetic, sufficient to paralyze the 
uterine muscles, would also injure an 
already damaged infant. It was there- 
fore decided to do a Caesarean section. 
This was done immediately. A sub- 
umbilical midline incision was made 
and a baby boy delivered at 10:16 
p.m. September 30. Ergometrine .25 
mgm. was given intravenously at the 
time of delivery of the infant. Placenta 
and membranes were separated and 
removed and found to be complete. 
Whole blood 500 cc. was given intra- 
venously. The uterus was closed with 
one layer of interrupted catgut sutures 
through the muscle and one continuous 
suture through the outer layers of 
muscle and peritoneum. Plain sub- 
cuticular and mattress silk sutures 
were used for the skin. The infant was 
slow to breathe but it seemed to re- 
spond fairly well following suctioning 



of trachea and stomach of fluid and 
meconium and to administration of 
oxygen by mask. On leaving the oper- 
ating room the babe's color was fairly 
good, respiration fair but rapid. 

Mrs. Smith returned from the oper- 
ating room in good condition : B.P. 
110/80, pulse 80, respirations 20, with 
whole blood running intravenously. 
She was given Demerol 100 mgm. 
p.r.n. for operative discomfort. The 
first postoperative day and night pas- 
sed with no significant happenings. 
She was allow^ed out of bed under 
supervision and appeared to be pro- 
gressing well. She developed a produc- 
tive cough that was troublesome. On 
the second postoperative night she 
developed a badly distended abdomen 
with elevation of T.P.R. — 102-120- 
30. She had some difficulty in breath- 
ing and her cough was troublesome. 
Following the removal of the catheter 
at this time she was unable to void. 

A rectal tube was inserted in an 
attempt to relieve the distention but 
no result was obtained. She was given 
a series of two- 1-2-3 enemas and a 
soapsuds enema, in the next 12 hours. 
This did not relieve the distention 
although quantities of flatus were ex- 
pelled. It seemed as though gas was 
forming as quickly as it was being 
relieved. Abdominal heat was applied 
with a rectal tube inserted and much 
relief was obtained. 

A diagnosis of paralytic ileus was 
made. This is a serious form of ob- 
struction in which intestinal peristalsis 
is inhibited by overactivity of the sym- 
pathetic nervous system. It may be 
seen in cases of generalized peritonitis 
or w'here there has been a great deal 
of handling of the abdominal organs 
in surgery, or following a hard, long 
labor. 

On her third postoperative morning 
Mrs. Smith was able to void normally 
but her abdomen was again very hard 
and her breathing was distressed. At 
2 :30 in the afternoon she was placed 
in an oxygen tent to relieve her breath- 
ing and an intravenous of 1000 cc. 
5% glucose in saline was started. She 
began to vomit small quantities of un- 
digested food so a Levine tube was 
passed and Gomco suction established. 
An electrolyte balance was done by the 
laboratory director. W^ithin the next 24 
hours a marked improvement was 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



267 



shown and gastric suction was dis- 
continued. The abdomen was still 
somewhat distended but soft. On the 
fourth postoperative day the oxygen 
tent was removed. Mrs. Smith was 
given fluids by mouth which were re- 
tained. On the fifth postoperative day 
the intravenous was discontinued and 
the patient allowed out of bed. She 
had several liquid bowel movements 
which is typical of receding paralytic 
ileus. These subsided within 24 hours 
and Mrs. Smith then made a rapid 
recovery. Discharge from hospital fol- 
lowed on the tenth postoperative day 
with the patient feeling very well. 

The Baby 

On arrival in the nursery the baby's 
condition was poor — his color pale 
and cyanosed, his cry weak, respira- 
tions rapid and irregular. He was 
placed in an incubator with continuous 
oxygen, feet elevated to aid in mucous 
drainage. He was suctioned frequently. 
Weight was not recorded at this time 
because of his condition. 

Because the Bandl's Ring had been 
around the breech-presenting child's 
legs and between the umbilicus and 
diaphragm, the chest was pushed up 
so that it protruded abnormally. The 



abdomen was very flat w'ith almost a 
concave appearance ; the legs were 
flexed and flaccid. The skin appeared 
extremely dry and later there was 
considerable desquamation, possibly 
due to poor circulation. 

October 1, the babe was weighed 
— six pounds eight ounces. Temper- 
ature at 8:00 a.m. 101.6. A pediatri- 
cian saw him at this time and ordered : 
Aureomycin 12.5 mgm. q. 6 h. as a 
preventive measure because of the 
frequent suctioning ; nothing by mouth 
for another 24 hours and continuous 
oxygen. The babe's color and respira- 
tions were improved and the tempera- 
ture normal on the second day so 
lactose was ofi^ered q. 3 h. by bottle 
and taken quite well. Oxygen w'as 
discontinued the next day and the babe 
taken from the incubator. He was fed 
breast milk and complementary feed- 
ing until such time as his mother was 
able to nurse him. 

He continued to improve, his body 
taking on a normal appearance. Weight 
gain was steady despite circumcision. 
He was discharged, weighing seven 
pounds one ounce, with the mother. A 
formula was provided as the mother 
did not have an adequate supply of 
breast milk. 



Le Service Social et le Cancer 



Ghislaine Chamard 



EN JANVIER 1950, le Service Social 
Medical etait fonde a I'Hopital 
Notre-Dame, grace a la belle initiative 
de son directeur medical le Dr. Boutin. 

En mars '51. a la demande du Dr. 
L. C. Simard, une travailleuse sociale 
etait assignee a I'aide des patients 
cancereux au meme titre que les autres 
departements desservis deja: la mede- 
cine, la neurochirurgie, la pediatric 
et plus tard la chirurgie et I'otolaryn- 
gologie. 

L'origine du service social medical 
remonte a 1905. II est I'oeuvre de 
I'eminent medecin americain, le Dr. 



Mile Chamard est travailleuse sociale 
a I'Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal. 



Cabot du Massachussetts General 
Hospital a Boston. II fut le premier a 
vouloir s'adjoindre une travailleuse 
sociale dans le traitement medical des 
patients. Le service social medical, 
c'est le service social applique dans un 
milieu hospitaller pour faciliter aux 
patients la meilleure utilisation possible 
des services existants de I'hopital et si 
necessaire de la communaute. 

La formule du Service Social en 
general et celle du Service Social Me- 
dical ne s'opposent pas, elles concernent 
toutes deux des gens qui presentent 
des problemes ; la difl^erence est en ce 
qu'au Service Social Medical, les per- 
sonnes qui presentent des problemes 
sont des personnes malades. Tons les 



268 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



services sociaux professionnels recher- 
chent la meme fin ; le bien-etre de la 
personne humaine. Une autre carac- 
teristique du service social medical est 
qu'il fonctionne sur line base d'equipe 
dont le chef est le medecin. 

La travailleuse sociale assignee au 
service des cancereux fait partie de 
I'cquipe de I'lnstitut du Cancer dirige 
par le Dr. Simard et compose de me- 
decins et d'infirmieres. Cet Institut 
dirige des cliniques une fois par se- 
maine ou les cancers de toute nature 
sont depistes et traites gratuitement. 
En plus du grand devouement des 
medecins. il y a aussi ce devouement 
des infirmieres qui assurent le "follow- 
up" des cas, elaborent des statistiques 
precieuses a un centre de recherche. 

Je puis dire que la travailleuse so- 
ciale d'une certaine fagon fait partie 
de I'equipe medicale en assistant aux 
cliniques ou elle discute des problemes 
sociaux des patients deja connus ou de 
nouveaux patients referes par le me- 
decin. La travailleuse sociale rencon- 
trera aussi les problemes des patients 
que I'infirmiere essaie de referer pour 
fins de controle ou de traitement et 
qui s'y refusent. Pour dififerentes rai- 
sons un patient pent resister aux con- 
vocations que lui adresse I'infirmiere; 
soit qu'il n'ait pas I'argent necessaire a 
son transport, soit qu'il craigne le 
diagnostic du medecin, et d'autres 
encore. Devant ces difficultes, la tra- 
vailleuse sociale pourra organiser un 
transport soit par I'entremise de chauf- 
feur ben L vole ou en procurant au pa- 
tient I'argent necessaire a un billet de 
transport, dans d'autres cas, en inter- 
])retant le patient au medecin ou vice- 
versa. 

Le Service Social Medical aupres 
des cancereux s'efifectue dans un climat 
l)sychologique special du a la nature 
meme du cancer: mal insidieux, mys- 
terieux, redoutable. 

Le cancereux vit interieurement un 
drame, il le vit seul la plupart du 
temps. II ignore son etat, il est refere 
tres souvent a un stade avance ou 
terminal de la maladie. Le cancereux 
est expose a I'aigreur, a la depression 
morale. Son etat chronicjue contre le- 
quel la science ne pent rien parfois, lui 
suggere des sentiments de re jet ou de 
culpabilite s'il a trop retarde a voir 
le medecin. 

Du poun de \ue de la travailleuse 



sociale, le fait que le patient ignore 
son etat presente des difficultes spe- 
ciales : le patient s'entretient dans un 
etat d'illusion vis-a-vis sa guerison, il 
s'acharne au repos alors qu'il pourrait 
encore travailler un peu ou aider son 
entourage, il reclame la surveillance 
constante des medecins. 

Parce que les cas sont souvent re- 
feres au service social a un stade 
avance de la maladie, ils sont suivis 
par la travailleuse sociale jusqu'a leur 
deces. L")isons que le service va au-dela 
du deces assez souvent, pour la reorga- 
nisation du foyer. 

Enumerons maintenant les differents 
services que la travailleuse sociale est 
susceptible de rendre aux cancereux. 
Ces services qui ne sont pas exclusifs 
aux cancereux demandent dans leur 
cas une approche speciale a cause des 
prejuges du patient. Combien de pa- 
tients presentant une tnmeur redoutent 
I'intervention chirurgicale parce qu'- 
elle va "reveiller" le cancer. II y aura 
done comme services : 

1. In support emotionnnel devant la 
crainte du traitement, de I'intervention 
chirurgicale. 

Ce support emotionnel, la travailleuse 
sociale I'offre au patient dans une a 
plusieurs entrevues selon le cas. II con- 
siste en un lien de confiance que la 
travailleuse sociale etablit avec le patient 
pour lui permettre d'exprimer ses an- 
xietes, ses difficultes, I'aider a les envi- 
sager et les solutionner. Ici done entrent 
en jeu les techniques propres au service 
social personnel. 

2. L'interpretalion de ces memes trai- 
tements a la famille du patient qui peut 
ou bien renforcer.les prejuges du patient 
ou I'aider a les combattre. 

3. Lc support moral au patient qu'il 
faut preparer a envisager la mort. 

4. Le support a la famille devant le 
pronostic fatal chcz un de ses membres. 

5. Le placctncnt en insiitution. 

6. L'orc/auisation des transports soit 
pour la visite a la clinique ou pour les 
traitements de radiotherapie. Un patient 
peut avoir des traitements quotidiens 
pendant plusieurs scmaines consecutives. 

7. Les soiiis a domicile: ce sera des 
soins de proprete, I'administration d'in- 
jections de scdatifs contre les douleurs 
devenues in'.olerables. Quelqucfois. la 
visite d'un medecin de Thopital (|uand 
le patient n'est plus en mesure d'etre 
transport e. 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



269 



8. Les services d'une aide-domestique 
pour permettre a la patiente d'assurer en 
meme temps I'entretien de sa maison et 
la poursuite de son traitement medical. 
Ce service est plus indispensable quand 
la patiente en traitement trouve son 
gagne-pain dans la location de chambres 
qu'elle ne peut negliger si elle veut con- 
server ses chambres. 

9. La rehabilitation: ce service laisse 
peut-etre un peu sceptique quand il est 
confronte avec le diagnostic de cancer. 
En effet dans une grande proportion de 
cas, la rehabilitation consistera en une 
aide financiere qui permettra de vivre 
convenablement jusqu'au terme fatal. 

Ces besoins que la travailleuse so- 
ciale rencontre font appel aiix res- 
soitrces communautaires. 

Je puis dire que la communaute 
repond genereusement a la detresse du 
cancereux. Vous avez deja songe a la 
Societe Canadienne du Cancer, au 
Cancer Aid League et aux autres or- 
ganisations sociales qui moins directe- 
tnent que celles deja citees contribuent 
aussi au bien-etre du patient. La So- 
ciete Canadienne du Cancer rend des 
services sans lesquels il ne serait pas 
possible d'assister convenablement le 
cancereux. 

Cette societe offre differents services 
grace a I'initiative personnelle de la 
directrice des Services de bien-etre. 
Elle a su s'adjoindre des auxiliaires 
clairvoyantes et devouees pour la for- 
mation de services tels, le Centre d'in- 
formation de la rue Papineau, le 
Service des pieces a pansement, le 
Service des chauffeurs benevoles, etc. 
La Societe Canadienne du Cancer re- 
pond financierement aux besoins des 
transports, remedes et dietes speciales, 
elle supplemente des pensions en 
Nursing Home, aide du foyer. 

Pour illustrer un peu I'efficacite des 
services rendus mentionnons en pas- 
sant que le Service des panseinents 
prepare et envoie des pansements a 
550 patients par mois et qu'un meme 
patient peut beneficier de ce service 
gratuit au-dela d'un an et plus suivant 



la duree de la maladie. 

L'epoque des Fetes evoque encore 
le souvenir de Paniers de Noel a nos 
cancereux indigents — une trentaine 
de patients cancereux de I'hopital 
Notre-Dame ont eu un Noel plus gai 
grace a ces genereuses auxiliaires de 
la Societe Canadienne du Cancer. 

Le Cancer Aid League a recemment 
dote I'hopital Notre-Dame d'un don 
de treize cents dollars genereusement 
mis a la disposition du patient can- 
cereux. 

Une autre organisation sociale que 
je tiens a souligner pour ses services 
assidus et discrets, la Societe des 
Infirmieres Visiteuses. Par les soins 
de ses infirmieres a domicile, la So- 
ciete des Infirmieres Visiteuses, assure 
le confort du patient, lui est en quelque 
sorte un prolongement de I'hopital. Le 
patient qui quitte I'hopital et doit con- 
tinuer certains traitements, soit pan- 
sements, injections ou autre et tout 
rassure si la travailleuse sociale lui 
promet la visite de I'infirmiere visi- 
teuse. Et qu'elles soient felicitees de 
leur diligence. Combien de families 
n'auraient pas la meme acceptation du 
patient cancereux, alite, si elles n'a- 
vaient le support sympathique de 
I'infirmiere visiteuse? 

Je veux aussi mentionner I'ordre des 
Filles d'Isabelle qui par ses dififerents 
cercles offre des dons en argent utilises 
a completer I'achat d'articles dispen- 
dieux necessaires aux malades. 

Voila une enumeration eloquente de 
services offerts aux cancereux; je suis 
la premiere a m'en rejouir. Cependant, 
conime travailleuse sociale, je realise 
de plus en plus a leur contact, que les 
patients cancereux vivent des emotions 
qu'il est difficile de saisir. Si souvent, 
leur etat d'aine nous echappe ; nous 
ne pouvons nous tromper en leur te- 
inoignant une affection sincere. 

Comme infirmieres et travailleuses 
sociales, nos roles sont differents 
aupres du patient mais se rejoignent 
puisse notre desir de I'aider nous 
unit et renforce notre effort. 



A simple, 90 per cent accurate blood test 
to help determine whether a patient has 
rheumatoid arthritis has been made avail- 
able to physicians all over the country. This 
test is especially valuable in detecting the 



disease in its early stages. It depends on 
the fact that sensitized sheep blood cells 
will clump when in contact with serum from 
a rheumatoid arthritis patient. 

— Scope Weekly 



270 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



wm {Docmio 



Adventures in Science Teaching 



Henrietta J. Alderson, M.S. 

THESE adventures had their begin- 
ning in a feeling of dissatisfaction 
on the part of the writer — dissatisfac- 
tion with the quahty of the teaching 
being given in the sciences, basic to 
good nursing practice. Doubt was fos- 
tered by disinterest, indifference and 
low quality learning on the part of the 
students whose common complaint was 
"we don't see why we have to learn all 
that stuff." At McMaster. we have a 
problem not common to many schools 
of nursing, namely, that at least part 
of the teaching in basic sciences is 
divorced from nursing practice. The 
sciences (anatomy, physiology, micro- 
biology, and introductory pathology) 
are taught in an integrated course 
during the first two years of university 
studies and, as such, are correlated 
with courses in the other science areas 
chiefly chemistry (inorganic, organic, 
and biochemistry). This means that 
during the first year the students have 
no contact at all with nursing practice ; 
in the second year, contact is limited 
to one day per week during the aca- 
demic term following a brief summer 
period at the end of the first year. 

The problem simply stated was — 
"how can we make learning meaning- 
ful under these circumstances?" For- 
tunately, we are in a unique position, 
relatively free of traditional influences 
and with a wide measure of indepen- 
dence in planning and formulating 
teaching methods and experiences. 
Pondering on the question, common to 
some of the readers, we formulated 
three objectives toward which to 
work : 



Miss Alderson is a lecturer on the 
Nursing Faculty of McMaster Univer- 
sity, Hamilton, Ontario. 

APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



(1) To improve the quaUty of mean- 
ings, moving progressively toward a 
fuller understanding for each individual 
and fostering self-maturity. 

(2) To help the student see how the 
subject matter functions before she 
uses it, thus arousing in her a need for 
learning. 

(3) To deviate from the traditional 
learning-centred curriculum, as one edu- 
cator says "to unfix the ends." 

An institute held at the university a 
year ago on the "case and incident 
method of teaching" stimulated think- 
ing. Why could not cases and incidents 
be used in science teaching? As we 
thought of this idea we decided it had 
merit and could be used as a "spring- 
board" so to speak. We could not, 
however, use the terms or techniques 
in the strict sense of the word. 

The method adopted, now in its 
second year of trial, is being con- 
stantly changed and altered from the 
original plan and we are daily finding 
new ways of developing and expanding 
its use. For clarity, the method as 
currently employed with our two 
groups of students will now be de- 
scribed in as much detail as possible : 

First Year Students 

For first year students, with little 
or no knowledge of nursing prin- 
ciples, we use incidents selected from 
within their experience field. Last fall, 
after an eight-week introductory period 
on a unit entitled "the cell, structural 
and functional unit of life," involving 
basic microbiological, cytological, his- 
tological and physiological principles, 
the students were ready to move 
forward to the larger unit "making 
adjustments to the external environ- 



271 



inent," involving the functioning of 
muscles, bones, joints, and nerves. As 
an introduction to the unit the students 
came to class prepared to discuss in as 
much detail as possible an incident 
involving "an experience with a fright- 
ening situation." An informal discus- 
sion ensued in which each student told 
"how she felt," "what she did" and 
"how she reacted" to the fear situation. 
The students were requested to note 
any feelings or reactions that they had 
in common with other members of 
their class. By the end of the presen- 
tation period, the following sensations 
or reactions had been recorded on the 
blackboard : 

loss of emotional control — including 
hysteria, excitement ; 
loss of intellectual power — forgetting, 
repetition of words ; 

loss of control — no sensation of what 
one was doing, running, collapse ; 
feeling of coldness — whole body, hands 
shivering, cold clammy perspiration ; 
other feelings — nausea, hollowness, 
dryness of mouth, muscles twitching, 
tension, shaking and weakness, fatigue, 
palpitation of heart, irregularity of pulse, 
increased rate, etc. 

Progressing from these common feel- 
ings or reactions the students discussed 
the question — "In order to under- 
stand these feelings or reactions what 
do you need to know?" Many answers 
were forthcoming, such as — 

nerz'ous system: brain and spinal cord 
structure and function, memory, aware- 
ness, recall of past experiences, etc. 
organs of reception — skin, ears, eyes, 
etc. 

basis of sensations: coldness, shivering, 
dryness of mouth. 

organs of response: heart and blood 
vessels, lungs — glands — adrenal — 
adrenalin. 

muscles: contraction, relaxation, in- 
creased blood supply, oxygen, etc. 
hones, muscles and joints: how they 
function together. 

Then one student said "I'm lost, I 
don't know what we are doing !" The 
question was turned back to her class- 
mates by asking — "How did you 
becoine aware of your fear?" "What 
did you do as a result?" "Why did you 
respond that way?" They reanalyzed 
their fear experience, noting — in 
answer to the questions — 

(1) How they became aware of their 



fear — what receptors functioned to 
make them aware of their environment. 

(2) What they did as a result — they 
experienced the above-named sensations 
and/or carried out certain acts. 

(3) Why they responded in that man- 
ner — the receptor received the sti- 
mulus, carried it to the nervous centre, 
which in turn sent out messages to 
mediate the response. 

To make the relationship clearer one 
siinple act was carried through, briefly, 
by the cooperative effort of students 
and teacher, step by step, from recep- 
tion to response, to illustrate the pos- 
sible pathway. The students now faced 
the decision of where to begin their 
study. With almost unanimous consent 
they decided to begin with the recep- 
tors — ear, eye, touch, etc. 

All must agree that, in this case, 
any previously outlined knowledge 
objectives certainly became recast and 
variable. We began with material often 
considered so difficult by some instruc- 
tors that they leave it to the very end 
of the course. The students and teacher 
managed the experience cooperatively, 
they found the area of need, located 
the trial centres (methods of approach) 
and decided the direction and plan of 
the work. The teacher of course, had 
to be willing to change some of the 
subject matter and to readjust some 
areas of previous teaching. 

You may now ask "How is such 
an experience evaluated? " The use of 
an incident or experience is continued 
into the examination period. Following 
are some excerpts from the mid-year 
examination to illustrate the technique : 
"Mary Jane, age 18 years, a pretty 
plump girl with brown hair and e3'es, is 
attending university for the first time 
this fall. She wears glasses for reading. 
About mid-term while attending a chem- 
istry lab. she cut the back of her hand 
rather badly with some broken glass- 
ware. She was given first aid by both 
the doctor and the nurse. For a few 
days all seemed well, then she noticed 
redness and swelling around the cut. 
accompanied by pain and tenderness. The 
doctor ordered her to hospital for treat- 
ment." 

2. Mary n'orc glasses for reading, as 
she suffered from hyperopia. 

(1) What is this condition? Describe 
the mechanism briefly. 

(2) Mary's eyeball structurally consists 



272 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



of several kinds of tissue. What is the 
function of each kind of tissue italicised f 

a. sclera — white fibrous connective 

b. ciliary body — smooth muscle 

c. lens capsule — elastic connective 

d. conjunctiva — simple squamous epi- 
thelium 

e. retina — nervous tissue 

f. tarsal plates — 7i'/n7r fibrocartilage 

(3) List the structures in order through 
which a ray of light would pass in order 
to reach Mary's retina. What is the 
function of each? 

(4) Differentiate between the function 
of the rods and the cones. 

3. The following structures of the skin 
were injured by the cut. What is the 
function of each ? 

(1) stratum corneum 

(2) stratum granulosum 

(3) dermis 

(4) sebaceous glands 

(5) hair 

6. While in hospital receiving treatment 
Mary developed an infection of the res- 
piratory system caused by a virus. 

(1) What is a system ? 

(2) What is the function of the respira- 
tory system ? 

(3) What do you understand by each 
of the terms used in the definition of a 
virus — "a virus is an ultramicroscopic, 
filtrable, intracellular parasite, producing 
inclusion bodies." 

(4) During her infection all Mary's 
food seemed tasteless. Explain. Classify 
taste sensations. 

Describe briefly the structure of a 
taste bud. How does it function ? etc. 

Your next question undoubtedly 
Avill be — "Where do you intend to 
go from this point?" The students 
have expressed unanimous desire and 
enthusiasm for their course of action 
— - to proceed with the study of the 
brain and its mechanism. Following a 
brief introductory class in which an 
overview of the whole nervous system 
will be presented, the teacher and the 
students will again plan cooperatively 
to meet the nnmediate problems in- 
volved in studying this more advanced 
aspect of the original problem. Thus, 
learning becomes a series of need- 
experiences selected and developed 
through a circular learning process 
toward need-fulfillment, under the 
guidance of a mature adult who mean- 
while is developing expertness in help- 



ing them understand, accept, and use 
such a method. 

More Advanced Students 

For more advanced students who 
have had some contact with actual 
nursing practice, case histories are 
used to good advantage. The histories 
are selected if possible from among the 
patients the students are nursing, pre- 
ferably one that is familiar to several 
students. The histories should be real. 
They are used to introduce new units 
of work, stimulate informal group dis- 
cussions or to provide settings for 
evaluation of learning. Before giving 
an example of this kind of planning, 
I would like to emphasize that only 
introductory pathology is taught and 
discussions do not involve theory or 
practice of any aspect of nursing. The 
unit on "body defense mechanisms" 
was introduced by a brief summary of 
three case histories, two of which 
follow, and the film "Body Defenses 
Against Disease." 

Case #1. Mrs. King, age 31 years was 
first admitted to a general hospital on 
October 17, 1955. She was complaining 
of severe and intermittent pain of five 
weeks duration in her right upper qua- 
drant. While in hospital, removal of her 
gallbladder resulted in disappearance of 
her pain. The pain recurred, however, 
within three weeks, with some evidence 
of relationship with food intake, and was 
accompanied by jaundice, nausea and 
vomiting. 

She underwent surgery on October Zi, 
1955 for removal of a gallstone in the 
biliary duct. On October 30. 1955 there 
was redness around the incision with a 
drainage of yellow pus from the wound. 
T.P.R. (ad) 98^-84-20 
October 30, 1955-101° 
Culture report of drainage — staphy- 
lococcus aureus hemolyticus. 

Sensitivity of organism — resistant to 
penicillin, moderately sensitive to strep- 
tomycin, highly sensitive to aureomycin, 
terramycin, Chloromycetin, and erythro- 
mycin. 

Case # 2. Mr. Hill, age 57 years, ad- 
mitted September 16, 1955. History of 
right lower quadrant abscess with puru- 
lent drainage and some frank bleeding 
following operation three weeks ago. 
Area over right hip hot, red, and swol- 
len. 



APRIL. 1956 • Vof. S2. No. 4 



273 



T.P.R. (ad) 99.4° - 104 - 18. Area was 
incised and drained. 
Laboratory reports — 

Pre- Post- 

operatively operatively 
Red blood count 3,680,000 4,280,000 
White blood count 22,400 6,800 

Polymorphs 97% 

Hemoglobin 68% 73% 

Culture and sensitivity tests — 

Coliform bacillus — highly sensitive 
to Chloromycetin, resistant to all 
other antibiotics 
Streptococcus faccalis — moderately 
sensitive to aureomycin, terramycin, 
Chloromycetin and erythromycin. 
Informal grotip discussion followed, 
stimulated by the question, "What do 
you need to understand in order to 
intelligently nurse these patients?" 
The teacher acted as recorder. By 
the end of the disctission period the 
following items had been listed on the 
blackboard : 

origin and properties — staphylococ- 
cus, colon bacillus, streptococcus faccalis 
resistance — patient vs organism 
antibiotics and sensitivity tests 
wound organisms — aerobic and ane- 
robic 

normal body flora — when does flora 
become pathogenic? What conditions 
predispose to this ? 

signs and symptoms of infection 
reaction of the body to infection — 
general vs local 

defense mechanisms — including liver 
and spleen 

causes of disease — direct vs indirect 
(predisposing) 
antibiotics vs antibodies 
antibodies — chemical nature, dura- 
tion, nature of activity, origin, kinds 

organisms — destruction, environmen- 
tal needs, growth on media, morphology, 
pure vs mixed culture, pathogenesis 
how microorganisms are killed 
physical agents — heat, cold, light, 

drying 
chemical agents — antiseptics and 
disinfectants, sulpha drugs 
how microorganisms enter the body, 
how they spread within the body, how 
they leave the body 

how the environment is made safe — 
care of dressings, instruments, wounds, 
hands, dishes 

how microorganisms are transmitted. 

Here it might be pointed out that 
it is sometimes helpful to analyze his- 



tories under three headings : 

(1) Things we already know or under- 
stand. 

(2) Things we don't know or under- 

stand but know where to find the 
answers. 

(3) Things we don't know or under- 
stand and don't know where to 
find the answers. 

This analysis of histories encourages 
the student since she identifies areas 
in which she feels confident, while 
pointing out her deficiencies. Follow- 
ing the analysis the group planned 
cooperatively as to where, when, and 
how they would meet their needs. In 
this case, some topics were noted to be 
covered by formal lecture presentation, 
some by laboratory experiences and 
others by informal group discussions. 
The students first decided where they 
wished to begin — with a lecture- 
discussion period on the "causes of 
disease, predisposing and direct." Fur- 
ther lecture periods dealt with the 
overall results of disease — the body's 
reaction to disease, passive, specific 
(local and general) and nonspecific 
(including the alarm reaction) ; the 
reparative process, local and general, 
including immunity and hypersensi- 
tivity, and the general principles under- 
lying disease transmission, control and 
prevention. Informal group discussion 
dealt with topics already somewhat 
familiar to the students, e.g., defense 
mechanisms and antibody formation. 

A reference list of suitable readings 
was made available to help in answer- 
ing questions and to stimulate further 
thinking. Laboratory experiences in- 
cluded a study of wound pathogens 
(aerobic and anerobic), sensitivity 
testing with antibiotics, determination 
of normal body flora, preparation of a 
bacterial vaccine, study of commercial 
preparations of vaccines and antisera, 
tests efnployed for the determination 
of antibodies in the blood sera, physical 
and chemical means of destruction and 
control and finally the study and eval- 
uation of a nursing procedure invol- 
ving either medical or surgical aseptic 
techniciue. It will be noted by many 
readers that in this study the case 
histories and resulting learning process 
involved somewhat more microbiology 
than physiology but this situation could 
well be reversed in the next problem 
the students attempt, tp solve. 



274 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Developing a Need 

What was achieved by these adven- 
tures? By these methods — either the 
incident or the case history — the 
students were stimulated to develop a 
"need". A need is defined as "some 
inner drive or force within an indivi- 
dual impelling him to the action 
observed by outsiders and indicating 
to them the nature of his learning.^" 
The need arose out of the interaction 
of the student with the case history or 
the incident. It arose because she 
lacked experience to meet the situation 
provided, her previous experiences 
lacking quality, she must now find new 
and more satisfying experiences to 
solve the problem. The need will lead 
from present meanings to action, de- 
veloping along the way inadequate 
answers, which in turn will stimulate 
new needs, demanding new experiences 
with better meanings and improved 
actions and . finally a measure of self- 
maturity in an organized whole. Mean- 
while everyone in the group has be- 
come more conscious of what, why, 
and how he selects meanings which 
are valuable enough to accept and 
retain.^ 

In conclusion may I say that this 
method has brought rich rewards both 
for students and teacher. For the 
student, it develops a goal for learning. 
She now learns because learning has 
taken on new meaning ; she sees clearly 
the value and use of what she learns. 
Aspects of situations in which the in- 
dividual makes no response can no 
longer exist, and in satisfying her 
need she extends the range and accu- 
racy of her meanings. Furthermore, 
she develops ability in assessing a 
problem and planning a course of 
action in terms of desirable outcomes. 
She will be the better able to function 
as a mature individual when she is no 
longer under the direct guidance of her 
teachers. Finally she has learned to 
cooperate in group activities, to func- 
tion as a member of a group, accepting 
a resDonsibility for group discussion 
and the outcomes of group action. 

B'or the teacher, there is the reward 
of high quality learning. Students work 
harder and learn more than before ; 
they pursue topics to a level of knowl- 
edge and understanding that you didn't 
believe possible. Discussions have spark 



and enthusiasm because all participants 
are keenly interested and alive ; there is 
no more dozing in class. Evaluation of 
previous learning and the avoidance of 
dull repetition is easier. Teaching is no 
longer stereotyped — lesson so and so 
on such and such a day — because you 
no longer know just what each session 
will bring forth. You are helping to 
develop personalities and to assist them 
in attaining new levels of maturity — 
students awaken and blossom under 
the experience. Discipline is no longer 
a problem and you shed the cloak of 
authoritarianism to become a member 
of the group, all of you working 
toward a common end. 

But do not misunderstand ! There 
will be moments when you wish you 
could go back to the safety of plan- 
ned, detailed lessons. Certainly there 
will be misgivings and difficulties. The 
method is time-consuming and some- 
times you will have to be satisfied with 
achieving less, but it will be of a 
higher calibre. You cannot arrange 
outside help • — • audiovisual aids, spe- 
cial lectures, supplies and materials as 
easily. You must be sufficiently pre- 
pared in your subject matter that you 
can meet the needs and questions of 
the group at all times or at least know- 
where you can find a solution to the 
problems which arise. Meanwhile you 
will want to keep within the frame- 
work of the broad areas in your over- 
all plan and maintain a measure of 
continuity, scope and balance. You 
must be prepared to develop well all 
the techniques and qualities of a good 
leader — a leader who is a better 
teacher because she has helped others 
to respect their experiences and them- 
selves through application of all of the 
principles of good leadership. 

I feel that we have just begun to 
explore this method as it applies to 
science teaching. We have much to 
learn, many difficulties to surmount 
and many moments of doubt ahead. 
However if, through the use of this 
method, we are able to raise the level 
of maturity of our students, to ofTer 
them greater opportunity to discover, 
release, and develop their potential 
capacities toward ever higher levels of 
self-enhancement, then we will be 
amply rewarded. For those who may 
wish to enter upon this adventure I 



APRIL, 1956 • VoL 52, No. 4 



275 



suggest that they may find help in 
successfully achieving their goal by 
consulting some of the references listed 
at the end of this article. To each 
adventurer — the best of luck and 
happy voyage ! 

1. Hopkins, L. Thomas, The Emerging 
Self. New York : Harpers and Bros.. 
1954. 

2. Hopkins. L. Tliomas, "Needs and In- 



terests, A Sufficient Basis for the 
Elementary School Curriculum." 
Schoolmen's Week Proceedings, 1952 
(Reprint). 

3. Jersild, Arthur T., In Search of Self. 
New York : Bureau of Publications. 
Teachers' College, 1952. 

4. Snygg, Donald and Combs, Arthur 
W., Individual Behaviour. New York : 
Harper and Bros., 1949. 



A Venture in Field Experience 

for Graduate Nurses 



MoYRA Allen, M.A. 

IN June, 1955, the first year of a 
new course in teaching and ward 
management in medical-surgical nurs- 
ing, was completed at the school for 
Graduate Xurses, McGill University, 
Montreal. 

The field work was carried on in a 
400-bed, general hospital with a small 
school of nursing. Two groups of grad- 
uate nurse students were involved, 20 
students in the diploma program in 
medical-surgical nursing and four stu- 
dents in the final year of the degree 
program in nursing education and ad- 
ministration in hospitals and schools 
of nursing. The second group was 
responsible for the guidance and super- 
vision of the first group, and the work 
of both groups was coordinated by 
members of the imiversity staff. Con- 
siderable assistance, also, was received 
from the director of nursing of the 
hospital and her staiT. 

The field work was planned at every 
stage of development with both groups 
of students. As they could not all par- 
ticipate in each activity, the students 
selected projects in which they were 
interested. A rotation plan was set 
up so that each student would know 
her activities for the month and the 
time interval for each activity. Ap- 
proximately one-half of the student's 



Miss Allen is assistant professor in 
charge of the Medical-Surgical Nursing 
program at the School for Graduate 
Nurses. McGill University, Montreal. 



time was devoted to projects in ward 
management and the other half to 
classroom teaching and clinical instruc- 
tion. The first two days of the field 
work experience were spent in orienta- 
tion to the hospital, the nursing service 
and the school of nursing. 

Field Work in 
Ward Management 

During the one-month period it was 
not practical to expect students to 
administer or assist in the management 
of a ward ; however, it was possible 
to analyze various aspects of ward 
management. The methods used should 
be valuable to the student in studying 
her own ward situation at a later date. 

A "Head Nurse Study" was plan- 
ned and carried out by all members 
of the diploma group under the guid- 
ance of one of the students in the final 
year of the degree program. The ob- 
jectives of this study were : 

1. To assess the level of the activities 
of the head nurse and the amount of 
time spent in activities at each level. 

2. To determine the activities of the 
head nurse and the amount of time spent 
in each activity. 

This was a time study in which the 
head nurse was observed continuously 
for a period of 16 days. The periods 
of observation were from 7 :00 a.m. to 
1 1 :00 a.m. and from 1 1 :00 a.m. to 
3 :00 p.m. Each student observed the 
head nurse for two consecutive pe- 



276 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



riods. one period one day and the 
second on the following day. The areas 
of activity and the levels of activity 
had been agreed upon prior to the 
study. The reliability of this study was 
probably decreased due to the difficulty 
of the students in judging the level 
of some of the activities of the head 
nurse. As all students observed the 
head nurse, another variable was 
added. Its influence on the findings 
was recognized but for the purpose 
of this study the emphasis was on 
method. 

Table T shows the level of activity 
performed by the head nurse and the 
per cent distribution of time devoted 
to each level. It may be noted that 
65.91% of the time was spent in activ- 
ities considered to be of the head nurse 
level, while 17.0% was devoted to the 
ward clerk level and 12.64% to the 
unit nursing staff level. 

TABLE I 

The Per Cent Distribution of Head 
Nurse Time by Level of Activity in One 
General Hospital in 1955. 



Level of Activity 


Time in Per Cent 


Head nurse 


65.91% 


Unit nursing staff 


12.64% 


Ward clerk 


17.00% 


Other levels 


4.45% 




100.00% 




The remaining 4.45 was classified as 
other levels. 

Table II shows the areas of activity 
and the proportion of time given to 
each area. Alinost one-half of the head 
nurse's time (49.27%) was devoted 
to patient care, as coinpared with 
16.80% devoted to ward administra- 
tion and 10.41% to personnel admin- 
istration. Personal and other time 
amounted to 23.52%. 

TABLE II 

The Per Cent Distribution of Head 
Nurse Time by Area of Activity in One 
General Hospital in 1955. 



Area of Activity 


Time in 
Per Cent 


Patient care 

Ward administration 

Personnel administration 

Personal 

Other 


49.27 
16.80 
10.41 
18.32* 
5.20 


Total 


100.00 



* Inclusive of lunch and coffee time. 




Figure I The Per Cent Distribution of 
Head Nurse Time by Level of Activity 
in One General Hospital in 1955. 



Figure II The Per Cent Distribution of 
Head Nurse Time by Area of Activity in 
One General Hospital in 1955. 

An "Analysis of Activities at the 
Patient's Bedside" was another study 
planned and carried out by the diploma 
students under the guidance of one 
of the students in the final vear of the 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



277 



TABLE III 

A Comparison of the Average Amount of Nursing Care Received per Patient zvith the Amount 
of Time Available per Patient from 7 :00 A.M. to 3:00 P.M. on a Male and Female Ward 

in One General Hospital in 1955. 



Average Amount of Time in Minutes 


Ward 


Nursing Care Received 
Per Patient 


Nursing Care Available 
Per Patient* 


Male 


62.4 


180.5 


Female 


66.9 


176.7 



* Exclusive of lunch and cofTee time. 



degree program. The objectives of this 
study were : 

1. To determine the amount of nurs- 
ing care given a patient at the bedside. 

2. To determine the time spent in the 
performance of each of six different 
areas of nursing care by each staff mem- 
ber at the bedside. 

3. To compare the amount of time 
spent at the bedside with the amount 
of staff time available. 

4. To determine the average length of 
each contact and the number of contacts 
per patient by each category of staff. 
The method used was a spot study 

of observation units at hfteen-minute 
intervals, and included all the patients 
in two general medical-surgical wards. 
Areas of nursing care were classified 
under two headings — physical care 
and verbal interaction. Physical care 
included : 

Routine nursing care — bed bath, 
back rub, making bed, arranging unit, 
taking temperature, giving or removing 
food tray, giving and removing bedpan. 
Special nursing procedures or treat- 
ments — enema, catheterization, blood 
pressure, changing dressing, hot com- 
presses, medications, giving injections, 
observation of postoperative patient. 

Indirect activities — accompanying 
doctor on rounds, assisting doctor with 
treatments, taking patients to x-ray, 
bringing in mail or flowers to patient, 
taking equipment to or from bedside, 
checking clothing, having patient sign 
admission slip, charting at bedside, read- 
ing with patient. 
V^erbal interaction included : 
Procedural — seeking, receiving, or 



giving information concerning physical 
care, treatment or test. 

Personal — greetings, joking, discus- 
sion of events in hospital or outside life, 
discussion of own or patient's feelings, 
recreational interests and skills, any 
friendly or personal conversation. 

Teaching — specific information given 
by the nurse related to the patient's 
or his family's general health or specific 
health needs. 

Table III shows a comparison of 
the average amount of nursing care 
received by each patient, male and 
female, with the amount of staff time 
available from 7 :00 a.m. to 3 :00 p.m. 
It is interesting to note that more than 
one-half of the available staff time is 
spent away from the bedside. 

Table IV shows the analysis of this 
care given by the various categories 
of staff. 

The average number of contacts of 
nursing staff with a patient froin 7:00 
a.m. to 3 :00 p.m. on a male ward was 
32.7, the average duration of each 
contact was 1.9 minutes. The average 
number of contacts on a female ward 
for the same period was 31.1, the 
duration of each contact was 2.1 
minutes. 

Further projects included an analy- 
sis of nurses' notes and morning 
report, an analysis of the method of 
recording doctor's orders and a study 
of the procedure for the adininistration 
of medications. 

Field Work Teaching 
Students in the final year of the 



278 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



TABLE IV 

The Distribution of Average Minutes of Nursing Care Given by Each Category of Staff at 
the Patient's Bedside, Male and Female, from 7:00 A.M. to 3:00 P.M., in a General Hospital 

in 1955. 



Average Amount of 
Time in Minutes 



Category of Stafif 




Male 


Female 


Head Xurse 




1.0 


20 


Registered Nurse 


22.0 


33.1 


Senior Student 


13.9 


5.8 


Junior Student 


11.8 


13.5 


Nursing Assistant 


7.1 


10.1 


Maid 


3.3 


2.4 


Orderly 


3.3 


— 


Total 


62.4 


66.9 



degree program supervised the stu- 
dents in clinical instruction in each 
of two medical-surgical units. Each 
supervisor was responsible for three 
graduate nurse students and each of 
these was responsible for one student 
nurse in the clinical instruction pro- 
gram. The activities in clinical instruc- 
tion included : 

1. Determining the objectives of clin- 
ical instruction in the unit. 

2. Planning and carrying out an 
orientation program for new students. 

3. Making out the student's assign- 
ments. 

4. Guiding, supervising and assisting 
students to : 

a) assess the needs of patients and 
to determine the nursing care to 
meet these needs, 

b) make a nursing care plan for 
each patient. 

c) organize the care of their pa- 
tients, 

d) give nursing care, 



e) make a plan for patient teaching, 

f) plan and give a nursing care 
conference, 

g) evaluating the student's progress 
through observation, anecdotal 
notes, progress conferences and 
summary reports. 

Each of the clinical instructors 
taught a class in medical-surgical nurs- 
ing during this period and set test 
questions on the material that she had 
presented. As they were familiar with 
the patients in the wards, the teachers 
were able to take the students on nurs- 
ing rounds to observe patients with 
conditions similar to those which they 
were studying. Similar projects in 
clinical instruction were carried on by 
one student in the operating room and 
two in the outpatient department. 

In another study the students ana- 
lyzed the learning experiences available 
for student nurses in the two medical- 
surgical units. It was both a quan- 
( Please turn to page 292) 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



279 




pu^i^(^^^Vtena^jn\ 



- K. 



prepared by your notional office Canodian Nurses' Association, Ottawa ' 




Meeting Place 

Ottawa was the centre of acti\'ity in 
February — • nursing activity that is — • 
as your CNA Executive Committee 
met for three days. Knowledge of the 
meetings was not confined to nursing 
circles alone, for due to constant press 
coverage, the citizens knew that they 
were hosts to 35 nursing leaders whose 
sole purpose here was to discuss and 
plan towards better nursing service for 
all Canadians. 

What was Decided P 

In the realm of nursing service itself, 
approval was granted for the printing 
of an Orientation Manual. This will 
be ready for distribution in Winnipeg, 
at our general meeting in June 1956. 

This manual, prepared both in 
French and English, is intended as a 
guide. It presents suggested plans for 
orientation in the major fields of nurs- 
ing — hospital nursing (including 
private nursing), public health and 
occupational health nursing. 

A statement of policies regarding 
nursing service, as prepared by the 
Committee on Nursing Service was 
approved. A combined pamphlet on 
nursing service and nursing education 
policies will be prepared and we ex- 
pect it will be ready in June. 

The report of the functions and ac- 
tivities of the head nurse continues to 
interest the CNA membership. It is 
hoped that further study may bring 
about recommendations concerning the 
functions and preparation of the head 
nurse. 

More Study of Functions 

This time a study of the functions 
of the nursing assistant will be under- 
taken. The committee will be represen- 
tative of both nursing service and 



nursing education. When this has been 
completed, the provincial nursing edu- 
cation committees will be asked to 
review the curriculum for nursing as- 
sistants considering particularly the 
length of the course and educational 
quaHfications for admission. A third 
step will then be to see that the basic 
nursing course provides student nurses 
with an understanding of the functions 
of nursing assistants and of their con- 
tribution to nursing service. Basic 
nursing students will thus be helped to 
assume the professional nurse's re- 
sponsibility for the total nursing care 
of patients, including the care given by 
nursing assistants. 

A ccreditation 

This word, perhaps not so familiar 
to some nurses, will become, before 
the end of another biennium, a part of 
every nurse's vocabulary. To accredit, 
(according to Webster's dictionary), is 
to vouch for officially ; to certify, as of 
a (prescribed or desirable) standard. 
It is agreed that it is the responsibility 
of any profession to evaluate its own 
programs of education. Accreditation, 
following such an evaluation, then, 
will benefit the health and welfare of 
the Canadian people since it will pro- 
vide more effective nur.sing service 
through improving the preparation for 
that service. 

A sub-committee has been set up to 
further consider this program of accred- 
itation of schools of nursing. Depen- 
dent upon costs, a pilot study of ac- 
creditation in certain schools of nursing 
in Canada will likely be undertaken. 
Ample opportunity to study and con- 
sider such a program will be provided 
at the 28th Biennial Meeting. 

C ommunications 

The Public Relations Guide prepared 



380 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



during this biennium, having received 
executive approval, is ready to go to 
the printers. Copies in French and 
EngHsh will be available in June. 

An amendment to the bylaws will 
be presented at the Biennial Meeting 
on behalf of the Committee on Publi- 
citv and Public Relations. It is sug- 
gested that the committee be called 
the Committee on Public Relations. 
This has arisen from consideration of 
the fact that publicity is but one of 
several "instruments" designed to pro- 
mote public understanding and good- 
will for the nursing profession within a 
total public, relations program. So, 
come next June, CNA members will 
vote upon this amendment aimed to 
broaden the scope of this national 
committee. 

General agreement was voiced by 
all executive members on the im- 
portance of keeping CNA members 
alerted to the new programs, devel- 
opments and achievements in all 
spheres of nursing. A continuing 
stream of news covering committee 
activities is felt to be essential to the 
development of an informed CNA 
membership. What better place for 
this news to appear than in the pages 



of The Canadian Nurse. Watch for 
this from now on. 

CNA Crest 

Our present CNA crest is under 
revision. Samples of the proposed crest 
will be available at the Biennial Meet- 
ing. You the membership, will vote 
upon the crest of your choice. 

International Nursing Service 

Executive members were reminded 
that it is the wish and hope of the 
International Council of Nurses, that 
nurses seeking employment or wishing 
observation of nursing programs in 
other countries be encouraged to use 
the services of their national nursing 
organization. It is interesting to note 
that some countries require that a "card 
of introduction" signifying sponsorship 
by their own national nursing associa- 
tion be used by the nurses. Such spon- 
sorship for our nurses travelling abroad 
is assuredly of advantage to them. It 
not only gives them a feeling of secu- 
rity, but develops their knowledge and 
appreciation of their professional asso- 
ciation. 



^e Tfcc^dm^ k Piawn^ le frcuf^ 



Lieu de reunion 

Ottawa fut, en fevrier, un centre d'activite 
en nursing; le Comite Executif de I'Asso- 
ciation des Infirmieres Canadiennes s'y est 
reuni et ces assises ont dure trois jours. Cet 
evenement fut souligne par la presse et les 
citoyens canadiens onl appris que 35 infir- 
mieres. chefs de file de la profession, s'etaient 
reunies uniquement dans le but de discuter 
sur les moyens a prendre pour donner a tous 
les Canadiens un meilleur service d'infirmie- 
res. 

Qu'a-t-on decide? 

Dans le domaine du nursing proprement 
dit, la publication d'un Manuel d'Orientation 
fut approuvee. Ce manuel, redige en francais 
et en anglais, sera distribue an Congres de 
Winnipeg, en juin 1956, a titre de guide pour 
I'orientation dans les differents champs d'ac- 
tion de I'infirmiere — nursing a I'hopital, 
comprenant le service prive, service d'hy- 
giene publique, etc. 



Un travail prepare par le Comite du Ser- 
vice d'Infirmieres, sur les lignes de conduite 
ou politique concernant ce groupe, fut ap- 
prouve. L'on combinera dans un meme fas- 
cicule la ligne de conduite au sujet de I'edu- 
cation en nursing et celle du service de 
nursing. Nous prevoyons qu'il sera pret pour 
le mois de juin. 

Le rapport sur les fonctions et les taches 
de I'infirmiere-chef continue de susciter de 
I'interet chez les membres de I'A.I.C. Nous 
esperons qu'a la lumiere de nouvelles etu- 
des, des recommandations seront faites au 
sujet des fonctions et de la preparation de 
I'infirmiere-chef. 

Une autre etude - 

Cette fois, I'etude portera sur les fonctions 
de I'auxiliaire en nursing. Le comite charge 
de cette etude sera forme d'infirmieres edu- 
catrices et d'infirmieres en service aupres 
des malades. Une fois ce travail termine. les 
comitcs provinciaux de I'education en nurs- 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



281 



ing scront appeles a reviser le programme 
d'etudes des auxiliaires en nursing, particu- 
lierement en ce qui concerne la duree du 
cours et le degre d'instruction necessaire a 
I'admission. II sera alors a propos d'intro- 
duire au programme du cours de base dans 
les ecoles d'infirmieres des renseignements 
susceptibles de faire comprendre a I'etudiante 
infirmiere le role de I'auxiliaire en nursing 
et la contribution qu'elle apporte au soin 
des malades. L'etudiante-infirmiere apprendra 
aussi comment assumer ses responsabilites 
d'infirmiere professionnelle dans tous les 
soins donnes aux malades, meme de ceux 
donnes par I'auxiliaire en nursing. 

A ccreditation 

Ce mot, qui ne revient peut-etre pas sou- 
vent dans le langage des infirmieres, fera 
avant longtemps partie de leur vocabulaire. 
Accrediter (d'apres le dictionnaire Quillet) 
veut dire : faire connaitre la renommee, la 
reputation d'une personne ou d'une chose ; 
c'est la reconnaissance officielle de certains 
standards recommandes ou desires. C'est un 
fait reconnu et incontestable qu'il est du 
devoir de chaque profession d'evaluer ses 
programmes d'education. L'accreditation, 
apres une telle evaluation contribuera a 
I'amelioration du service d'infirmieres. Le 
perfectionnement des moyens apportes a la 
preparation et a I'execution du service du 
nursing assurera le bien-etre de la nation. 

Un sous-comite a ete forme pour I'etude 
d'un programme d' accreditation des ecoles 
d'infirmieres. Selon les ressources dont nous 
disposons, une etude d'accreditation plus ou 
moins intensive sera faite dans certaines 
ecoles d'infirmieres du Canada. Vous aurez 
I'occasion, lors du 28ieme Congres biennal, 
de vous renseigner sur le programme d'ac- 
creditation. 

Relations exterieutes 

Le Guide .sur les Relations Exterieures, 
prepare depuis le dernier congres biennal 
et approuve i)ar le Comite Executif est pret 
a etre imprime. Des exemplaires de cet ou- 
vrage en frangais et en anglais seront a 
votre disposition en juin prochain. 

Un amendement aux reglements sera pro- 
pose par le Comite de publicite et des rela- 
tions exterieures. II est suggere que ce 
comite se nomme Comite des Relations 
exterieures, considerant que la publicite n'est 
qu'un des moyens dont nous disposons, dans 
un programme de relations exterieures bien 
organise, pour renseigner le public sur I'acti- 
vite de la profession d'infirmiere et I'amener 
a mieux comprendre tous les avantages qu'il 



pent en retirer. Ainsi, en juin prochain, les 
membres de I'A.I.C. seront appeles a voter 
sur cet amendement dont le but est d'etendre 
le champ d'activite du Comite National. 

Tous les membres de I'executif furent 
d'accord sur I'importance de tenir les mem- 
bres de I'A.I.C. au courant des nouveaux 
programmes, developpements et accomplisse- 
ments dans toutes les spheres de la profes- 
sion d'infirmiere; tous ces renseignements 
vous sont communiques dans L'Infirmiere 
Canadienne. Desormais soyez-en une fidele 
lectrice. 

Le Sceau de I'AJ.C. 

Nous sommes a reviser la composition du 
sceau actuel de I'A.I.C. Differents modeles 
vous seront presentes lors du Congres Bien- 
nal et vous, les membres, serez appeles a 
voter pour 1 'adoption du sceau de votre 
choix. 

Le Service International du Nursing 

Le Conseil International des Infirmieres 
a rappele au Comite Executif son desir et 
son espoir de voir utiliser le Service Inter- 
national du Nursmg par toutes les infirmie- 
res qui desirent obtenir de I'emploi dans un 
autre pays que le leur ou qui desirent y faire 
un stage d'observation. II est interessant de 
noter que dans certains pays Ton exige que 
I'infirmiere presente une "carte d'introduc- 
tion" ce qui veut dire une recommandation 
de sa propre association nationale. Pour les 
infirmieres voyageant outre-mer, la recom- 
mandation de I'Association Nationale oflfre 
de grands avantages, outre de donner a I'in- 
firmiere un sentiment de securite, elle lui 
apprend a connaitre et a apprecier la valeur 
de son association nationale. 

Chez les notres 

L'Assemblee Annuelle de I'A.I.C. aura 
un eclat particulier cette annee. 1956 marque, 
en eflFet, le lOieme anniversaire de la sanction 
de la Loi des Infirmieres du Quebec. Pour 
la premiere fois, je crois, dans le monde, du 
moins en Amerique, la profession d'infirmiere 
etait legalement reconnue. Le Gouvernement 
de la province de Quebec confiait aux infir- 
mieres, comme il I'avait fait jadis pour les 
medecins et pour les avocats, la lourde 
responsabilite, de I'administration d'un la loi, 
responsabilite qui engageait tout I'avenir de 
notre profession. 

Sous I'habile direction de ses devouees 
presidentes et de ses secretaires-registraires, 
I'on pent affirmer que I'Association a rempli 
consciencieusement sa tache. L'Association 
compte actuellement plus de 10,000 membres 



282 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



c::/f±kincj roz — 
^aiLozEd ^Linij-oxni6. 



U%6^5. 



\JaiLoiEd cyTLi 

\jLnEit or ^cnooL 
JljLazEXi 



■f^^ 




MADE AND SOLD ONLY BY 



2044-48 UNION AVENUE 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



283 



pratiquants et de 4,000 membres retires de appreciee. Toutefois dans une societe qui 

la profession mais disponibles en cas de evolue avec nne rapidite vertigineuse, il reste 

desastre. beaucoup a faire pour marcher de pair avec 

Si nous regardons en arriere, nous cons- les progres de la medecine et des sciences 

tatons que de grands progres ont ete realises sociales. Renseignons-nous, unissons nos 

au cours des dernieres annees : progres dans efforts en nous souvenant que travailler a 

I'education. progres dans le service des mala- I'avancement de notre profession c'est contri- 

des. La profession est mieux coiinue et plus buer au bonheur de I'humanite. 



Tentative Program 

28th Biennial Meeting of the CNA 

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba 

June 25-29. 1956 

Sunday — June 24 

Meeting of Executive Committee. CNA 

Monday — June 25 
Morning 

Miss Gladys J. Sharpe, President of the CNA, presiding 

Invocation Rabbi Milton Aaron 

Official Opening The Hon. D. L. Campbell. 

Premier of Manitoba 
Greetings • 

Response to Greetings 
Roll Call of Federated Associations 
Introduction of representatives of Commercial Exhibitors 

Presidential Address Miss Gladys J. Shari)e 

Kexnote Address The Hon. T. J. Bentley. 

Minister of Public Health 

for Saskatchewan 
Afternoon 

Public Relations: 

Panel — "Inform the Nation" 

Chairman Miss Evelyn Pepper 

Participants Outside speakers from 

the public relations field. 
Question Period 
Evening 

Barbecue Supper ^..Hu.its — Governments of 

Saskatchewan and Manitoba. 

Tuesday — June 26 

Morning 

Finance „ Miss Trenna Hunter 

"How your Money is Spent" Miss M. Pearl Stiver 

Legislation and By-Laws Miss Helen Carpenter 

Dramatic Presentation (Title and speakers to be announced). 

Afternoon 

Group and individual activities 

EX'ENING 

\'ariety Concert Winnipeg's Theatre Under the Stars 

284 THE CANADIAN NURSE 




Nurses often must devote much time to 
describing good nutritional practices. 

"Meal Planning for the Sick and Con- 
valescent" relieves you of the need for 
repeating over and over again essential 
dietarv facts. This new Knox booklet 
presents the latest nutritional applica- 
tions of proteins, vitamins and minerals, 
suggests wavs to stimulate appetite and 
describes diets from clear liquid to full 
convalescent. It offers the homemaker 
for the first time detailed daily sug- 
gested menus for each type of diet, plus 
14 pages of tested nourishing recipes. 



If vou would like copies of this new 
timesaving Knox booklet, use the 
coupon below. 



Knox Gelatine (Canar'a) Limited 
ProfessionalService Department, "D- 1 6 
140 St. Paul St. West, Montreal, Quebec 

Please send me copies of the 

new Knox "Sick and Convalescent" 
booklet. 

YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS 



APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



285 



SPECIAL SESSION FOR STUDENTS — TUESDAY 

Morning 

"What the Future Holds" Panel Discussion 

(Participants will be student nurses). 

Question Period 

Buzz Session 

Luncheon for Students „ Lower Fort Garry 

Report from Buzz Session 

(Student Nurses are requested to wear uniform for morning session.) 
Afternoon 

Group and individual activities 

Wednesday — June 27 
Morning 

Nursing Service: 

"Toward Better Nursing" A dramatic presentation 

Discussion Period 
Afternoon 

Nursing Service Miss Alice Girard 

Guest Speaker Miss Margaret Arnstein, 

'■ Chief, U.S. Division of Nursing 

Resources, U.S. Public Health Services 
General Discussion 
Evening 

Guest Speaker Dr. Adelaide Sinclair, 

Executive Assistant to 
Deputy Minister of Welfare 

Thursday — June 28 

Morning 

Nursing Education Miss Evelyn Mallory 

Panel — Accreditation, as it relates to preparation for Nursing Service. 
Participants to be announced 
Afternoon 

Discussion Groups 

Guest Speaker Miss Mildred Schwier 

Evening 

Fashion Show 



Friday 

Morning 

Trends in Health Services ~ 



June 29 



Miss Dorothy Percy, R.R.C. 

Chief Nursing Consultant, Department 
of National Health & Welfare 
Panel — "New Approaches to Civil Defence" 
Chairman — Miss Evelyn Pepper 
Dr. K. C. Charron, Director, Civil Defence Health Services, Dept. of National Health 

& Welfare 
Dr. J. S. Tyhurst, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, McGill University 
Third speaker to be announced. 
Afternoon 

Report of Scrutineers 
Report of Student Nurses' Session 
Resolutions 
Evening 

Mary Agnes Snively Memorial Lecture Byrne Hope Sanders, C.B.E. 

Installation of Officers 

Reception „ Hostesses — Alumnae Associations of 

Schools of Nursing in Winnipeg Area 



286 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Report 



from Carnation Research Laboratory 




Carnation Research Laboratory, 8015 Van Nuys Boulevard, Van Nuys, California 



General Research 

For a half century, Carnation 
has conducted a continuous 
and expanding 5-phase re- 
search program in dairy and 
cereal products. Newest major 
research facility is the Carna- 
tion General Research Labora- 
tory at Van Nuys, California — 
one of the most modern labora- 
tories devoted exclusively to 
product research. 

Qualified Scientific Staff 

At the Van Nuys Laboratory 
alone, a large Carnation staff 
of graduate scientists repre- 
sents an extremely broad back- 
ground; fields covered include 
biology, bacteriology, parasitol- 
ogy, chemistry, biochemistry, 



organic chemistry, food tech- 
nology, dairy husbandry, dairy 
technology, dairy bacteriology, 
dairy manufacturing and agri- 
cultural engineering. 

Continuous, Planned Research 

protects the uniform high 
quality of both established 
products and new ones. 



Carnation Protects the 

Doctor's Recommendation 

with Continuous 

S-Phase Research: 

Carnation Research c-^f -^^ai^'*^ 
Laboratory, -Carnation 
Farms; Carnation Plant 
Laboratories; Carnation 
Central Product Control 
Laboratory; Carnation- 
sponsored University 8e 
Association Research. 
926A "from Contented Cows" 




APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



287 



Report of the Arrangements Committee 



The Arrangements Committee reports the 
following progress to date in their planning 
for the biennial meeting. 

Accommodation — Suitable accommoda- 
tion has been arranged for a total of 1100 
registrants. Special consideration is being 
given I to provision of accommodation for 
members of nursing sisterhoods, student 
nurses and exhibitors. 

Transportation — Cars and buses will be 
waiting at Winnipeg's railway stations, air- 
port and bus depot on Sunday, June 24 to 
provide transportation to billets. Army 
cadets will be in attendance at the Univer- 
sity residence to carry luggage. 

Arrangements have been made to trans- 
port those staying in downtown hotels to 
the University campus each morning. Trans- 
portation for student nurse activities has 
also been arranged. 

General Information Sheet — You will 
find one enclosed with the confirmation of 
your accommodation along with a city map. 

Special Activities — A committee has 
been appointed to assist with plans for spe- 
cial group activities. A list of suitable res- 
taurants and their price ranges has already 
been prepared for those planning an alumnae 
reunion, etc. 

Hospital Tours — If you wish to visit 
any of the Winnipeg hospitals, arrangements 
will be made for 3^ou. 

Reception Committee — Watch for the 
directive signs arranged for by this group 
to guide you to the University from the 
downtown area or about the campus itself. 



Sunbonneted ladies of the "Covered 
Wagon" era W'ill be ready to answer your 
questions at the Information Desk. And to 
help you recover that lost umbrella, our 
hostesses have thoughtfully provided a "Lost 
and Found" department. 

Name Tags — Each registrant will re- 
ceive a name tag. 

Committee on Entertainment — Spe- 
cial church services have been arranged for 
Sunday evening, June 24. There will be a 
special Mass at St. Mary's Cathedral at 8 
p. m. for Roman Catholics while the Protes- 
tant service will be held in Westminster 
United Church at 7 p.m. 

Ethnic groups will provide the entertain- 
ment following the barbecue supper Monday 
evening, June 25. Tickets for the variety 
show and fashion show planned for sub- 
sequent evenings will be available at the 
Information Desk. 

The sub-committee of transportation in 
charge of sightseeing tours has shown great 
initiative and imagination in their planning. 
You can be assured of seeing Winnipeg in 
a most enjoyable and novel manner. 

We hope that all of you who have made 
even the most tentative plans to be among 
those present at this 28th biennium will find 
your hopes materializing. However, should 
you discover that you must cancel your 
arrangements, National Office would like you 
to know that the deadline for claiming a 
refund of your pre-registration fee is mid- 
night, June 24. 



^a<^& ^adcti/^ 



Human Relations in Nursing, by Wayland 
J. Hayes, Ph. D., and Rena Gazaway, B.S. 
P.H.N., M.A. 471 pages. W. B. Saunders 
Co., West Washington Sq., Philadelphia 5, 
Penna. 1955. Price $4.50. 
Rcviczved by Dorothy Dick, School of 
Nursing, University of Manitoba, Winni- 
peg, Man. 

In this sociology text for basic nursing 
students a framework is provided to help the 
student understand the structure of society 



and the social significance of the situations, 
within which she works. The importance of 
the nurse being aware of how these concepts 
function in society is emphasized. She is then 
able to understand and to provide comprehen- 
sive nursing care for those w'hom she serves. 
The book has two sections. Part 1 develops 
the sociological principles. It encourages the 
student to relate these to her own background 
and her present life as a nursing student. With 
this as a point of departure, the student is 



288 



THE CANADIAN NURSE; 



Mothers-to-be are so healthy nowddays ! 




PRENATAL CAPSULES 



During pregnancy and lactation, a woman 
needs extra vitamins and minerals— for her own 
health as well as her baby's. To be certain 
she gets her quota, her doctor may well 
recommend Lederle's PRENATAL CAPSULES. 

PRENATAL CAPSULES Lederle are supplied 
as soft-gelatin, dry-filled capsules (a Lederle 
exclusive!) and so cause no unpleasant oily 
aftertaste. They contain 9 essential vitamins 
including B12 and 4 needed minerals in a 
time-tested formula that assures better 
health for two— or more! 



LEDERLE LABORATORIES DIVISION north American Cyanamid limited MONTREAL, QUEBEC 




APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



289 



introduced to the broader aspects of society 
and the principles which underlie social or- 
ganization. Part II applies the understandings 
developed in Part I to nursing situations. The 
first chapter of this section describes the 
growth and development of the social struc- 
ture within which present day nursing func- 
tions. The second chapter outlines the socio- 
logical factors that are a part of every nursing 
situation. Attention must be given to these if 
comprehensive nursing care is to be achieved. 
A discussion regarding the influence of these 
factors on various nursing situations which 
arise throughout the life cycle concludes this 
unit. Bibliographies for additional reading 
and questions for further investigation and 
discussion are included at tlie end of each 
chapter. 

If one accepts a need for a book which 
specifically relates sociological concepts to 
nursing, then this text would seem to perform 
that function. The concepts developed here, 
as they are put into action by nurses in their 
work with patients and families, will provide 
much of that understanding which forms a 
basis for comprehensive nursing care. 

The title "Human Relations in Nursing" 
leads one to expect more emphasis on the 
interaction between individuals than is in- 
cluded. The emphasis has been put on the 
social groups and institutions of which the 
individual is a part, and their relationship to 
nursing and nursing care. The book would be 
a useful reference for any basic nursing 
student. 

The Meaning of Social Medicine, by lago 

Galdston, M.D. 137 pages. S. J. Reginald 

Saunders & Co. Ltd., Toronto 1, Ont. 1954. 

Price $3.60. 

Reviewed by E. C. Sha-a<, City Health 

Dept., Calgary, Alta. 

Dr. Galdston's opening chapter illustrates 
very clearly that "Few among those occupied 
with social medicine agree entirely as to what 
it is. They do, however, agree that there is 
some such science in the making, and that 
whatever it may be and how much it may 
parallel or overlap public health and preven- 
tative medicine, social medicine is different 
from both." The failure of modern medicine 
"in the elimination of disea.se and in the pro- 
motion of health" is cited as the cause of the 
rise of social medicine. The author devotes 
considerable time to giving us the historical 
philosophies and background without which 
one would be completely at sea in following 
his train of thought. 

In his chapter on mortality and morbidity, 
he illustrates how the gains in curative medi- 



cine have produced new problems. The in- 
crease in care of the chronically ill patient, 
with its future high cost, is the result of the 
lack of interest by medicine in the common 
conditions of man and its emphasis on the 
uncommon. Dr. Galdston criticizes the clini- 
cal teacliing of medicine. He suggests an 
experiment in teaching medicine in the gestalt 
of social medicine. In the addendum, one 
realizes that the discipline of social medicine 
is existent in the medical schools in England 
now. There is disagreement in the schools as 
to how "social medicine" is to be taught, but 
it is agreed that there is a "past, present 
and future for it." 

The author, with his broad background in 
the fields of medical education, public health 
and psychiatry, challenges our present out- 
look on disease. He shows how a change in 
attitude and teaching can bring curative and 
preventive medicine together to promote 
health and eliminate disease. This book has 
been written primarily for the medical 
teacher practitioner. It is also recommended 
for graduate nurses and senior staff members 
in both the institutional and public health 
fields. 

The Management of Acute Poliomyelitis, 

by C. P. Stott, S.R.N., and M. Fischer- 
Williams, M.R.C.P. (Ed.). 99 pages. The 
Macmillan Co. of Canada Ltd., 70 Bond St., 
Toronto 2. 1955. Price $2.15. 
Reviezced by Miss M. Blackwood, Nurse in 
Charge, Pediatric Dept., General Hospital, 
Hamilton, Ont. 

Since the world applauded the discovery 
of the Salk polio vaccine the public has hoped 
that polio has been conquered. The doctor and 
the nurse are aware, as a recent press bulletin 
states, that "polio is a world scourge growing 
more and more damaging with each passing 
decade." Eventually most nurses encounter 
the problem of nursing someone suffering 
from this dreaded illness and feel very inade- 
quate in knowledge and experience. 

Instead of the summary usually found in 
many types of nursing texts this book pro- 
vides a ready reference outlining the disease 
and explaining practical points for the pa- 
tient's care and comfort. It lists the equipment 
required and explains the value of physio- 
therapy in facilitating recovery. 

The authors' keen appreciation of the polio 
patient's problems and their emphasis on prin- 
ciples of nursing should help a young nurse 
to understand the many aspects of the nursing 
care involved. Excellent use is made of pic- 
tures and diagrams. The mechanical equip- 
ment, which is unfamiliar to many nurses, is 



290 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Y marks three reosons why . . . 



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BRAMPTON • ONTARIO 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



291 



WHEN YOU WANT THE BEST 

in visual teaching equipment for nursing educa- 
tion, consult the Denoyer-Geppert 55B Catalog. 
If you do not have catalog 55B, write for it 
today — either to our Canadian Representatives 
v/hose addresses are given belov/, or direct to 
our Chicago office. You v^ill be delighted with 
the new D-G unbreakable plastic models being 
offered. 

We also recommend that you ask your local D-G 
representative to arrange for a display of 
models, charts, and other teaching aids at your 
school. He will be happy to serve you (no 
obligation, of course.) 

DENOYER-GEPPERT 

COMPANY 

5251 Ravenswood Avenue — Chicago 40, Illinois 

Contact our Canada Representatives. 

Alberta: Miss Jessie Casselman, ^202 - 1519 Beach Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. 

British Columbia: L. C. Hill, 2828 Broadway, Seattle 2, Washington. 

Maritime Provinces: C. M. Knowlton, 147 Granville Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Ontario and Manitoba: Jack Hood School Supplies, 91 Erie Street, Stratford, Ontario. 

Quebec: C. R. Senecal, 3288 Van Home Avenue, Montreal, Quebec. 

Saskatchewan: Commercial Printers, Ltd., 1935 Albert Street, Regina, Saskatchewan. 




presented in simple terms and the details 
involved in nursing with it are handled 
thoroughly. 

In reviewing this text book its practical 
qualities are very obvious. It is well printed 
on quality paper and is very easily read. It is 



hoped that the title will not lead nurses to 
think of this book in terms of "poliomyelitis" 
only. It could improve the nursing care in so 
many illnesses that it well deserves a place on 
tiie reference shelves of the libraries of schools 
of nursing or in a nurse's personal libary. 



Venture in Field Experience for Graduate Nurses 



titative and qualitative study. The 
categories included the coiidition of 
patients, age group, acuteness or 
chronicity of the ilhiess, nursing pro- 
cedures and nursing problems. 

All students were informed of the 
group's progress and difficulties in 
ward management and clinical instruc- 
tion through half-hour conferences 
each day. At the completion of this 
field work two days were allowed 
for the presentation of reports and 
discussion of the results. 



The consensus of the group was 
that this field work had been a most 
profitable experience. The strengths 
of this project were that it had been 
developed and planned Zi'itli the stu- 
dents, that they had received guidance 
and supervision throughout the ex- 
perience, and that time had been al- 
lotted for conferences regarding their 
progress and difficulties. 

We are exceedingly grateful to the 
hospital for making this field work 
experiment possil)le. 



In a recent experiment it was discovered La parfaite valeur est de faire sans temoins 
that, during the course of her training, a ce qu'on serait capable de faire devant tout 
student nurse walks 4690^4 miles. le monde. 



292 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Confirmed again clinically^ 
the remarkable 

safety-efficiency 

record in relief of 

constipation 
end teething 

gastrointestinal upset and malaise 

Baby s Own Tablets 

Extensive newly completed studies constipation when present, 
verify the outstanding safety record EMINENTLY SAFE — "Throughout the 
and the efficiency of BAB\ 'S OWN study ... in no instance was there any 
TABLETS. Patients ranged in age untoward reaction; no cutaneous erup- 
from 2 months to 24 months. tions or other allergic manifestations, 
One large group of infants suffered no petechiae, no rise in rectal tempera- 
constipation, another group intestinal ture, no alteration in cardiac and 
disturbances and malaise, coincident respiratory function, no vomiting or 
with teething. diarrhea, no oliguria, no albuminuria. 
The result from the studies were as No significant changes were observed 
follows ... in weight, growth, development or 
ALL CONSTIPATED BABIES were relieved hemoglobin before and after the period 
with complete easing of straining at of medication. 

stool, gas discomfort, restlessness and Pleasant, convenient BABY'S OWN 

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ALL TEETHING BABIES suffering con- *^6 grain, mildly buffered with Preci- 

comitant gastrointestinal disturbances Pit-ited Calcium Carbonate Yi grain, 

and malaise were relieved except one. ^^<^ Powdered Sugar q.s. 

Disturbed sleep, resMessness, crankiness Send for a sample supply and literature 

were relieved as well as anorexia and citing references, '-i* 

G. T. FULFORD CO., LIMITED, Brockville, Ontario 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 293 




pain 
banishes beauty 




anin 

the tabht with thi "V" 



brings relief 

No woman can maintain her poise and 
beauty when pain occurs. Veganin will 
help you to prompt, welcome relief, not 
just at specially diflficult times, but 
every time pain occurs. 

Veganin contains no caffeine . . . there 
is no attendant drowsiness. 

Veganin provides "Stronger" relief 
since it contains approximately 8 grains 
of anti-pain medication. Recommended 
by physicians and dentists. Available in 
handy tubes of lO's and 20's for pocket 
or purse. 




In the Good Old Days 

{The Canadian Nurse — April, 1916) 

His Majesty, King George V has been 
graciously pleased to confer the Decoration 
of the Royal Red Cross upon Miss M. C. 
Macdonald, Matron-in-Chief, Canadian Army 
Nursing Service. 



The distribution of the blood fluid in 
shock is of interest and may be arrived at 
by a process of exclusion. It is not in the 
arteries as they are contracted and blood 
pressure is low. It is not in the surface 
veins as these are collapsed. The fluid por- 
tion of the blood has not escaped from the 
vessels as edema is not a feature of shock 
and the specific gravity of the blood is not 
raised. There remain only the great veins 
of the splanchnic area where, I believe, the 
great bulk of the vital fluid will be found. 

* * * 

Do not discard your old stockings ! The 
tops of them make good petticoats or draw- 
ers for young children. 

A most efficacious method of preventing 
wound infection is to cleanse all the sur- 
rounding area with petrol before applying 
iodine. In a leg wound, for instance, wash 
from the groin to the toe nails. 

* * * 

The infant welfare station established by 
Budin in Paris in 1892 and the milk depot 
opened two years later by Dufour mark 
the beginning of the modern movement for 
the reduction of infant mortality. 

* * * 

Mrs. Nellie McClung, who was guest 
speaker at the monthly meeting of the Ed- 
monton Association of Graduate Nurses, 
spoke of the work of nurses and advised 
them to meet as a club instead of being an 
organization. "Then you can work in perfect 
unison in all your efforts." 



W A R NER-CHILGOTT 

cCoDora/oT-ce^ Div wm r warner & CO ltd 



Though evidence is accumulating daily for 
the value of hypnosis as a therapeutic tool, 
its use has largely been limited to difficult 
childbirths and reclaiming amnesia victims 
and alcoholics. Now it has been used to 
stop a cough which had persisted for eight 
days and was precipitating the death of a 
14-year-old girl. The patient had been ad- 
mitted to the hospital with a deep, brassy, 
body-shaking cough which had failed to 
stop in 72 hours. Despite medication with 



294 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



X^e^ Elastoplast 



with Porous Adhesive 
now available 




CMITH & NEPHEW announce that a new form of 
^ Elastoplast — a bandage with a Porous Adhesive 
spread — is now available. After years of extensive 
clinical trials and successful use in Great Britain, results 
confirm that this new Porous adhesive largely overcomes 
skin reaction to occlusion, which some patients experience 
beneath fully spread adhesive bandages, by permitting 
free evaporation of sweat and minimizing epidermal 
keratinisation produced by the stimulating effect of the 
adhesive. 

Elastoplast bandages with Porous adhesive are now 
freely available. Prices are the same as the normal spread 
Elastoplast bandages. 



Points about Porous Elastoplast 

1. Porosity throughout the entire sur- 
face of the adhesive — permits free 
evaporation of sweat. 

2. Skin reaction through sweat reten- 
tion diminished. 

3. Fluffy edges — prevent trauma to 
devitalized skin in the compression 
treatment of varicose conditions. 



Elastoplast 

ELASTIC ADHESIVE POROUS BANDAGES 

Further details may be obtained from: — 

SMITH & NEPHEW LIMITED 

2285 Papineau Avenue, MONTREAL 24, Que. 

APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



fS&Ni 



295 




Delicious flavour, and wholesome 
refreshment have made Coca-Cola 
a favourite everywhere. 

COCA-COLA LTD. 



ever}' cough suppressant in the hospital 
formulary, the patient continued to cough — 
and to fail. 

With the patient dangerously near ex- 
haustion, a hypnotic state was slowly in- 
duced suggestively setting up increasing time 
limits for the patient to suppress her cough. 
By the third day, she had the cough under 
control and was discharged from the hos- 
pital. It is almost certain that hypnosis saved 
her life. — AVw Englatid Journal 

of Medicine 

Approximately 80% of patients treated in 
Ontario general hospitals spent 10 days or 
less in hospital. Fewer men than women 
were in need of care, but on the average 
the men required one day more hospital 
care than the ladies. Respiratory diseases 
accounted for 14.02% of admissions. Treat- 
ment for fractured bones caused the longest 
periods of hospitalization with heart disease 
a close second. In the long-stay group there 
was a preponderance of older people — 75 
years and over — although fewer individuals 
in this age range were admitted. Persons 
from 25-34 years of age required hospitaliza- 
tion most frequently. 

— Hospital Morbidity Study, 
Province of Ontario 



Faith is one of the forces by which men 
live and the total absence of it means col- 
lapse. 

— Williams James 



British Columbia 



The following is a list of the staff changes 
in the Metropolitan Health Committee : 

Appointments — Mrs. Margaret Briar 
(Toronto Gen. Hosp., Univ. of Toronto) ; 
Nellie F. Davies (Royal Free Hospital, 
London, Battersea Polytechnic, London) ; 
Jessica Kirkland (University College Hosp., 
London, Univ. of Edinburgh) ; Mrs. Mar- 
garet Mead (University Hospital, Edmonton, 
Univ. of Alta.) ; Mrs. Margaret Papin 
(Vancouver Gen. Hosp., U.B.C.) ; /. Simons 
(Grey Nuns' Hosp., Regina, U.B.C.) ; Mrs. 
Gerda Todd (Royal Vic. Hosp., Montreal, 
U.B.C.) ; Norah White (University Hosp., 
Edmonton, U. of A.). 

Resig'nations — H. Murdoch, M. Morgan, 
Mrs. Gardiner, E. Teir, Mrs. F. Clegg, Mrs. 
F. Whitelaw, Mrs. B. Revill, Mrs. M. 
Savage, Mrs. M. McKinnon. 



296 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



promote 
tranquil 
(breast 
feeding 




adJ£X" 



C R C A M 



antepartum: For nipple conditioning 
postpartum: For prevention and treatment 
of cracked nipples 




♦Trade Mark Reg'd. 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



297 






Checking ident-A-Band before giving blood. 



You CAN Check 
Identity. . . 

... as the nurses at left are doing. The 
patient is about to receive blood and is 
unconscious and dependent on the nurses. 
Should she receive blood intended for 
someone else, the result could be tragic. 
However, the nurses are averting danger 
by checking the Ident-A-Band ® on the 
patient's wrist. Her name and number 
are clearly visible. 

Just one of many good reasons why 
Ident-A-Bands on all patients at all times 
are essential. 




Jiollisrep^ 



FRANKLIN C. HOLLISTER COMPANY j 
833 N. ORLEANS ST. ♦ CHICAGO 10. ILLINOIS | 



Please send me free samples and information 
about Ident-A-Bands for all patients. (No 
tariff on Ident-A-Bands in Canada.) 



HOSPITAL 



ADDRESS 



SeCectc^K 



Comment z'irenf Ics Homines en noire temps? 

M. Dickey Cliapelle a public un important 
article dans Ic Saturday Evening Post trai- 
tant de la "condition humaine en 1954" en 
dehors des groupes occidentaux et conclut : 

1 — Plus de gens vivent dans des huttes de 
boue et de paille que dans aucun autre genre 
d'abri. 

2 — Plus de gens voyagent sur leurs pieds 
ou sur ie dos d'un bourriquot que de toute 
autre fagon. 

3 — Plus de gens out un espoir de vie qui 
n'est que la moitie de I'espoir de vie en 
moyenne aux U.S.A. que toute autre possi- 
bilite d'avenir. 

4 — Plus de gens vivent sans I'aide d'un 
medecin quand ils tombent malades qu'avec 



une possibilite quelconque de soins medicaux 
meme les plus rudimentaires. 

5 — Plus de gens mangent ce qu'ils ont 
pu faire pousser eux-memes et meurent de 
faim quand leur recolte est mauvaise que 
toute autre sorte de nourriture d'autre prove- 
nance. 

6 — Plus de gens ignorent ce que c'est que 
de voter que de gens qui le savent. 

Les populations dites developpees represen- 
tent 400 millions d'ames, et I'ensemble de 
Fhumanite comporte 2 milliards 500 millions 
d'individus. On se plaint qu'en France et 
dans certains pays evolues il y aura bientot 
trop de medecins, mais en Ethiopie, par 
exemple, on compte un medecin par 100,000 
habitants. "L'iNFORMATION MeDICALE 
ET PaRAMEDICALe" 



Un acte n'est rien sur le moment. C'est 
un objet que vous jetez a la riviere. Mais 
il suit le cours de la riviere, il est encore 
la, au loin, bien au loin, toujours la; il 
traverse des pays et des pays ; on le retrouve 



quand on n'y pensait plus, et oil on I'atten- 
dait le moins. Est-ce juste cette existence 
interminable des actes ? Je pense que non. 
Mais cela est. — H. DE MoNTBERLANT 
(La rcine morte) 



298 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



"TteoA^ 'Kote^ 



ALBERTA 

District 3 
Calgary 
Crippled Children's Hospital 

"In tribute to those whose names are here 
recorded and to all others who through the 
years have given generously of their skill and 
devotion for the welfare of the little ones in 
the Alberta Red Cross Crippled Children's 
Hospital." A plaque bearing this inscription 
was recently unveiled in the hospital lobby to 
honor the medical and nursing staffs. The 
ceremony was performed by Mr. Ernest 
McLean, president of the Alberta division, 
and was attended by members of the provin- 
cial executive, Calgary Branch executive, the 
hospital board and many guests. 

General Hospital 

The Jessie Connal Memorial Scholarship 
Fund for presentation annually to a member 
of the graduating class was recently estab- 
lished. This has been just one of the numer- 
ous projects of the alumnae association during 
the past and current season. Other activities 
have included the sale of "hasti-notes," birth 
announcement cards and envelope address 
seals. The annual "mitten tea" proved re- 
munerative and interesting. A major project 
of the current year is to be the furnishing of 
the Memorial Chapel which is being built in 
conjunction with the new nurses' residence. 
Graduates from near and far have contributed 
generously and it is hoped that the chapel will 
open in April or May. 

The executive of the current year includes 
the following : Mrs. J. R. Milne, pres. ; Mrs. 
R. Tregillis, 1st. vice-pres. ; N. Baker, 2nd 
vice-pres. ; Mrs. R. Parker, corr. sec. ; Mrs. 
B. C. White, rec. sec. ; Mrs. D. G. Mclnnes, 
treas. Mrs. J. D. Zmurchyk is the convener 
of the annual graduation banquet. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 

CraN BROOK 

The annual chapter meeting took the form 
of a dinner party at the hotel. Twenty mem- 
bers attended this most successful event. The 
following slate of officers was elected : Mrs. 
C. Kram, pres. ; Mrs. L. Tru.scott and N. Lee, 
vice-presidents ; Mrs. C. Ferguson, sec. ; M. 
Lewis, treas. An active year is planned with 
emphasis on graduate nurse education. 

Fernie 

A regular meeting of the local chapter of 
the R.N. A. B.C. was held recently with elec- 
tion of the following slate of officers : Mrs. L. 
Hockley, pres. ; Mrs. R. Miller, treas. ; F. 
Gerwing, sec. 



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DETTOL' 




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• Combats drying and general 
skin irritations. 

RECKITT & COLMAN (CANADA) LIMITED 

Pharmaceutical Division, Montreal, P.Q. 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



299 




A Special 30-Day Offer 

to Members of the 
Canadian Nurses' Association 

The next 12 issues of the American Journal of Nursing will 
bring its subscribers more than 600 original articles on de- 
velopments in all areas of nursing including 40 illustrated 
reports of the latest advances in bedside care. 

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This offer is open to neiv subscribers only. 



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Pill Ifl atld Enroll me as a Journal subscriber for one year, starting immediately, 

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Penticton 

Dr. W. A. Wickett was the guest speaker 
at a recent chapter meeting where attention 
was directed towards cardiac disorders and 
their treatment. Dr. Wickett's excellent ad- 
dress on heart disease was followed by a 
brief discussion of the nursing care in coro- 
nary ihrcmbosis conducted by M. K. Darters. 

The business session was conducted by Mrs. 
A. Mason and plans were completed for a 
dance under the convenership of M. Delaney. 

The February meeting was held in the 
nurses' residence with an attendance of 31. 
The guest speaker. Miss J. Bennett, district 
supervisor of the social welfare branch of the 
provincial government, discussed many as- 
pects of her work in the area and of social 
work in the province. A film entitled "A 
Friend at Your Door" provided glimpses of 
social work in action. The business session 
was conducted by the president, Mrs. A. 
Mason. M. E. Walker was appointed chair- 
man of the scholarship commiitee wliiie Mrs. 
H. Lenzie is on the hospital board. 

Vancouver 

St. Paul's Hospital 

Modern trends in medicine were discussed 
by Dr. J. W. Caldwell at the February meet- 
ing of the alumnae association. Nurses, who 
are no longer actively engaged in their pro- 
fession, were given an excellent opportunity 



to keep abreast of developments. Plans are 
progressing for the annual spring dance which 
will provide a climax to graduation week 
activities. The annual election of officers is 
to be held at the June meeting and members 
are being urged to keep this important event 
in mind. 

The class of January '46 held their annual 
reunion at the home of T. (Goddard) Perry. 

Victoria 

At the annual meeting of the chapter held 
at Veterans' Hospital recently, plans were 
made for a buffet supper to precede the Van- 
couver Island district meeting in February. 
Three institutes on Body Mechanics and Re- 
habilitation Nursing, arranged by the 
R.N. A. B.C. and conducted by Mrs. Grace 
Allan, were held in January and February. 
Seven hundred purse calendars with place and 
date of chapter meetings for 1956 have been 
mailed to registered nurses in this area. 

Officers elected for 1956 were : President, 
Mrs. J. Jones; vice-presidents. Sister Mary 
Alena and Mrs. H. Woodhead ; secretary. 
Miss G. Ballard ; treasurer, Miss O. Wilson. 
Conveners of committees are: Programme, 
Mrs. Mattson ; membership, Mrs. Damon; 
publicity. Miss A. Kelly; sick visiting. Miss 
J. Bompas. Serving in other capacities are 
N. Jones, E. Walther and B. Davis. 

Business was followed by an excellent sym- 
posium on teaching obstetrics chaired by Miss 
E. Donaldson. Tliose participating were Dr. 



300 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



C. Mellis Mair — The Obstetrician's View- 
point; Miss B. Moore — Tlie Obstetrical 
Nurse's Viewpoint ; Miss B. Short — As the 
V.O.N. Teaches; Mrs. Mcllmoyl — How the 
Patient Learns. 



MANITOBA 

Brandon 

Members of the Association of Graduate 
Nurses heard with interest of the changing 
picture of tuberculosis in this province. At 
a recent meeting, Dr. G. Coghlin, acting medi- 
cal superintendent of Brandon Sanitoriuni 
stated that the yearly provincial death rate 
due to tuberculosis had dropped from 225 in 
1950 to 64 in 1955. The introduction of the 
antituberculosis drugs had produced this re- 
duction. On the other hand, there had been 
little or no decrease in the number of new 
cases since eradication of the disease calls for 
prevention which has not been generally 
achieved. Hospitalization is still a very im- 
portant aspect of the treatment of this dis- 
ease. Coloured slides emphasized the per- 
tinent points of Dr. Coghlin's address. 

The guest speaker for a subsequent meeting 
is to be Mrs. E. J. Skafel. The annual tea is 
to be held in the nurses' residence under the 
direction of Mrs. F. Moxham and I. Lamont. 



Winnipeg 
General Hospital 

The alumnae association is planning to 
hold the annual Spring tea in the auditorium 
of the new nurses' residence late in May. The 
proceeds from this event will be used to pur- 
chase furnishings for the library — the main 
project of the association for this year. A 
tour of part of the building with 1956 grad- 
uates acting as guides is planned and it is 
hoped that an opportunity will be afforded for 
many to renew friendships and acquaintances. 

St. Boniface Hospital 

The annual meeting of the alumnae associa- 
tion was held in conjunction with a dinner 
party attended by 220 members. Ten members 
with a record fifty years of service as grad- 
uate nurses were awarded life memberships. 
They are M. Wannacott, A. Starr, Mrs. E. 
Montgomery. Mrs. G. A. Lyon, Mrs. E. A. 
Jones, Mrs. C. H. Chawn, Mrs. P. J. Cayle. 
Mrs. A. C. McLeod. Mrs. M. Parent and 
Mrs. A. Slater. 

The new slate of officers was presented and 
installed. They are Rev. Sr. Clermont, hon- 
orary pres. ; Mrs. R. H. McNaughton, pres. ; 
T. Greville, first vice-pres. ; Mrs. A. Lemoine. 
second vice-pres. ; P. Hanna, recording sec. ; 
B. Bolt, corr. sec. ; Mrs. M. Shaw, treas. 



NEW BRUNSWICK 

MONCTON 

Recent meetings of the chapter liave been 
held in the nurses' residence. Mrs. L. Colwell 
reported from the nursing education com- 






Denta\ 




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Patients overly susceptible to 
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"BEFORTE" TABLETS 

In bottles of 30 and TOO 
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MONTREAL CANADA 




APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



301 



For a holiday with the opportunity 
of learning about the out-of-doors 
under competent leaders, why not 
come to . . . 

SUMMER NATURE CAMP 

June 30-July 14, at 

CAMP BILLIE BEAR 

near Huntsville 

For informafion apply to: 

FEDERATION OF ONTARIO NATURALISTS 
187 HIGHBOURNE ROAD, TORONTO 



.^ 



> CfFit: iency 
! j^ Econamy 
I. Pro tec tton 




THAT ALL UNIFORMS 
CLOTHING AND 
OTHER BELONGINGS 
ARE MARKED WITH 

CASH'S Loomwoven NAMES 

Permanent, easy Identification. Easily sewn en, or attached 
with No-So Cement. From dealers or 
CASH'S Belleville 5, Ont. 

CASH'S: 3 Doz. $1.80; 9 Doz. $3.00; NO-SO 
NAMES: 6 Doz. $2.40; 12 Doz. $3.50; 25c per tube 



THE MOUNTAIN 
SANATORIUM 

HAMILTON, ONTARIO 

TWO-MONTH 

POSTGRADUATE COURSE 

IN THE IMMUNOLOGY, 

PREVENTION & TREATMENT 

OF TUBERCULOSIS. 

This course is especially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis Nursing. 

For further information apply to: 

Director of Nursing, 

Mountain Sanatorium, 

Hamilton, Ontario. 



mittee that H. McHale from the teaching 
staff of the Hotel Dieu had attended the 
course at Civil Defence College, Arnprior. A. 
Crothers from the teaching staff of Moncton 
Hospital was a guest speaker at the high 
school. Her topic, "Nursing as a Profession," 
vvas presented to students interested in nur- 
sing as a career. J. Lewis is presently engaged 
in postgraduate work in psychiatric nursing. 

A play was presented by members of the 
Nurses' Christian Fellowship and a successful 
dance was sponsored by the .Students Council 
of Moncton Hospital. Mrs. D. Van Buskirk 
reported that teachers for the home nursing 
course were needed by the St. John Am- 
bulance Association. It is hoped that further 
television programs related to St. John Am- 
bulance activities can be arranged. Mrs. Van 
Buskirk also announced that Miss D. Walker, 
Chief Consultant of the National Health 
Division. Dept. of Health and Welfare, would 
hold an institute on public relations in May. 

Dr. Austin Clarke, executive director of 
Moncton Hospital, was the guest speaker at 
the January meeting. His topic, "Health In- 
surance as It Affects Nursing," provided the 
members with much interesting information. 

Saint John 

The annual meeting of tlie chapter was held 
in January with election of officers for the 
current year. Those serving include : W. 
Hooser, pres. ; K. Donahue, 1st vice-pres. ; 
H. D. McCallum, 2nd vice-pres. ; A. Thorne, 
sec. ; K. Christiansen, treas. 

Committee reports indicated a successful 
year during 1955. Upon the recommendation 
of the provincial committee on publicity and 
public relations regarding the need for an 
educational program, a questionnaire is to be 
submitted to all members. 

General Hospital 

Late in January, tw^enty-five student nurses 
received their caps at an impressive candle- 
lighting ceremony. Parents and friends of the 
students attended the event. Miss M. Archi- 
bald was the guest speaker for the evening. 
B. Taylor, E. M. Adair and L. Johnston re- 
ceived bursaries presented by the Altrusa 
Club, the Women's Hospital and the Alex- 
ander Chapter of the I.O.D.E. White testa- 
ments were presented by members of the 
Gideon Ladies Auxiliary. 

Miss C. M. Gleeson, who recently retired 
as supervisor of the communicable diseases 
pavilion, was the guest of honor at parties 
given by the staff nurses and members of the 
alumnae association. On each occasion she 
was the recipient of a gift from those attend- 
ing. 

Early in February the annual meeting of 
the alumnae association was held. The slate 
of officers elected for 1956 is as follows: Mrs. 
J. Stirling, pres. ; Mrs. E. T. K. Mooney, 1st 
vice-pres. ; Mrs. G. Somerville, sec. ; Mrs. D. 
Crawford, treas. 

Of particular interest to members and 
friends of the alumnae association is the an- 
nouncement that a "History of the Saint John 
General School of Nursing" is soon to be pub- 
lished. 



302 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ONTARIO 

District 3 



GUELPH 



General Hospital 

Under the direction of Mrs. C. Gausden, 
the alumnae association recorded an active 
and successful year during 1955. Events in- 
cluded a tea and penny sale, the annual dinner 
in honor of the graduating class, an early 
summer picnic and a fall card party. The 
fall dance proved a financial and social suc- 
cess as usual. All activities were enthusias- 
tically supported by the members. 

The regular meetings offered much of edu- 
cational value to those attending. Heart dis- 
ease was discussed by Dr. W. C. Burchell at 
one meeting. Mr. D. Kennedy, president of 
the Rotary Club, was the guest speaker on 
another occasion, at which the film "None 
are Refused" was shown. The customs of 
Singapore were discussed by Mr. Yoe in 
November while at a previous gathering Dr. 
Norman High from the Ontario Agricultural 
College spoke concerning agricultural de- 
velopments in England and Scotland. The 
annual bursary was presented to a student 
nurse. Various contributions of money were 
made to worthy causes during the year. 

In January of this year, the election of 
officers took place. Members elected to serve 
for the current term include the following : 
M. Featherstone. pres. ; Mrs. Donald Shaw, 
rec. sec. ; Mrs. G. M. Elliott, corr. sec. ; C. 
Ziegler, treas. 



SMOKE 



District 5 



Toronto 



General Hospital 

The past year saw many class reunions and 
plans were made for similar occasions this 
year. News of the members of the various 
classes showed varied activities. V. Lind- 
abur\- accepted a position as clinical instruc- 
tor at Royal Victoria Hospital, Barrie. E. 
Panter has returned to her home school as 
nursing arts instructor. A. Cheyne is now 
a nursing office supervisor following a period 
of postgraduate study. M. Murray recently 
retired from the social service department. 

Attending the University of Toronto are : 
J. Enriglit and N. Lee, hospital administra- 
tion; M. Parish, L. Martin and B. Burgar. 
public health nursing. A. Kimberley is 
presently taking postgraduate work at the 
Montreal Neurological Institute. P. Thomp- 
son has returned to the staff of the University 
Hospital, Edmonton following postgraduate 
study. O. Wolenska is engaged in polio 
nursing and M. MacArthur is in charge of 
the health service at the University Hos- 
pital, Edmonton. M. Burgar is on the staff 
of the V.O.N, in Peterborough while M. 
Helston is at the Peter Bent Brigham 
Hospital. Boston. D. Coggins has joined 
the staff of the East General Hospital. E. 
Matheson and J. Cameron are in Khartoum. 
Egypt. M. Alldred is now head nurse of the 




THE 

MILDEST 
BEST-TASTING 

CIGARETTE 







WMl^ 






' 2{JA^ ^ 


I 






^ 






FOR 1 
ALL WHITE SHOES 1 






• Dries Whiter — 

Stays Whiter 

• Will not rub off 

I • Goes further— i 
i Covers better i 


f 




Contains Ti02 the 
i WORLDS WHITEST WHITE i 










^^^ 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 



303 




G. Wainwright, past pres. ; Mrs. J. Olave- 
son, pres.; S. Brown, 1st vice-pres. ; A. Rose, 
2nd vice-pres. ; D. Connell, rec. sec. ; Mrs. 
O. Lunn, treas. ; Mrs. C. Goodberry, corr. 



women's section, Ward B with J. Smith, 
as her assistant. J. Inksater, R. Inkinen, I. 
Szekeres and M. Hood are also serving as 
assistant head nurses. E. Hill is head nurse 
of the women's division, Ward C and R. 
Kiratsu has replaced L. Humphrey as head 
nurse on Ward F. R. Leavens and J. Part- 
ridge recently resigned from the staff of the 
hospital. After many years of service in 
Vellore, India, L. Chute has returned to 
Canada. 

At a recent meeting of the alumnae asso- 
ciation, the following slate of officers was 
elected to serve for the current year : Mrs. 
M. Strong, pres. ; J. Dodds, 1st vice-pres. ; 
Mrs. K. Smith, 2nd vice-pres. ; Mrs. W. A. 
White, sec.-treas. 

Women's College Hospital 

Members elected to the executive of the 
alumnae association for the current year 
include the following : Miss E. Eraser, pres. ; 
Mrs. McMillen, rec. sec. ; Mrs. L. Shapero, 
corr. sec. ; Mrs. D. Gordon, treas. 

District 6 
Peterborough 

Civic Hospital 

_ At a recent meeting of the alumnae asso- 
ciation the following slate of officers was 
elected to serve for the current year : Mrs. 



District 8 



Ottawa 



Civic Hospital 

The annual meeting of the alumnae associ- 
ation was held in January. Officers for the 
current year were elected. It was reported 
that the rummage sale held late in the fall 
of 1955 was a financial success as well as 
a pleasant social event. An equally successful 
tea and sale was sponsored by the Memorial 
Organ Committee. The fund for the organ 
is still open for those who may yet wish 
to contribute. Late last fall a bridge party 
and sale of homecooking helped to swell 
alumnae coffers. This event was convened 
by Mrs. A. Thomson and Mrs. J. Argue. 

Members will be interested to learn that 
the Agnes Hudson Chapter of the I.O.D.E. 
of Salmon Arm, B.C., has granted the first 
of its annual scholarships in memory of 
Gertrude M. Bennett. The award is given 
to young women of that district who wish 
to make nursing their career. The first re- 
cipient of a nursing bursary of $450 awarded 
by an Ottawa newspaper to the Civic Hos- 
pital is K. Woodwark. Her mother, Ida 
(McDowell) Woodwark, is a graduate of 
1930. 

Developments within the hospital have 
included installation of a cobalt bomb for 
general use in the treatment of cancer. The 
trustees have recommended a four to five 
year expansion plan which would eventually 
increase the patient capacity by 300 beds. 
In addition other new departments and facil- 
ities would be accommodated. 

News of the graduates includes the fol- 
lowing items. E. Lyons is presently nursing 
in New York. J. I. MacLean has joined 
the staflf of Toronto East General Hospital. 
M. Smith and B. Weightman are working 
in Coppercliff. M. E. Whitney is registered 
at the University of Toronto. D. (Lawrence) 
MacLachlan is working in Brooklyn, N.Y. 
B. Fan joy, who recently returned from 
Africa, has joined the staffs of Walter Reid 
Hospital, Washington. B. Barr has accepted 
a position as supervisor of obstetrics in the 
Toronto East General. E. McLennan has 
joined the staflf as a clinical instructor while 
M. Logan-Vencta is in the teaching depart- 
ment. D. Montgomery is nurse in charge 
of the operating room in the new Doctor's 
Building. G. Foster is attending Ottawa 
University where she is majoring in nursing 
supervision. R. Lavshway and E. Gendron 
are attending University of Toronto and are 
enrolled in the teaching and supervision 
course. M. Graham is on the staff of the 
Leeds and Grenville Health Unit. E. Tingley 
is with the Lennox and Addington H.U. 
and D. Ogilvie has joined the Public Health 
Unit of Michipicoten Township. M. Robert- 
son and E. Brash are presently working 
in Bermuda. W. Whaley, E. Michel, A. 



304 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 




alifprnia calling" 
all nurses! 



Graduate Nurses wanted for All Departments 

Good Pay with Advancement 

Liberal Vacations 

Pension Plan 

Special Six Months' Confraci Available 

Wrife Director of Nursing 

The Lutheran Hospital Society 

of Southern California 

1414 Souih Hope Street, Los Angeles 15, California 

Your choice of three hospitals 




APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No, 4 



305 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND DEPT. OF HEALTH 

REQUIRES 

1. A qualified nurse with administrative experience as Associate Director 

of Nurses. 

Salary scale: $3,000-$ 1 00-$3,300 per annum. 

2. A qualified nurse with experience in education as Staff Education Director. 

Salary scale: $2,800-$l 00-$3,000 per annum. 

Twenty-four working day vacation. Sick leave with pay. 

Uniform assistance is provided. 

Selections will be based on experience & postgraduate qualifications. 

For furfber information & application form apply-. — 
DIRECTOR OF NURSES, DEPT. OF HEALTH, FORT WILLIAM, ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND 



EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR 

for 

SCHOOL OF NURSING 

Saint John General Hospital 

DUTIES TO COMMENCE JULY 1, 1956. 

Degree in nursing education with 
experience required. 

New Educational Department 
opening in March, 1956. 

Expected registration 200 students. 

APPLY: DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 

SAINT JOHN GENERAL HOSPITAL, 

SAINT JOHN, N.B. 



Lewis, G. Burpee and B. Pearson are on 
the staff of the Vancouver General Hospital, 
and E. Kidd, M. Kidd and D. Filson are 
working in the Peterborough Clinic. P. 
Legault is on the staff of the University 
Hospital, Edmonton as is P. Sharpe. S. 
Nixon is director of nursing at the Chil- 
dren's Hospital, Winnipeg. 

District 12 
Kapuskasing 

The "Northern Chapter" recently formed 
in this area has recorded a most successful 
beginning in professional activity. The 
monthly meetings have been well attended, in 
spite of distances, and the programs have 
been of excellent calibre. The efforts of an 
energetic program committee promise plenty 
more gatherings of a similar nature. It is 
felt that this new organization will do much 
towards strengthening professional bonds 
and promoting good public relations among 
the nurses of this vast northern area. 



QUEBEC 

District 11 
Montreal 

Queen Elisabeth Hospital 
The following slate of officers was elected 



306 



THE CANADIAN NURSE 



to direct alumnae activities for the current 
vear : B. Cummings, pres. ; Mrs. D. Ren- 
wick, vice-pres. ; B. Mann, sec. ; Miss Dor- 
rington, treas. ; M. Bennett, assistant treas. ; 
A. MacDonald, rep. to The Canadian Nurse. 

General Hospital 

The traditional carol singing of the past 
Christmas took place in the setting of the 
new building. Those who remembered the 
open wards of the old hospital suffered pangs 
of loneliness as they watched the procession 
of carollers move through the long corridors. 
Mr. Bulford. who has contributed his serv- 
ices as organist for many years, was assisted 
by his son this season — the singers having 
been divided into two groups. 

The alumnae association held their annual 
party in Livingston Hall — their first 
Christmas in new surroundings. Members 
were welcomed by Miss Odell. The main 
feature of the evening was a carol-sing led 
by members of the preliminary class. 

I. Riley who received her B.Sc. degree 
from Teachers' College, Columbia Univer- 
sity during this past jear, is presently on 
the teaching staff of the Jewish General 
Hospital. A. Peverley received the degree 
of Master of Public Health from Yale Uni- 
versity in May of last year. She returned 
to her position of assistant professor in pub- 
lic health nursing at the School for Graduate 
Nurses, McGill University. C. Denovan is 
now in charge of the dietitians' residence. 
F. El ford accepted an appointment as night 
supervisor. 

The members elected to office for the cur- 
rent year of alumnae activities are : B. G. 
Herman, pres.; E. W. Odell, 1st vice-pres.; 
M. Allen. 2nd vice-pres. ; M. Johnson, rec. 
sec. ; J. Hackwell, corr. sec. ; M. I. Mac- 
Leod, treas. 

District 3 
Sherbrooke 

A meeting of the English chapter was 
held late in January with Miss Suzanne 
Giroux. official visitor to French schools 
of nursing, as guest speaker. She gave a 
stimulating and vivid description of her re- 
cent visit to England, France and other 
European countries. A large number of stu- 
dents and several members of the French 
chapter attended the meeting. 

Sherbrooke Hospital 

Members of the staff association were 
afforded the opportunity recently of hearing 
Dr. A. A. Dougan discuss electrolyte bal- 
ance. .A.t a subsequent meeting Dr. H. Mc- 
Dougall i)resented the latest developments in 
chest surgery. 

The following slate of officers has been 
elected to direct alumnae activities for this 
year : Mrs. D. I^brun, pres. ; K. Vaughan, 
1st vice-pres.; Mrs. G. Bryant, 2nd vice- 
pres. : Mrs. M. Mandigo, rec. sec. ; Mrs. 
A. Morrison, corr. sec. ; M. Beckwith. 
treas. ; S. Carson, rep. to I'lie Canadian 
Nurse. 



Calling All 

Canadian 

Graduate Nurses 

• How would you like to 
work and live in the 
heart of Manhattan? 

The Roosevelt Hospital, a 
voluntary, general hospital, 
offers you this opportunity. 

• Why not enjoy these 
benefits offered by 
Roosevelt ? 

Base Salary — Begins at 
$260 per month, without ex- 
perience. Experience quali- 
fies for higher starting salary. 

Increments — Start after 
first 6 months and continue 
annually. 

Bonuses — $40 for evening 
and $20 for night duty. 

Vacation — 4 weeks annu- 
ally. 

HoLiD.ws — 10 annually. 

Laundry Service 

Hospitalization 

Health Service 

Social Security 

For further information zvrite to: 

DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 

DEPARTMENT NS, 

ROOSEVELT HOSPITAL 

59th Street West, 

New York City 



APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52. No. 4 



307 



REGISTERED HOSPITAL NURSES, 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 

and 

Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses 

required for 

^ecCe^ai ^acUcut ^ealt^ Sen^cc^ 

HOSPITAL POSITIONS 

Oshweken, Manitowaning, Moose Factory and Sioux Lookout, Ont. ; 
Hodgson, Pine Falls and Norway House, Man. ; Fort Qu'Appelle, North 
Battleford, Sask. ; Hobbema, Gleichen. Cardston, Morley and Brocket, 
Alta. ; Sardis, Prince Rupert and Nanaimo, B.C. 

PUBLIC HEALTH POSITIONS 

Outpost Nursing Stations, Health Centres and field positions in Provin- 
ces, Eastern Arctic, and North-West Territories. 

SALARIES 

(1) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $3,300 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 

(2) Hospital Stafi^ Nurses : up to $3,120 per year depending upon quali- 
fications and location. 

(3) Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses: up to $185 per month, 
depending upon qualifications. 

• Room and board in hospitals — • $30 per month. Statutory holidays. 
Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sick leave credits. Hos- 
pital-medical and superannuation plans available. Assistance may be 
provided to help cover cost of transportation. 

• Special compensatory leave for those posted to isolated areas. 

For interesting, challenging, satisfying work, apply to: 
Indian and Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses : 

(1) 4824 Fraser St., Vancouver 10, B.C.; 

(2) Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta ; 

(3) 735 New Federal Bldg.. Regina, Sask. ; 

(4) 522 Dominion Public Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba ; 

(5) Box 292, North Bay, Ontario; 

(6) P.O. Box 3427. St. Roch Branch, Quebec, P.Q. ; 

(7) Moose Factory Indian Hospital, Moose Factory, Ont. 



Chief, Personnel Division, 

Department of National Healtli and Welfare, 

Ottawa, Ontario. 



308 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Positions Vacant 

Advertising Rates — $5.00 for 3 lines or less; $1.00 for each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign — $7.50 for 3 lines or less; $1.50 for each additional line. 

Closing date for copy and cancellations: 10th of the month preceding the month of 
publication. All letters should be addressed to: The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke 
St. W., Montreal 25, Que. 

Director of Nursing & Nursing Education for 160-bed General Hospital. Postgraduate 
course in administration or equivalent experience required. Salary open. Applications 
should give details of education, qualifications & experience. Apply Administrator, 
The Victoria Public Hospital, Fredericton, N.B. 

Director of Nursing for 30-bed General Hospital. State experience & salary expected. 
Residence accommodation. A building program to replace the present hospital has been 
scheduled for 1956. Apply Administrator, General Hospital, Ladysmith, B.C. 

Director of Nurses immediately, with experience in organization & supervision for 100-bed 
General Hospital. Salary: $375 per mo. subject to annual review. Private suite in resi- 
dence & board for $40. 1 mo. annual vacation & statutory holidays. Sick leave. Apply 
stating age, qualifications, experience & references to Administrator, General Hospital, 
Prince Rupert, B.C. 

Evening Hospital Supervisor. Pediatric Supervisor — experienced with P.G. (August) 
Head Nurse for Central Supply (May) Science Instructor for 200-bed General Hospital. 
School of Nursing, September classes only. Salary: $245-$315. 1 mo. annual vacation, 
10 statutory holidays, IV2 sick days per mo. cumulative. 40-hr. wk. Apply Director of 
Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, B.C. 

Supt. of Nurses immediately for 67-bed hospital. Salary open depending on training & 
experience. Gen. Duty Nurses also required. Good salary & personnel policies. New 
80-bed hospital opening in 1956. Apply M. M. Barber, R.N., Administrator, Portage Hospital, 
Dist. No. 18, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. 

Operating Room Supervisor for operating suite — 4 rooms. 1 80-bed hospital. Good 
salary and personnel policies. Postgraduate course and experience preferred. Apply 
Miss B. A. Beattie, Director of Nursing, Public General Hospital, Chatham, Ont. 

Operating Room Supervisor, Night Supervisor & Staff Nurses. Good salary & personnel 
policies. Living accommodations available. Apply Director of Nurses, General Hospital, 
Parry Sound, Ontario. 

Psychiatric Nurse to assume position as Head Nurse & Clinical Supervisor of now 
38-bed Psychiatric Unit in a 500-bed General Hospital. An excellent opportunity for 
a Psychiatric Nurse who wishes to assume leadership in developing the policies, pro- 
cedures <St teaching program of this new Psychiatric Unit. Patients treated only by 
psychiatrists. The most modern facilities & treatment methods. Cooperative administra- 
tion. Bachelor's Degree required plus Psychiatric experience. Salary commensurate with 
experience & abilities. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Asst. Director of Nursing for active treatment modern 186-bed & a chronic unit 105-bed 
hospital with school of nursing for 60-75 students. Main responsibility, organization of 
nursing service. Excellent personnel policies include pension plan & paid hospital ins. 
Located in one of the most attractive cities in Ont. with pop. 20,000. Applications with 
full details to Director of Nursing, Genera! Hospital, Stratford, Ont. 

Charge Nurse & Supervisory positions at Manitoba Sanatorium, Ninette, Man. Extensive 
chest surgery provides interesting work & worthwhile experience. Salary range: $220- 
$265 per mo. depending on qualifications & appointment. Board, room & laundry pro- 
vided for $45 per mo. Comfortable quarters in new nurses' residence. Generous vacation, 
all statutory holidays, group ins. & other employee benefits. Apply Sanatorium Board 
of Manitoba, 668 Bannatyne Ave., Winnipeg, Man. 

Operating Room Supervisor & Assistant Head Nurses for children's orthopedic hospital. 
Good personnel policies. Pension plan available. Apply Director, Shriner's Hospital for 
Crippled Children, 1529 Cedar Ave., Montreal. 

Superintendent of Nurses for 74-bed, 18-bassinette hospital with school of nursing. 
Located in the beautiful Annapolis Valley, 45 mi. from the city of Halifax, N.S. For full 
particulars apply W. L. MacQuarrie, Sec.-Treas., Payzant Memorial Hospital, Windsor, N.S. 

APRIL, 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 309 



Director of Nurses with training & experience in nursing administration & possessing a 
high supervisory ability for 115-bed hospital. Planning new hospital with regional 
facilities. Salary commensurate with capabilities. 40-hr. wk. Apply stating age, qual- 
ifications & experience to Administrator, General Hospital, Nanaimo, B.C. 



General Supervisors. Operating Room Nurses and General Duty Nurses for new 150-bed 
hospital. Starting salary for Registered General Duty Nurses $230 with annual increases 
to $40. IV2 days per mo. cumulative sick leave; 4G-hr. wk; 28 days vacation; 10 statu- 
tory holidays. Apply: Supt. of Nurses, Trail-Tadanac Hospital, Trail, B.C. 

Nursing Arts Instructor for school of nursing. 200-bed hospital. 45 students. New teaching 
unit. Pension plan. Complete maintenance if desired. Good personnel policies. Apply 
Supt., General Hospital, Cornwall, Ont. 



Operating Room Supervisor. Starting Salary: $300 per mo., Graduate Nurses for 100-bed 
West Coast General Hospital. Salary: $250 per mo. less $40 for board, residence, laundry. 
3 annual increments; $10 per mo. night duty bonus. 1 mo. vacation with full salary after 
1 yr. service. IV2 days sick leave per mo. cumulative to 36 days. Transportation allowance 
up to $60 refunded after 1 yr. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Prince Rupert, 
B.C. 



Supervisor (qualified.) Good salary. Extra allowance for experience if French speaking. 
5-day wk., 4-wk. vacation, 18 days sick leave cumulative annually. Car is provided. 
Half cost of uniform is allowed & half of Blue Cross. Workmen's Compensation. Good 
working conditions. Apply Sec.-Treas., Porcupine Health Unit, 164 Algonquin Blvd. E., 
Timmins, Ont. 

Central Supply Room Supervisor to organize & direct dept. in new 250-bed hospital. 
Experience in operating room 5c/or central supply desirable. Salary according to education 
& exf)erience. Apply Supt., Children's Hospital, Winnipeg 4, Manitoba. 

Operating Room Supervisor (1) & Nursing Arts Instructor (1) for 110-bed hospital. Apply 

Supt., The Charlotte County Hospital, St. Stephen, N.B. 

Assistant Evening Supervisor for hospital with School of Nursing. Moving to new 250-bed 
hospital shortly. Apply Director of Nursing, Children's Hospital, Winnipeg 4, Man. 

Educational Director for school of nursing. 65 students. Good personnel policies including 
44-hr. wk. Apply stating qualifications & experience to Miss B. A. Beattie, Director of 
Nursing, Public General Hospital, Chatham, Ontario. 

McKellar General Hospital, Fort William, Ont. requires Clinical Instructor in operating 
room. Gross salary commensurate with experience, 28 days vacation after 1 yr., 8 
statutory holidays, sick leave accumulative to 60 days. Residence accommodation avail- 
able at reasonable rates. Hospital has recently completed a well equipped & staffed 
wing with extensive renovation program progressing in the old section. Apply Director 
of Nursing. 

Nursing Arts Instructor, Clinical Instructor (1) to teach psychiatric nursing on male wards. 
Clinical Instructor (1) to teach psychiatric nursing on female wards. Salary: $290 to $345 
per mo. Graduate Nurses preferably with psychiatric preparation. Salary: $235 to $275 
per mo. 1450-bed active treatment hospital conducting an accredited school of nursing. 
44-hr. wk. Residence with board, if desired, $30 per mo. Excellent holiday, sick leave & 
pension benefits. Apply, stating qualifications & experience, Supt. of Nurses, Provincial 
Mental Hospital, Ponoka, Alta. 

Obstetrical Clinical Instructor for School of Nursing with capacity 195 students attached 
to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or at 
least 3 yrs. experience 5c working towards degree. Located in "'all American City" of 
120,000 in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural 
primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, 
Aultman Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

Nursing Arts Instructor for School of Nursing, with capacity 195 students, attached to 
expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or ot least 
3 yrs. experience & working toward degree. Located in "All American City" of 120,000 
in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural primary 
interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman 
Hospital, Canton, Ohio. 

310 THE CANADIAN NURSE 





REGISTERED NURSE 






Interested in Geriatrics 




Cc 


ipable of assuming responsibility & supervising staff of nursing 


assistants 


in 


an institution having 2 infirmary sections totalling 1 20-beds, well section 


having 140-beds. 






Reply giving full informaiion to: 






C. CAMPBELL, MANAGER, MONTREAL PROTESTANT HOMES 






5141 NOTRE DAME ST. EAST, MONTREAL 





Night Supervisor & Operating Room Nurse for 44-bed hospital. Liberal personnel policies. 
Living accommodation available in new residence. 44-hr. wk., 3-wk. vacation, 8 statutory 
holidays. For further information apply Supt., Haldimand War Memorial Hospital, 
Dunnville, Ont. 

Instructor in Nursing. Faculty position in medical area. Accredited integrated diploma 
program. Northern California college community. Liberal personnel policies. Excellent 
clinical & teaching facilities. Progressive faculty. 90 students. Immediate opening. For 
details write Personnel Office, 510 E. Market St., Stockton, California. 

Instructor for school of nursing — Applications are invited for 138-bed hospital. This 
school is affiliated with Montreal hospitals, the teaching schools associated with McGill 
University. For particulars apply Matron, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 

Registered Graduate Nurses for General Duty for 650-bed Tuberculosis Hospital, 10 mi. 
from downtown Toronto. Gross starting salary: $93 bi-weekly, less $15.23 for room, 
meals & laundry. 3 annual increments. 44-hr. wk., 8 hr. day, broken hrs. 3 wk. vacation 
after 1 yr., 9 statutory holidays. Hospital bus service to & from city. Apply Supt. of 
Nurses, Toronto Hospital, Weston, Ont. 

Registered Staff Nurses, immediate appointments, in 511-bed newly enlarged and finely 
equipped general hospital. Duty assignments in medical, surgical, pediatrics, psychi- 
atric, obstetrics, or contagion units. Northeastern Ohio stable "All-American City" of 
120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial, and educational friendly activities. 
Living costs reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance advantages of metropolitan 
Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly, cooperative work relations 
and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel policies. Starting salary: $240 per 
mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, recognized holidays, premium 
pay, sickness insurance and hospitalization program, retirement. Contact: Director of 
Personnel, Aultm^an Hospital, Canton, Ohio, by letter or collect telephone 4-5673. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty. Initial salary: $200 per mo.; with 6 or more months 
Psychiatric experience, $210 per mo. Salary increase at end of 1 yr. 44-hr. wk.; 8 statu- 
tory holidays, annual vacation with pay. Living accommodation if desired. For further 
information apply Supt. of Nurses, Homewood Sanitarium, Guelph, Ont. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty Staff. Salary comm.ences at £40-10-0 per mo. with full 
maintenance. Transportation allowance. For full particulars apply Matron, King Edward 
VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 

Registered Nurses (3) immediately for 36-bed General Hospital in southern Manitoba. 
Starting salary: $210 per mo. with 3 wk. vacation with pay 1st. yr. employment; 4-wk. 
vacation thereafter. All statutory holidays. Regular sick leave, 50% Blue Cross payments. 
Apply Supt. of Nurses, Hospital Dist. No. 24, Box 330, Altona, Manitoba. 

Registered & Non-Registered Nurses, X-Ray <& Lab. Technician for General Hospital. 
Gross salary for nurses registered in Ont. equivalent to $233.85 per mo. Good personnel 
policies, new facilities. 8-hr. rotating shifts; 44-hr. wk.; 1-day off 1 wk. & 2 the next. 
IV2 days holiday & sick leave per mo.; 8 legal holidays per year. Up to $40 travelling 
expenses & increase paid after 1 yr. service. Semi-private Blue Cross with M.O.S. 
coverage. Full maintenance is provided including room, board & laundering of uniforms. 
Apply Supt., Lady Minto Hospital, Cochrane, Ont. 

APRIL. 1956 • Vol. 52, No. 4 311 



INSTRUCTOR 

TO TEACH NURSING SUBJECTS 

IN NEW, MODERN, ACTIVE 1 39-BED GENERAL HOSPITAL 

School of Nursing has two ofher full time instructors — Student enrollment 40. Salary commen- 
surate with experience. 31 -day vocation after 1 year. Statutory holidays. 40-hr. wk. Good 
personnel policies & consideration for sickness & hospitalization. Accommodation available in 
attractive new residence. Population of Sherbrooke 60,000, 100 miles from Montreal, easily 
accessible by daily bus & train service. Good recreational facilities. 

Apply to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, SHERBROOKE HOSPITAL, SHERBROOKE, QUEBEC 



Registered General Duty Nurses for 18-bed hospital. Salary: $240 less $30 perquisities with 
yearly increase of $10 per mo. 44-hr. wk. Vacation with pay, all statutory holidays, liberal 
sick leave. For further information please telephone collect to Miss H. Moore, Matron, 
Union Hospital, Oxbow, Sask. 

Registered Nurses. Salary: $225 per mo. gross. 5-day wk. Single room residence. 20 
miles east of Toronto. Apply Supt., Ajax & Pickering General Hosp., Ajax, Ont. 

Registered Nurses for Psychiatry. Student affiliation or postgraduate work preferred. 
For information apply Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ont. 

Registered Nurses (1 or 2) for 24-bed hospital. Salary: $190 per mo. Full maintenance. 
Usual increases after 6 mo. Holidays, sick leave. Modern nurses' home. Apply Matron, 
Union Hospital, Vanguard, Saskatchewan. 

Registered Nurses & Certified Nursing Assistants for general duty. 44-hr. wk., annual 
vacation with pay, statutory holidays. For further information apply Supt., of Nurses, 
General Hospital, Cobourg, Ont. 

Assistant Head Nurses, Surgical, Obstetrical & General Duty Nurses for 355-bed General 
Hospital. Starting salary: $260, $270 for afternoons & nights. Apply Director of Nursing 
Service, St. Vincent's Hospital, 2447 N.W. Westover, Portland 10, Oregon. 

Registered Nurses for Supervision & General Duty in 150-bed Tuberculosis Hospital. 
31 -day annual vacation, 7 statutory holidays, 44-hr. wk. Three $5.00 increments every 
6 mo. Residence facilities available. Apply stating age, experience & salary expected 
to Director of Nursing, Grace Dart Hospital, 6085 Sherbrooke St. E., Montreal, Que. 

Registered General Duty Nurses for new 58-bed hospital situated in North Western 
Ontario. Opening about Sept. 1, 1956. Salary: $215 per mo. subject to increase after 
6-mo. with regular annual increase thereafter. $45 per mo. room & board. 30 days 
vacation & rail fare refunded after 1 yr. service. New 21-bed nurses' residence, each 
room having an adjoining bathroom. Apply stating age <S when available to Frederick 
Taylor, Administrator, Dist. General Hospital, Dryden, Ont. 

Registered Nurses for 18-bed General Hospital. Salary: $225 less $30 for full mainte- 
nance. 44-hr. wk., 10 statuatory holidays. Beautiful part of B.C. Apply Matron, Arrow 
Lakes Hospital, Nakusp, B.C. 

Registered Nurses (2. experienced) for 50-bed hospital. Salary: $185 per mo. plus full 
maintenance with $5.00 increases every 6 mo. for 2 yrs. For further information apply 
Matron Municipal Hospital, Wainwright, Alberta. 

Registered Nurses for 28-bed hospital, 48 mi. southeast of Montreal. Salary $150 per mo. 
$5.00 increment every 6 mo. to maximum $165 plus full maintenance. 1 mo. annual 
vacation with pay, all statutory holidays, 2 wk. sick leave. Blue Cross paid. 8-hr. day, 
rotating shifts. Wonderful summer resort 8 mi. from. Lake St. Francis. T.V. in nurses' 
residence. Apply Mrs. M. G. Curran, County Hospital, Huntingdon, Que. 

General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation & postgraduate program. Full maintenance. Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after 1 yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk. 
For further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, N.S. 

312 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



See Quebec With Employnienf Rather Than A Tourist Visit 

OPERATING ROOM SUPERVISOR 
GRADUATE NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY 

Where? Jeffery Hale's Hospital 

Why Unique? Only English speaking hospital & training school in 
Quebec City 

For information write: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSES, JEFFERY HALE'S HOSPITAL, 1250 ST. FOY, QUEBEC, P.O. 



General Staff Nurses for fully accredited, private teaching hospital located on Lake 
Michigan, just north of Chicago. Salary range: $303-$328.70. Shift bonus, $26 after- 
noons & $17 nights. 5-day, 40-hr. wk. Progressive personnel policies. Excellent cafeteria 
& attractive rooms at reasonable rates. Please indicate type of service preferred. 
Apply Director of Nursing, Evanston Hospital, 2650 Ridge Ave., Evanston, Illinois. 

Staff Nurses (all services) for 325-bed General Hospital 20 min. from downtown Detroit. 
Starting salary: $315, after lyr. $336. 40-hr. wk., rotating shifts. 2-wk. vacation, 16 days 
sick leave, 6 legal holidays per yr. without loss of salary. Medical, surgical & life in- 
surance benefits. Must be eligible for Michigan registration. Apply Director of Nursing, 
General Hospital, Highland Park 3, Michigan. 

Staff Nurses for 600-bed General & Tuberculosis Hospitals with School of Nursing. 

Salary: $288-$341. Shift, special service & educational differentials, $10. 4G-hr. wk; 3-wk. 
vacation; 1 1 holidays; accumulative sick leave. Apply